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Innovations in Learning Technologies Career Readiness ... · PDF fileInnovations in Learning Technologies Career Readiness Issues: Domain ... Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking, Torrance

Jun 26, 2018




  • Innovations in Learning Technologies Career Readiness Issues: Domain

    Specific Creative Thinking

    Harry ONeilCRESST/University of Southern


    2015 CRESST ConferenceIntegrating Technology, Games, and

    Assessment in Teaching and LearningAugust 19, 2015

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  • Context

    College and Career Readiness Common Core State Standards Smarter Balanced State of California Career Readiness Issue Domain Specific Creative Thinking Learning Technologies

    Games, simulations Instruction, assessment

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  • Problem of Career Readiness

    Many high school and community college graduates lack the necessary knowledge, skills, and attributes (KSA) to be productive members of a workforce that focuses on high-demand, high-skill, and high-wage careers.

    This development means that much more is expected of even entry-level members of the American workforce. Our K-12 schools and community colleges to provide

    this type of workforce.

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  • Changing World Longer lives Multiple careers

    3 or 4 over lifetime Globalization Urgent unforeseen societal problems will always

    spring up and need to be solved Problems and solutions will diffuse more rapidly

    because of technology and the media Problems will be very complex in unpredictable

    environments Companies need to be agile, innovative, creative

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  • Increase in Technology

    Results in an increase in cognitive complexity. Instead of performing simple procedural and

    predictable tasks, a worker becomes responsible for inferences, diagnosis, judgment, and decision making, often under severe time pressure.

    These skills are not currently explicitly taught or assessed in our schools.

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  • Definitions of KSAs Career readiness frameworks, studies,

    literature reviews, meeting of experts, etc. Earlier 1990s SCANS work, a recent source

    is the CCSSO study which included industry sources, international benchmarks.

    PISA defined collaborative problem solving and it will be assessed in PISA 2016.

    NAEP is also designing a collaborative problem solving assessment which will be added to future NAEP assessments.

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  • Knowledge, Skills, & Attributes

    Knowledge is domain-specific Skills are either domain-specific or

    domain-independent Attributes are relatively domain-

    independent. Attributes are considered as widely applicable

    but hard to train. The term attribute is usually considered

    interchangeable with the term competency.

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  • Career Readiness Skills (edited)State of California (2015) CCSSO (2013) ACT (2014) ONeil (2014)

    Utilize critical thinking

    Demonstrate creativity and innovation


    Develop an education and career plan aligned with personal goals

    Apply technology

    Practice personal health and understand financial literacy

    Act as a responsible citizen

    Model integrity, ethical leadership, and effective management

    Work productively in teams

    Employ valid and reliable research strategies

    Understand the environmental, social, and economic impacts of decisions

    Critical thinking

    Creativity & innovation

    Communicating effectively

    Problem solving

    Communicating effectively

    Metacognition & self-awareness

    Study skills & learning how to learn

    Time/goal management

    Working collaboratively

    Critical thinking

    Collaboration skills


    Adaptive Problem Solving


    Decision Making

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  • Career Readiness: AttributesCCSSO (2013) ACT (2014) ONeil (2014)

    Agency (self-efficacy





    Ethical behavior & civic


    Social awareness & empathy










    Creative thinking



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  • A 21st Century Career Readiness Model




    Creative Thinking

    MetacognitionAdaptive Expertise

    Prerequisites DomainKnowledge

    Adaptability Situation Awareness


    Communication DecisionMaking

    Adaptive Problem Solving

    21st Century Readiness

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  • Whats Missing

    Conceptual clarity for the KSAs How to measure

    The development of assessments to measure these KSAs in high schools and community colleges.

    How to measure performance assessment approaches (e.g., portfolios, game simulations knowledge maps)

    Criteria (e.g., validity, fairness, transfer and generalizability, cost, and efficiency);

    Type of technology (e.g., paper-and-pencil, computer).

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  • Prior Research: 21st Century Skills Adaptive problem solving involves the ability to invent solutions to

    problems that the problem solver has not encountered before. In adaptive problem solving, problem solvers must adapt to their existing knowledge to fit the requirements of a novel problem (Mayer, 2014). Adaptive problem solving has also been conceptualized by ONeil (2014) as being composed of content understanding, problem solving strategies, and self-regulation

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  • 21st Century Skills Communication is the timely and clear provision of information and the

    ability to know whom to contact, when to contact, and how to report (Hussain, Bowers, & Blasko-Drabik, 2014)

    Decision Making involves the use of situational awareness information about the current situation to help evaluate a course of action and judge its effectiveness. It involves the ability to follow appropriate protocols, follow orders, and take the initiative to complete a mission (Hussain & Bowers, 2014)

    Teamwork is a trait of the individual that predisposes the individual to act as a team member. There are six teamwork processes: (a) adaptability, (b) coordination, (c) decision-making, (d) interpersonal, (e) leadership, and (f) communication. A complementary definition is provided by Bowers and Cannon-Bowers (2014). Their definition of teamwork includes knowledge of teamwork, leadership, mutual performance monitoring back up, communication, interpersonal skills and positive teamwork attitudes

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  • 21st Century Skills (contd) Metacognition is awareness of ones thinking and is composed of two

    components: planning and self-monitoring. Planning means that tone must have a goal (either assigned or self-directed) and a plan to achieve the goal. Self-monitoring means one needs a self-checking mechanism to monitor goal achievement (ONeil, 1999)

    Situation Awareness involves being aware of what is happening around you, to understand how information, events, and your own actions will affect your goals and objectives, both now and in the near future. More formally, situation awareness can be defined as the (perception) of elements in the environment within a volume of time and space, the (comprehension) of their meaning, and the (projection) of their status in the near future (Endsley, 1995, p. 36)

    Domain-specific creativity

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  • Creative Thinking

    Creative thinking

    Fluency (ability to produce a large number of ideas)

    Novel/originality (the number of unusual categories of ideas judge by expert raters or by statistical infrequency)

    Flexibility (produce or use of different categories of ideas)

    Elaboration (ability to fill in details)

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  • Creative Thinking (contd)

    Domain-general measures of ideational fluency (e.g., Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking, Torrance, 1974, 1999).

    The problems presented to respondents to be solved are very different from the kinds of problems that people encounter in everyday life.

    Name all the ways to use a newspaper

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  • Domain-Specific Creativity Creative thinking was long considered domain-general Individuals who score high on the test of creative

    thinking ability would be able to generate divergent or original ideas in a wide variety of domains

    More recently, however, scholars have presented evidence indicating that creative thinking is domain- or task-specific and not domain-general as long believed

    Measures of creative thinking ability typically provide scores on fluency (the number of ideas or solutions), flexibility (the number of different categories of ideas), originality (the number of unusual categories of ideas judged by expert raters or by statistical infrequency), and/or elaboration (the number of details involved)

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  • Domain-Specific Creativity In domain-general creative thinking measures, the

    problems presented to respondents to be solved are very different from the kinds of problems that people encounter in everyday life. For example, when responding to ideational fluency measures, respondents are asked to name all the ways to use a newspaper

    A few measures have been developed that are designed specifically to assess domain-specific creative thinking. The Ariel Real Life Problem Solving developed (Milgram & Hong, 2000-2009), for example, provides respondents with the opportunity to utilize domain-specific creative thinking ab