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September | October 2010 Feature title: Influence of natural and artificial binders in feeds for Litopenaeus vannamei on digestibility and growth The International magazine for the aquaculture feed industry International Aquafeed is published five times a year by Perendale Publishers Ltd of the United Kingdom. All data is published in good faith, based on information received, and while every care is taken to prevent inaccuracies, the publishers accept no liability for any errors or omissions or for the consequences of action taken on the basis of information published. ©Copyright 2009 Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. Printed by Perendale Publishers Ltd. ISSN: 1464-0058
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Influence of natural and artificial binders in feeds for Litopenaeus vannamei on digestibility and growth

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Shrimp are external masticators, meaning that they chew their feed outside their mouth and will not ingest the feed at once. Shrimp prefer soft pellets. Typically, in semi-intensive farming, shrimp feed pellets will stay in the water for 15 - 60 minutes before the shrimp consumes them, but they can lie in water for several hours before consumption. Feeds should remain water-stable during this period. Meanwhile, feed pellets swell by taking up water which makes them soft.
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Page 1: Influence of natural and artificial binders in feeds for Litopenaeus vannamei on digestibility and growth

September | October 2010

Feature title: Influence of natural and artificial binders in feeds for Litopenaeus vannamei on digestibility and growth

The International magazine for the aquaculture feed industry

International Aquafeed is published five times a year by Perendale Publishers Ltd of the United Kingdom.All data is published in good faith, based on information received, and while every care is taken to prevent inaccuracies, the publishers accept no liability for any errors or omissions or for the consequences of action taken on the basis of information published. ©Copyright 2009 Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. Printed by Perendale Publishers Ltd. ISSN: 1464-0058

Page 2: Influence of natural and artificial binders in feeds for Litopenaeus vannamei on digestibility and growth

Shrimp are external masti-cators, meaning that they chew their feed outside their mouth and will not ingest the

feed at once.

Shrimp prefer soft pellets. Typically, in semi-intensive farming, shrimp feed pellets will stay in the water for 15 - 60 minutes before the shrimp consumes them, but they can lie in water for several hours before consumption. Feeds should remain water-stable during this period.

Meanwhile, feed pellets swell by taking up water which makes them soft.

Producing water stable feeds which become soft by water uptake but don't fall apart is a challenge for every shrimp feed producer.

Untill now, most shrimp feeds are pel-leted, and binders are widely used to obtain good water stability. Binders generally form a network through the feed pellet and hold

it together while it interferes with the water.

The mostly used binders are urea-formaldehyde, wheat gluten and gelatin.

Most binders are only functional once. Gelatinised starch, wheat gluten and

urea-formaldehyde will not work once heated and cooled down. Gelatin can be heated and cooled down several times and will keep its functionality.

Although urea-formaldehyde is for-bidden in the EU, it is widely used in Asia as a binder in both fish and shrimp feeds. It facilitates the production of water stable feeds, but producers are unaware of the nutritional consequences of using this binder. Dominy et al (2003) already observed better growth with natural bind-ers compared to synthetic binders.

GoalThe goals of this study was to determine

the influence of the inclusion of synthetic

by Eric De Muylder of CreveTec, Leon Claessens and Mekki Herizi of Aquaculture Farming Technology, Fanny Yasumaru and Daniel Lemos of LAM Aquaculture Laboratory, University of São Paulo and Geert van der Velden of Sonac BV

Influence of natural and artificial bindersin feeds for Litopenaeus vannamei on digestibility and growth

"The goal of this study was to determine the influence of the inclusion ofsynthetic or natural binders in feeds on their digestibility and on the growth of shrimp"

10 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | September-october 2010 September-october 2010 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | 11

F: Binders

IAF10-05.indd 10 07/09/2010 14:55

binders or natural binders on the digest-ibility of the feeds growth of shrimp

Material and MethodsDiets - Three different diets were for-

mulated (see table). Feeds were pelleted on a 2mm die.

ResultsL e a c h i n g

rate and water uptake - Analysis for leaching rates and water uptake were done at the labora-tory of CreveTec. Leaching was done during one hour in fresh water.

As could be expected from previous results, the inclusion of ureumformal-dehyde reduces the water uptake that in turn reduces the leaching rate. The values for the three diets are within standards.

DigestibilityThe three samples of feed were analysed

for in vitro digestibility with the pH stat method, as described by Lemos et al (2009). DH values were used to predict protein digestibility by separate models relating ingredients or diet DH to in vivo digest-

ibility as verifiable in Lemos et al. (2009). Feed samples with PPD (Predicted Protein Digestibility) from 90.7 to 92.0% may be considered of high to very high protein digestibility diets.

Growth trialExperimental system - Shrimp were put

in 12 nets of 150 liters each. The nets were submerged in a bigger tank, which is con-nected to a biofloc reactor. Water quality is maintained through bioflocs and is the same in all nets. There were four replicates for each diet.

ShrimpEach net was stocked with 25 shrimp

(Litopenaeus vannamei) of 12-13g each. They were acclimatised in the nets during

Table 1: Composition of test diets

Ingredient Diet WG Diet PBP Diet UF

Corn gluten 11 11 12,5

Fish meal 20 20 20

Wheat flour 31 31 31

Pro-Bind Plus - 2 -

Wheat gluten 2 - -

Urea-formaldehyde - - 0,5

Other * 7,5 7,5 7,5

Crude protein 37,74 38,01 38,05

Crude lipid 8,61 8,66 8,63

Crude fibers 2,92 2,91 2,94

Ash content 6,44 6,48 6,47

* Canola, Soybean meal, Fish oil, Soybean lecithin, premix

Table 2: Leaching rate and water uptake of test diets

Sample Diet WG Diet PBP Diet UF

Water uptake 107,63% 105,13% 89,89%

Leaching rate 7,75% 8,29% 6,75%

10 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | September-october 2010 September-october 2010 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | 11

F: Binders

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Page 3: Influence of natural and artificial binders in feeds for Litopenaeus vannamei on digestibility and growth

Formaldehyde was shown to react with the amino group of the N-terminal amino acid residue and the side-chains of arginine, cysteine, histidine, lysine residues.

Therefore it is advisable to use nutrition-al binders, with a high protein digestibility.

Gelatin-based binders are a good alter-native to gluten and ureumformaldehyde. Gelatin and gluten have the advantage of being fully digestible and to contain real proteins for the shrimp.

ReferencesDe Muylder E., Hans Hage & Geert van der Velden, 2008

Binders: Gelatin as alternative for urea formaldehyde and wheat gluten in the production of water stable shrimp feeds. International Aquafeed 2008, Volume 11 issue 2

De Muylder E., Carine van Vuure, Romain de Vargas , Daan Delbare and Geert van der Velden, 2008

Utilisation of hydrolyzed animal proteins and gelatin as supplement in low fishmeal diets for juvenile white shrimp

Aqua Culture Asia Pacific Volume 5 number 4

Dominy, W.G., J.J. Cody, J.H. Terpstra, L.G. Obaldo, M.K. Chai, T.I. Takamori, B. Larsen & I.P. Forster, 2003. A Comparative Study of the Physical and Biological Properties of Commercially-Available Binders for Shrimp Feeds. Journal of Applied Aquaculture. Vol 14(3/4) 81-99.

Lemos, D. ; Lawrence, A. ; Siccardi, A. . 2009. Prediction of apparent protein digestibility of ingredients and diets by in vitro pH-stat degree of protein hydrolysis with species-specific enzymes for juvenile Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Aquaculture, v. 295, p. 89-98.

was between 7.0 and 7.5.

All shrimp showed good growth (>1,5 g/week) during the experiment. The diet with inclusion of ureumformal-dehyde showed the lowest growth, which can be a results of the lower protein digest-ibility observed.

DiscussionThe inclusion of a synthetic binder

improves water stability and reduces leaching.

This would result in a lower FCR. But at the same time, this binder links to proteins and reduces its digestibility.

This reduction in protein digestibility results in a slightly slower growth.

Ureaformaldehyde is a synthetic binder with no nutritional value. It cannot be

digested by fish or shrimp, instead it adds nitrogen (false proteins) to the diet which ends up like ammonia in the ponds.

In the process, formaldehyde is

bound to the NH2 group of Urea to form a polymer.

However, the formaldehyde can also bind to other amine (NH2) groups in other products such as melamine or amino acids. Formaldehyde is a cross-linking agent to inactivate, stabilise or immobilise proteins.

one week. They were then weighed and the trial started. The shrimp trial lasted for five weeks.

Measurements during trialAt the start and each week, the

shrimp were weighed together and counted, to have the average weight and total biomass. Feeding gift was adjusted daily according to an expected growth curve and average weight from last measurement.

At the end of the experiment, all shrimp were weighed individually.

Water qualityDO was more than 6ppm at all times.

Temperature was between 27.5°C and 28.0°C. Salinity was kept between 11.4 and 11.7ppt. pH

More inforMation

Mr. Geert van der Velden Tel: + 31 499 364826Mob: + 31 651 063301Fax: + 31 499 373873Email: [email protected]

Table 4: Growth parameters of the shrimp during the experiment.Diet Diet WG Diet PBP Diet UF

Initial ind. weight (g) 13,05 13,10 12,80Final ind. weight (g) 21,28 22,23 21,17

Average growth (g/week) 1,88 1,91 1,86FCR 1,56 1,26 1,34

Survival 77% 90% 92%

12 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | September-october 2010

F: Feature

Table 3: Crude protein and in vitro digestibility of ingredients for Litopenaeus vannamei based on the degree of hydrolysis (DH%) by species proteolytic enzymes. Results expressed as mean (sd).

Sample Crude Protein (%)*

In vitro proteinhydrolysis (DH,%)

Predicted proteindigestibility (%)**

Diet WG 37,20% 4,69 (0,10)a 91,9 (0,11)cDiet PBP 37,80% 4,78 (0,15)a 92,0 (0,15)cDiet UF 37,80% 3,89 (0,12)b 90,7 (0,22)d

* Determined by C, H, N autoanalyser, N x 6.25** Lemos et al. (2009- Different superscripts among feed samples denote significant statistical differences (P < 0.05, one way ANOVA) beautiful

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Page 4: Influence of natural and artificial binders in feeds for Litopenaeus vannamei on digestibility and growth

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Page 5: Influence of natural and artificial binders in feeds for Litopenaeus vannamei on digestibility and growth

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VOLUME 13 I S SUE 5 2 010

Influence of natural and artificial binders

- in feeds for Litopenaeus vannamei on digestibility & growth

Ecobiol Aqua - the effective single strain probiotic

A general overview aquaculture in the EU

Abalone feed development in South Africa

IAF10-05.indd 1 07/09/2010 14:54

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