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Dec 29, 2015
Immigrants & UrbanizationChapter 7
Chapter Overview The population rises as immigrants supply a willing workforce for urban industrialization and political base for many urban politicians. Abuses in local and national government prompt calls for reform.
Section One: The New ImmigrantsEuropeansflooded East coastChinese and JapaneseWest coastJamaica, Cuba, Puerto Rico, and MexicoWhy Immigrate?Lured by promise of better lifeEscape conditions Some immigrated temporarily to take money back home to their families
Section One: The New ImmigrantsA Difficult JourneyTrip across Atlantic=One WeekTrip across Pacific=Three WeeksPoor conditions, many deathsEllis IslandImmigration Station in New YorkDetained up to several daysPass physical examGovernment Inspectiondocuments, state purpose
Ellis Island, 1892-1954.
Section One: The New ImmigrantsAngel IslandSan Francisco BayHarsh questioning, long detentionsPoor conditionsCooperation for SurvivalFinding a place to liveGetting a jobLanguage & CultureMany immigrants formed ethnic communities
Section One: The New ImmigrantsMelting Potmixture of people of different cultures and races who blended together by abandoning their native languages and customsNativismextreme favoritism toward native-born AmericansAnti-Immigrant groupsRestrictionsonly wanted people that would improve America
Section One: The New ImmigrantsImmigration Restriction LeagueLiteracy test, 40 words in EnglishAnti-Asian Sentiment1882, Chinese Exclusion ActBanned all except students, teachers, merchants, tourists, government officialsThe Gentlemans AgreementLimit unskilled workers from Japan, repeal San Francisco segregation order
Questions to ponderWhat are some push and pull factors influence immigration to America?What was the journey like?What was the experience of Ellis & Angel Island like?What was life like once immigrants were admitted?How is the phrase melting pot positive and negative?Why did people have anti-immigrant feelings?
Section Two: The Challenges of UrbanizationUrbanizationgrowth of cities due to technological boommostly in Midwest & NortheastImmigrants lived in cities because of cheap living and available jobsRural population moving to cities because farming not needed as much1890twice as many Irish in NYC than Dublin, Ireland!!
Section Two: The Challenges of UrbanizationAmericanization MovementAssimilationTeach immigrants skills needed for citizenshipEnglish LiteracyAmerican History & GovernmentCookingSocial Etiquette Most wanted to stay in ethnic groupsOvercrowded
Section Two: The Challenges of UrbanizationHousing ProblemsLive on outskirts with transportation problem or rent a cramped, unclean room?Row Housessingle family homes shared wallsTenementsOvercrowded, unsanitary, multifamily homesRegulationsNYC set minimum standards for plumbing and ventilations in apartments
New York City, 1900
Section Two: The Challenges of UrbanizationTransportationmass transits move large number of people along fixed routesHelped people get to work easilyStreet cars, electric subwaysPublic Water WorksIndoor plumbing was seldomCholera & Typhoid fever 1870filtration, 1908--chlorination
Section Two: The Challenges of UrbanizationSanitationHorse manure in the streetsSewage in open guttersGarbage in streetsCrimePickpockets and thieves common1844NYC, 1st full-time police forceCincinnati, OH1st paid Fire Department
Section Two: The Challenges of UrbanizationReformersSocial Gospel Movementpreached salvation through service of the poorSettlement housescommunity centers in slum neighborhoods that provided assistance to people in area, especially immigrantsProvided educational, cultural, & social servicesJane Addamsfounded Chicagos Hull HouseLocust Street Social SettlementSettlement house for African-Americans
Section Three: Politics in the Gilded AgeTime for new power structuresPolitical Machines: group that controlled the activities of a political party in a city; offered services in exchange for political or financial supportSolved urban problems to reinforce voter loyaltyHelped immigrants with citizenship, housing and jobs
Section Three: Politics in the Gilded Age
Section Three: Politics in the Gilded AgeIncrease in Election Frauduse of fake names to voteGraftillegal use of political influence for personal gainPolitical machine helps person find job at construction companyPerson charges city more for suppliesMoney is kicked back to political machine
Section Three: Politics in the Gilded AgeBoss Tweed(William M. Tweed)Head of Tammany Hall (NYC Democratic political machine)
Section Three: Politics in the Gilded AgeElection of 1880, Republican nomination up for grabsStalwartswho supported the spoils systemPatronagegiving of government jobs to people who helped candidates get electedReformerswanted changeIndependent, James A. Garfield, won electionStalwart, Chester A. Arthur, nominated VP
Section Three: Politics in the Gilded AgeJuly 2, 1881, because of his support of civil service reform, Garfield was shotDied September 19Arthur became president (shooter was stalwart)Once in office, became a reformerPendleton Civil Service Actmake appointments to federal jobs through merit system based on examination