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IMMIGRANTS & URBANIZATION Chapter 15 What were the economic, social and political effects of immigration?

Dec 27, 2015



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  • IMMIGRANTS & URBANIZATION Chapter 15 What were the economic, social and political effects of immigration?
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  • The Lure of America Old Immigrants 1800-1880 - 10 million Protestants from western and northern Europe
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  • The Lure of America New Immigrants 1891-1910 12 million 60% of urban (12 largest cities) were foreign born Southern and Eastern Europe Czech, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Russia, Slovak escape poverty, persecution, economic opportunities Chinese arrived on the west coast seeking fortune railroads, then farmed, mining and domestic service
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  • The Lure of America New Immigrants Japanese worked on plants in Hawaii Upper-Elem-E.mov after annexation to the west coast West Indies and Mexico Jamaica, Cuba, Puerto Rico jobs were scarce eastern and southeastern U.S. Mexico political turmoil National Reclamation Act farm workers
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  • The Lure of America The Journey Railroad & Steamship Promoters Tempting/False picture (steamships charged a fare) Poorest accommodations Steerage C07e7PReM C07e7PReM
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  • Arriving in America Ellis Island, New York Harbor 1892 to 1924 17 million immigrants passed physical exams who cannot stay? document check and interview no felonies ability to work some money $25 after 1909 2% sent back
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  • Arriving in America Angel Island San Francisco Bay between 1910 and 1940 about 50,000 Chinese immigrants Endure harsh questioning and long detention in filthy buildings
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  • A New Life Endure Hardships crowded cities low paying, unskilled work poor houses and slums Immigrant Communities New York Citypockets of countries/cultures Benevolent Societies religious institutes set up to help those in need Cultural Practices Old vs. Young
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  • The Immigrant Worker Worked in areas such as mines, steel mills, textiles, garments, laundries, etc. Dirty Work Children in sweatshops When layoffs occurAmericans get the boot! why?
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  • The Nativist Response Americans see them as a threat wild motley throng (wild mixed crowd) blamed for poverty, crime, violence Chinese Exclusion Act - 1882 taken care of on the west coast the Chinese must go (violence) denies citizenship to those born in China prohibited the immigration of Chinese laborers Immigration Restriction League impose literacy test President Cleveland vetoes
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  • Without Immigrants Rapid industrialization would have never been possible America would lack the cultural dimensions that it has today
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  • Snapshot of 1900 to 1909 76,000,000 Americans in 46 states by the end of the decade Policeman arrests woman for smoking in public $46,000,000+ in the U.S. treasury 8,000 cars - 10 miles of paved roads 1900 96 auto deaths 115 lynching San Francisco Earthquake 700 dead and over $4,000,000 in damage Average worker made $12.98/week for 59 hours Life expectancy 47.3 female 46.3 male 33 African American
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  • Urban Growth
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  • Upper Class Life noveau riche newly rich made fortunes very quickly and made those of wealth look more like middle class Conspicuous consumption Spent wealth freely so that everyone would know how successful they were Philanthropy Giving wealth to art galleries, libraries, universities, museums, opera companies, symphonies, theatres Some saw as a way to do good, others used it to flaunt their wealth
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  • Upper Class Life
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  • Middle Class Life Includes accountants, clerks, engineers, managers, and salespeople Professionalism Huge demand for educated and trained specialized workers Professional schools ad organizations founded Set standards, issue licenses, review practices
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  • Middle Class Life Middle-Class Women New jobs for womensalesclerks, secretaries, stenographers Business owners hire young, single women to fill open positions Pay lower wages than men Most married women worked in the home ready made clothing, running hot and cold water More time to focus on children and take part in cultural events Reading and social clubs
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  • How the Poor Lived Huge population of laborers keeps the wages low Housing shortages and rising rent Tenements 1.6 million New Yorkers more than half the population As many as 12 families to a floor Poorly ventilated, dark Outsideraw sewage, piles of garbage The stink is enough to knock you down Sickness and death were common
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  • The New York Slums A picture taken in 1903 of a group of New York City tenement houses. Close quarters, inadequate conditions, and other factors defined the living conditions of such a time.
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  • The New York Slums A picture, taken in 1908, of a New York tenement housing a family of seven.
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  • The New York Slums A picture, taken in 1908, of a New York tenement housing a family of seven.
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  • The New York Slums A picture, taken in 1900, of investigators examining an overcrowded tenement house fit for nine. When burden by the prices of food, clothing, and even rent, most immigrants in New York were forced to live under unfit conditions in order to make ends meet.
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  • African Americans Greatest difficulties of all the poor Discrimination Super low paying jobs Outrageous rents for appalling apartments Police harassment but preferred life in the North to the South They sleep in peace at night; what they earn is paid to them, if not they can appeal to the courts. They vote without fear of the shot-gun, and their children go to school
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  • The Drive for Reform Settlement Houses Jane Addams - Hull House Provided educational and cultural opportunities to the poor and improved living conditions in the neighborhoods Social Gospel Protestant ministers called for people to apply Christian principles to address social problems Churches provided classes, counseling, job training, libraries and other social services
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  • POLITICS IN THE GUILDED AGE Politics in the Gilded Age
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  • Political Bosses & Political Machines
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  • Political Machines Benefits Provides public services to growing cities Helps immigrants upon the arrival to the country Provides jobs for local voters Failings Often uses corruption, such as voting fraud, to achieve their goals Corruption interfered with important functions of city government Encouraged graft
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