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IMMIGRANTS AND URBANIZATION AMERICA BECOMES A TOSSED SALAD IN THE LATE 19 TH & EARLY 20 TH CENTURY.

Jan 03, 2016

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  • IMMIGRANTS AND URBANIZATIONAMERICA BECOMES A TOSSED SALAD IN THE LATE 19TH & EARLY 20TH CENTURY

  • SECTION 1:THE NEW IMMIGRANTSMillions of immigrants entered the U.S. in the late 19th and early 20th centuriesSome came to escape difficult conditions, others known as birds of passage intended to stay only temporarily to earn money, and then return to their homeland

  • EUROPEANSBetween 1870 and 1920, about 20 million Europeans arrived in the United StatesBefore 1890, most were from western and northern EuropeAfter 1890, most came from southern and eastern EuropeAll were looking for opportunity

  • CHINESE Between 1851 and 1882, about 300,000 Chinese arrived on the West CoastSome were attracted by the Gold Rush, others went to work for the railroads, farmed or worked as domestic servantsAn anti-Chinese immigration act by Congress curtailed immigration after 1882Many Chinese men worked for the railroads

  • JAPANESEIn 1884, the Japanese government allowed Hawaiian planters to recruit Japanese workersThe U.S. annexation of Hawaii in 1898 increased Japanese immigration to the west coastBy 1920, more than 200,000 Japanese lived on the west coast

  • THE WEST INDIES AND MEXICOBetween 1880 and 1920, about 260,000 immigrants arrived in the eastern and southeastern United States form the West IndiesThey came from Jamaica, Cuba, Puerto Rico, and other islandsMexicans, too, immigrated to the U.S. to find work and flee political turmoil 700,000 Mexicans arrived in the early 20th century

  • LIFE IN THE NEW LANDIn the late 19th century most immigrants arrived via boatsThe trip from Europe took about a month, while it took about 3 weeks from AsiaThe trip was arduous and many died along the wayDestination was Ellis Island for Europeans, and Angel Island for Asians

  • ELLIS ISLAND, NEW YORKEllis Island was the arrival point for European immigrantsThey had to pass inspection at the immigration stationsProcessing took hours, and the sick were sent homeImmigrants also had to show that they were not criminals, had some money ($25), and were able to workFrom 1892-1924, 17 million immigrants passed through Ellis Islands facilities

  • ELLIS ISLAND, NEW YORK HARBOR

  • ANGEL ISLAND, SAN FRANCISCOAsians, primarily Chinese, arriving on the West Coast gained admission at Angel Island in the San Francisco BayProcessing was much harsher than Ellis Island as immigrants withstood tough questioning and long detentions in filthy conditions

  • ANGEL ISLAND WAS CONSIDERED MORE HARSH THAN ELLIS ISLAND

  • FRICTION DEVELOPS While some immigrants tried to assimilate into American culture, others kept to themselves and created ethnic communitiesCommitted to their own culture, but also trying hard to become Americans, many came to think of themselves as Italian-Americans, Polish-Americans, Chinese-Americans, etcSome native born Americans disliked the immigrants unfamiliar customs and languages friction soon developedChinatowns are found in many major cities

  • IMMIGRANT RESTRICTIONSAs immigration increased, so did anti-immigrant feelings among nativesNativism (favoritism toward native-born Americans) led to anti-immigrant organizations and governmental restrictions against immigrationIn 1882, Congress passed the Chinese Exclusion Act which limited Chinese immigration until 1943Anti-Asian feelings included restaurant boycotts

  • URBAN PROBLEMSProblems in American cities in the late 19th and early 20th century included:Housing: overcrowded tenements were unsanitarySanitation: garbage was often not collected, polluted air Famous photographer Jacob Riis captured the struggle of living in crowded tenements

  • PHOTOGRAPHER JACOB RIIS CAPTURED IMAGES OF THE CITY

  • Jacob Riis

  • Jacob Riis

  • Jacob Riis

  • Jacob Riis

  • Jacob Riis

  • Jacob Riis

  • REFORMERS MOBILIZEJacob Riis was a reformer who through his pictures hoped for change he influenced manyThe Social Gospel Movement preached salvation through service to the poorSome reformers established Settlement Homes These homes provided a place to stay, classes, health care and other social servicesJane Addams was the most famous member of the Settlement Movement (founded Hull House in Chicago)Jane Addams and Hull House

  • SECTION 3: POLITICS IN THE GILDED AGEAs cities grew in the late 19th century, so did political machinesPolitical machines controlled the activities of a political party in a cityWard bosses, precinct captains, and the city boss worked to ensure their candidate was elected

  • ROLE OF THE POLITICAL BOSSThe Boss (typically the mayor) controlled jobs, business licenses, and influenced the court systemPrecinct captains and ward bosses were often 1st or 2nd generation immigrants so they helped immigrants with naturalization, jobs, and housing in exchange for votes Boss Tweed ran NYC

  • MUNICIPAL GRAFT AND SCANDALSome political bosses were corruptSome political machines used fake names and voted multiple times to ensure victory (Vote early and often) called Election fraudGraft (bribes) was common among political bossesConstruction contracts often resulted in kick-backsThe fact that police forces were hired by the boss prevented close scrutiny

  • THE TWEED RING SCANDALWilliam M. Tweed, known as Boss Tweed, became head of Tammany Hall, NYCs powerful Democratic political machinesBetween 1869-1871, Tweed led the Tweed Ring, a group of corrupt politicians, in defrauding the cityTweed was indicted on 120 counts of fraud and extortionTweed was sentenced to 12 years in jail released after one, arrested again, and escaped to Spain

    Boss Tweed

  • CIVIL SERVICE REPLACES PATRONAGENationally, some politicians pushed for reform in the hiring system The system had been based on Patronage; giving jobs and favors to those who helped a candidate get electedReformers pushed for an adoption of a merit system of hiring the most qualified for jobsThe Pendleton Civil Service Act of 1883 authorized a bipartisan commission to make appointments for federal jobs based on performance

    Applicants for federal jobs are required to take a Civil Service Exam

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