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ILRI Ethiopia goat and chicken projects: Potential synergies with LIVES

May 29, 2015

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Presented by Tadelle Dessie and Okeyo Mwai at the LIVES Research Planning Workshop, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 26-28 March 2013


  • 1. ILRI Ethiopia goat and chicken projects: Potential synergies with LIVES Tadelle Dessie and Okeyo Mwai LIVES Research Planning Workshop Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 26-28 March 2013

2. Outline Community based goat breedimprovement Identify and provide access to improved breedingstocks that respond to improved feeding andmanagement Indigenous chicken breed improvement Breaking Vicious cycle of high chicken mortalityand low productivity 3. Opportunity exists to drive substantial productivity gains through implementing breeding programs that are functional andsustainable Identification and delivery of geneticsSmallholder Value machines Opportunity Dissemination of Design and moderately improved, implementation of vaccinated chicksparticipatory andfunctional CBBP Egg production+100%Increased growth rate Body weight + 100% Increased milkproduction Mortality -70%Benefit $XXX $XXX 4. MoARD Harnessing genetic diversity for improving goat productivity in Ethiopia and CameronEIARIBC EWCA OARI SARI ARARI TARI 5. Project goals and purpose Goals: improve productivity and income of smallholder goat producers providing access to improved animals that respond to improved feeding and management, and Facilitating targeting of specific market opportunities Purpose: Develop sustainable community-based goat breeding schemes that suit the communities conditions and farmers needs 6. Project sites and partner projects Wag-Abergelle andTankua-Abergelle CRP 3.7 Breed: Abergelle North Gonder LIVES Breed: Central highland West ShoaLIVES Breed: Central Highland KonsoSARI Breed: Weyto-Guji Bati LIVES??? Breed: Central Highland 7. Common economically importanttraits of Goats ProductionIncreased Rate of growthProductivity Milk production Increased amount & valueof animal products sold /unit Meat quality Selection /value of inputs Reproduction improvement Meat & milk and Within-breed selectionskin? Adaptability Temperature Additional value tosmallholders Poor feeds $XX per animal Disease/parasite tolerance $XX per kid(incremental value over ruminants in a traditional system) 8. Phase 1Path to sustainability Phase 2Phase 3 Ongoing Breeding program perTargeting and breed established andFunctional CBBPAnalysis is operationalKey activities Target sites identified Breeding structures Develop appropriate and breeds & systems characterizeddevelopedgenotype Define breeding Enabling environment Develop/refine objectives - Ranking createddelivery options experiments Market analysis to Evaluation of the locate and quantify key areas of demand for breeding program goat meat and milk documented and used in Impact assessment designing improvement programsOutcomes Sustainable and long term benefit to smallholdersScalability of a genetic solution - This model can be implementedsimultaneously in multiple geographies 9. Community-based breeding Participatory decentralizedbreeding plans and programs Improvement programs carriedout by communities ofsmallholder farmers often atsubsistence level Community based breedingconsiders proper considerationof farmers breedingobjectives,infrastructure,participation andownership 10. Delivery (Dissemination) of geneticsuperiority Often a challenge when setting up a new program especiallyin developing countries Delivering improved seed stock to local farmers needs acritical thinking Involving farmers and other partners Breeders association/cooperatives Communal use of selected bucks through agreed norms Develop /adapt appropriate technologies & theirinnovative applications Developing simple and effective identification andrecording system Needs innovative use of available infrastructure and ITtechnology 11. New technologies harnessedTesting Open Data Kit (ODK) for field data collection Questionnaire, Phenotypic measurements, GPS waypoints,pictures, performance records . NairobiAddisServerServer Field enumeration using ODKODK installedon Galaxy SII 12. Conclusions/ critical issues/Concluding Recommendations Participation required from multiple partnersand input providers in order to achieve long-term sustainability Data capture/results synthesis and feedbackdeserves critical attention to ensuresustainability Need for improved market access Evaluate smart application of repro & genomictechs ( estrus synchronization, AI, MAS) and aspotential accelerators 13. Improving village chicken production to elevate livelihoods of poor people 14. Poultry production in Ethiopia Village system responsible for majority of poultryproduction (more than 90% meat and egg)Poultry offers poor people pathway out of poverty(by and for the poor!!!!!! real opportunity) 15. Vicious cycle of high poultry mortality and low productivity requires systemic change Justification for change High mortality drives a vicious cycle Low feasibility of vaccination inbackyard systems (low demand, plusaccess challenges) means a health or Reduced Limited care genetic intervention alone would beproductivity of flockunlikely to deliver sustainable benefit Establishing a breeding program createsthe infrastructure and scale (especiallyHighfor vaccinating chicks) as well as the mortalityfinancial incentive for farmers to takebetter care of their poultry High mortality and low productivityreduces the incentive for farmers to Opportunity to break the vicious cycle,invest significant effort in caring forimproving both productivity andbirdssurvivability through a mix of moderate Without basic care and vaccination,breed improvement, and vaccinationmortality remains high, impactingproductivity. Requires establishment of a delivery Basic practices such housing, watering,system that should become self-egg removal are not applied, furthersustaining in the long-termimpacting productivity 16. What can we offer?Genetically impoved indignous birds in their 6th generation(products of within breed selection programs) 17. Overall objective To improve production of village chickensthrough selective breeding using participatory approachTrait preference: PRA (participatory rural appraisal) conducted and farmers identify traits of preference Egg production Age at first egg Growth 18. Breeding program to improve local chicken breed(Horro)Mass selection based on own performance: Growth: based on live weight at 16 wks in both sexes Age at first egg in females; and Cumulative Egg number at 45 weeks in females 19. Genetic improvement in Cumulative egg number at 45 weeksof age through 5 generations of selection% increase frombase populationSelection effect from: 123.5Generation 5 114.7Generation 473.5Generation 379.4Generation 241.1Generation 1Base (34) Base population0 12 3 45Generation 20. Genetic improvement in Age at First egg (AFE) through 5generations of selection Selection effectAge at First egg from: 148 Generation 5 151 Generation 4 150 Generation 3 147 Generation 2 182 Generation 1 203 Base population 01 23 4 5Generation 21. The simplest and lowest cost intervention is to disseminate improved indigenous chickens, with some improvedmanagement Key elements Establish a supply of Breeding Units Community/Farmerschickens with improved (Improved Horro)growth, egg production feedconversion and disease- Genetically improved hens and cocksresistance traits Potentially within-breedModel breeders selection Multiplier flocks establishedEggsDay-old chicksand scaled-up via mini-Mini Hatcheries Farmershatcheries When target scale isreached, hatcheries beginVaccinesEggssale of day-old improved Medicines Live chickenschicks to farmers Chicks vaccinated bypoultry workers in the mini- Community/hatcheries Market 22. Deploying a hardier, more productive chicken will raise both the income and nutrition of smallholdersCommon economically important traits Disease resistance Mareks disease Increased Parasite toleranceProductivity Productivity Increased egg productionSelection / Increased weight gain Age at first eggsimprovement Increased hatchability and Length of laying series chick survival Within-breed selection Clutches per year Clutch size Additional value tosmallholdersHatchability Daily weight gain $xxxx per hen/year $xxx per male/year Body weight (8 week, 12-month)(incremental value over birds in a Broodinesstraditional system) Egg weight Adaptability Plumage color / form Heat tolerance 23. Scale can be achieved quickly throughmultiplier flocks in village-based mini-hatcheries Phase 1Phase 2 2 years Phase 3 Ongoing Selection /Dissemination / Supply to developmentmultiplicationsmallholdersKey activities Research project identifying and Establishment of multiplier flock. Ongoing supply of chicks from the testing different sources of multiplier flockStarts with initial flock of female indigenous chickens. birds (and suitable number of Some chicks retained as Could involve within-breed cocks) selected or developed in replacements to sustain multiplier selection or cross-breedingPhase 1 flock Rapid multiplication over period Male and female chicks Might take 2 to 3 years (weof 24-30 months to achieve scalevaccinated and sold to farmers have it). Outcomes Create initial flock:Grow multiplier flock (hens)Supply vaccinated chicks to farmers, 100 hens Start: 100while sustaining flock 10 male, 10 female per year Appropriate # of cocks 12 months: 1,970 Benefit: $???? per smallholder 18 months: 38,800 24 months: 765,000millions smallholders 30 months: 15 million More million smallholders 24. Poultrys high rate of reproduction enables rapidscale; Distribution could begin after 18 monthsPhase 2 Months 61218 24 30 No chick distribution Limited distribution (5-10%)Full disseminationSize ofmultiplier 100 100*1,97038,800765,000MillionsflockNumber ofsmallholders 7,300145,000millionsMorebenefited millionsThis model can be implemented simultaneously in multiple geographies . 25. Additional Recommendations -chicken Continue animal health investment todetermine if lifelong disease re

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