INDEX 9 References 23 No Topic Page No. 1. Introduction 1 2. History 2 3. Definition and Introduction 3 3.1 What are Hybrid Cars 3 3.2 How hybrid works 4 3.3 Why hybrid car selected 4 4 Components of HEVs 5 4.1 Hybrid engine 5 4.2 Hybrid battery 6 4.3 Electric motor 7 4.4 Generator 8 4.5 Transmission and gearing 9 5 Advance Technology in HEVs 9 6 Type of hybrid car 11 6.1 Parallel hybrid car 11 6.2 Series hybrid car 13 6.3 Power-split or series-parallel hybrid 14 6.4 Plug-in hybrid electrical vehicle 15 7 Advantage and Disadvantage 16 8 Conclusion 22
1. INTRODUCTION Any vehicle is a hybrid when it combines two or more sources of power .In fact many people have probably owned a hybrids vehicle at some point. For example, a moped is type of hybrid because it combines the power or a gasoline engine with the pedal power of its raider. Hybrid vehicles are all around us. Most of the locomotives we see pulling trains are diesel - electric hybrids. Cities like Seattle have diesel electric buses these can draw power from overhead wires or run on diesel when they are away from wires. Giant mining trucks are often diesel electric hybrids. Submarines are also hybrid vehicles some are nuclear -electric and some are diesel electric. Any vehicle that combines two or more sources of that power that can directly or indirectly provides propulsion power is a hybrid. The gasoline electric hybrid car is just that a cross between gasolines powered car and an electric car. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are powered by two energy sources An energy conversion unit such as a combustion engine or fuel cell. And energy storage device such as batteries so ultras capacitors, fly wheels. A gasoline, methanol, compressed natural gas, hydrogen, or other alternative fuels may power the energy conversion unit. The nature of HEV configuration enables several important advantages over pure electric vehicles (EVs). Because the HEV engine shares the workload with the electric motor, it can be constructed smaller. This reduction in size engenders weight reductions, leading to greater fuel economy. Also, HEV engines can be optimized to operate within a specific speed range characterized by better fuel economy and reduced emissions. This allows HEVs to eliminate the higher emissions and poor fuel economy associated with conventional ICE vehicles. Hybrid electric vehicles have the potential to be two to three times more fuel- efficient than conventional vehicles .In general; hybrids capture energy lost during braking and return it to the on-board battery. This process is termed regenerative braking. HEVs generally don't ever need to be plugged in and charged - they recharge them selves during operation. Hybrid-concept vehicles are achieving fuel economy ratings of 80 miles per gallon. General Motors' new Precept, for example, achieves a fuel efficiency rating of 108 miles per gallon. These are the most fuel-efficient and non-polluting vehicles the emissions that are released by these are almost zero thats why several countries prefer these to reduce the environmental pollution and the global warming which is the main problem of this generation. Emissions from the vehicles constitute the major part of the pollution so to reduce this several measures are being take HEVs are best suited for this. The hybrid electric vehicle operates the alternative power unit to supply the power required by the vehicle, to recharge the batteries, and to power accessories like the air conditioner and heater. Hybrid electric cars can exceed the limited 100-mile (160 km) range-per- charge of most electric vehicles and have the potential to limit emissions to near zero. A hybrid can achieve the cruising range and performance advantages of conventional vehicles with the low-noise, low-exhaust emissions, and energy in dependence benefits of electric vehicles .In the coming years, hybrids can play a significant role in addressing several of the major problems faced by the world today: climate change, air pollution, and oil dependence. This new technology delivers on its promise hinges on the choices automakers, consumers, and policymakers make over the coming years.
2. HISTORY OF HYBRID VEHICLES The history of hybrid cars dates back to the late 1800s and 1900s. In 1905, Mr. H Piper filed a patent for a gasoline engine-electric motor power train. According to him, the electric motor would augment a gasoline engine, allowing a vehicle to accelerate from zero to 25 miles an hour in 10 seconds, much faster than the gasoline engines of that time. Ironically, when finally Mr.H Piper was granted the patent a few years later, normal engines were capable of producing the same kind of acceleration. Due to rapid advancements in the gasoline engine, the popularity of a hybrid car slowly diminished until again in the early to mid 1970s, the time of oil crisis. Many companies poured funds to build experimental Hybrid Electric Vehicles. But as the oil became available again, the surge for HEVs died down immediately. Hybrid technology actually originated with diesel electric submarines. Both operate in essentially the same manner as hybrid electric cars. The first successful hybrid electric car was engineered by Ferdinand Porsche in 1928. Since then, hobbyists have continued to build such cars but none was put into production by a major manufacturer until the waning years of the twentieth century. Automotive hybrid technology became commercially successful in the 1990s when the Honda Insight and Toyota Prius became available. These vehicles have a direct linkage from the internal combustion engine to the driven wheels, so the engine can provide acceleration power. Prototypes of plug-in hybrid cars, with larger battery packs that can be re-charged from the power grid, have been built in the U.S., notably at Prof. Andy Frank's Hybrid Center at UC Davis and one production(parallel hybrid electric vehicles) PHEV, the Renault Kangoo, went on sale in France in 2003. DaimlerChrysler is currently building a small number of PHEVs based on the Sprinter van. The California Cars Initiative has converted a 2004 Prius to become a prototype of what it calls PRIUS+(figure given blow)
3. DEFINITION AND INTRODUCTION Hybrid is a combination of the two or more source of power is use in to run the car is known as hybrid car. A hybrid car uses more than one power source, almost always an internal- combustion engine and an electric motor. In the hybrid design, the combustion engine is the final source of the energy used to power the car, though an alternative motor assists when more power is demanded using stored energy. This contrasts with all-electric cars which use batteries charged by an external source. Benefits of the hybrid design include the following. What are Hybrid Cars? Hybrid cars are the cars, which run on at-least one alternate source of energy and gasoline. Most of the time that other alternate source of energy for hybrid cars is electricity (rechargeable batteries) hence those are called electric hybrid cars. These new hybrid cars are innovative, efficient and affordable. How Hybrid Cars Work Hybrid Cars integrate the power of the conventional gasoline engine with that of an electric motor. A high powered battery pack provides energy to the motor which itself gets recharged when the car is decelerating. This is called as regenerative braking. The gas engine can also assist the battery in recharging. This kills the need to plug the car to an external source of energy. As of now, there are two types of hybrid vehicles. In one type, the electric motor acts as a side-kick to the gas engine, assisting it whenever surplus power is needed. The electric motor alone is incapable of independently operating the vehicle. Honda's Power Assist technology in its hybrids, Civic and Insight is an example. Such vehicles are termed as Mild Hybrids. In mild hybrids, the gasoline engine provides the main source of power, and the electric motor provides additional power whenever needed. The second type of hybrid can be termed as a Full Hybrid, where the gasoline engine and the electric motor can operate the vehicle separately. In this type, the electric motor can drive the vehicle at lower speeds. In need of more speed, the gasoline engine kicks in. The Toyota Prius and the Ford Escape implement the same technology. Be it mild hybrids or full hybrids, both are capable of providing lower emissions and better fuel efficiency. The Internal-Combustion Engines (both gasoline and diesel) installed in Hybrid cars are often smaller than those in normal cars for a simple reason that Hybrids have the electric motor for assistance.
The motor can take care of city travel which poses stop and go conditions as well as power-consuming add-ons such as the A/C or power-windows and power-steering. At high speeds, the gasoline engine supplies power. This switching of power sources is computer controlled and nothing needs to be manually done. Power to the electric motor comes from the battery-pack. Recharging of the battery is automatic and need not be done by external sources. When the car is in uniform motion or when it is decelerating, it generates power which charges the batteries which utilizes the valuable kinetic energy. As with any other battery, the Hybrid car battery also has a limited life span. Auto makers however, put the battery life at around 200,000 miles which roughly comes around to 7- 8 years, depending on the kind of travel it endures. Thus, It pays to take extra care of your vehicle and travel when necessary. Why hybrid car selected 1. A Hybrid car is environment friendly. It can reduce pollution by 90 percent. 2. Hybr