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Human communication ch 2 pp

Jul 02, 2015




This PowerPoint reviews the 2nd chapter of the book


2. Pearson, J., Nelson, P., Titsworth, S., & Harter, L. (2013). HumanCommunication Ch. 2Perception: the process of using senses to acquire information about thesurrounding environment or situation. Perception is subjective, active and creative. Differences in perception are the result of past experiences and roles,psychological factors, present feelings and circumstances. (Sex is alsoa psychological factor.) Since our perception is unique, communication between and amongpeople is complicated 3. Perception Selective perception: the tendency that you want to see, hear, andbelieve what you want to see, hear, believe and not what you dislike. Selective retention: the tendency to remember better the things thatreinforce your beliefs than those that oppose them. Perceptual constancy: your past experiences lead you to see theworld in a way that is difficult to change. We can overcome perceptional differences that are based on culturaldifferences by rejecting stereotypes and prejudice. 4. The Gestalt Principles Gestalt is a psychology term which means "unified whole". It refers to theories of visual perception developed by Germanpsychologists in the 1920s. These theories attempt to describe how people tend to organizevisual elements into groups or unified wholes when certain principlesare applied. These principles are: similarity, continuation, closure, proximity, andfigure and ground. 5. similarity Similarity occurs when objects look similar to one another. Peopleoften perceive them as a group or pattern. The example here contains 11 distinct objects but appears as as singleunit because all of the shapes have similarity. 6. anomaly When similarity occurs, an object can be emphasized if it isdissimilar to the others. This is called anomaly. The figure on the far right becomes a focal point because itis dissimilar to the other shapes. 7. Continuation Continuation: when the eye is compelled to move through oneobject and continue to another object. The smooth flowing crossbarof the "H" leads the eye directly to the maple leaf. 8. Closure Closure occurs when an object is incomplete or a space isnot completely enclosed. If enough of the shape is indicated, peopleperceive the whole by filling in the missing information. 9. Proximity Proximity occurs when elements are placed close together. We tendto perceive the first 9 squares as a group, while we perceive thesecond as separate shapes.(Source: 10. Figure and groundFigure is the focal point of yourattention.Ground is the background againstwhich your focused attentionoccurs. 11. More on perception Interpretive perception: a blend of internal states and externalstimuli Errors in interpretation: stereotyping, prejudice and first impression 12. Important definitions Stereotyping: hasty generalization about a group based on ajudgment about an individual from that group Prejudice refers to an unfavorable predisposition about an individualbecause of his/her membership in a stereotyped group First impression: an initial opinion about people upon meeting thatperson based on their appearance Negative first impression may persist even after receiving contradictory information about theperson. Perceptual checking: a process of describing, interpreting, verifyingthat help us to understand an other person 13. Symbolic Interactionalism Formulated by Blumer (1969): the process of interaction in theformation of meanings for individuals. 14. Identity management Identity management: we control the communication of informationthrough a performance, in which people try to represent an idealizedversion of themselves to reach desired ends. Think of thephotographs your post on the Facebook.

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