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HU HU MAN BOne & MAN BOne & JOI JOI NT NT NANUNG DANAR DONO, NANUNG DANAR DONO, S.Pt., MP. S.Pt., MP. International Class – SMAN 1 Teladan International Class – SMAN 1 Teladan Yogyakarta Yogyakarta
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HUMAN BOne & JOINT NANUNG DANAR DONO, S.Pt., MP. International Class – SMAN 1 Teladan Yogyakarta.

Jan 17, 2016

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Page 1: HUMAN BOne & JOINT NANUNG DANAR DONO, S.Pt., MP. International Class – SMAN 1 Teladan Yogyakarta.

HUHUMAN BOne & JOIMAN BOne & JOINTNT

NANUNG DANAR DONO, S.Pt., MP.NANUNG DANAR DONO, S.Pt., MP.International Class – SMAN 1 Teladan Yogyakarta International Class – SMAN 1 Teladan Yogyakarta

Page 2: HUMAN BOne & JOINT NANUNG DANAR DONO, S.Pt., MP. International Class – SMAN 1 Teladan Yogyakarta.

HUHUMAN BOMAN BONENE

Page 3: HUMAN BOne & JOINT NANUNG DANAR DONO, S.Pt., MP. International Class – SMAN 1 Teladan Yogyakarta.

Preliminary growing

foetus

Blood vessels

infant

Growing processes

kids

Cakra epiphyse

Spongious bone

adult

cartilage

Page 4: HUMAN BOne & JOINT NANUNG DANAR DONO, S.Pt., MP. International Class – SMAN 1 Teladan Yogyakarta.

Bone (Bone (Latin: "Latin: "osos"") is a type of hard endoskeletal connective tissue ) is a type of hard endoskeletal connective tissue found in human and many vertebrate animals. found in human and many vertebrate animals.

Bones support Bones support body structuresbody structures, , protect internal organprotect internal organ, and (in , and (in conjunction with muscles) conjunction with muscles) facilitate movementfacilitate movement; are also involved with ; are also involved with cell formation, calcium metabolism, and cell formation, calcium metabolism, and mineral storagemineral storage. The bones . The bones of an animal are, collectively, known as the skeletal. Bone has a of an animal are, collectively, known as the skeletal. Bone has a different composition than cartilage, and both are derived from different composition than cartilage, and both are derived from mesoderm. mesoderm.

Bone is a Bone is a livingliving, growing tissue. It is a porous mineralized structure, , growing tissue. It is a porous mineralized structure, made up of cells, vessels, crystals of calcium compounds made up of cells, vessels, crystals of calcium compounds (hydroxyapatite), the proportion of which varies according to bone (hydroxyapatite), the proportion of which varies according to bone types and regions. types and regions.

HUMHUMAN BONE PHYSIOLAN BONE PHYSIOLOGY OGY

Page 5: HUMAN BOne & JOINT NANUNG DANAR DONO, S.Pt., MP. International Class – SMAN 1 Teladan Yogyakarta.

There are There are fivefive main types of bone cells in bone tissue : main types of bone cells in bone tissue :1.1. OSTEOGENICOSTEOGENIC cells respond to traumas, such as fractures, by giving rise cells respond to traumas, such as fractures, by giving rise

to bone-forming cells and bone-destroying cells. to bone-forming cells and bone-destroying cells. 2.2. OSTEOBLASTSOSTEOBLASTS (bone-forming cells) synthesize and secrete (bone-forming cells) synthesize and secrete

unmineralized ground substance and are found in areas of high unmineralized ground substance and are found in areas of high metabolism within the bone. metabolism within the bone.

3.3. OSTEOCYTESOSTEOCYTES are mature bone cells made from osteoblasts that have are mature bone cells made from osteoblasts that have made bone tissue around themselves. These cells maintain healthy bone made bone tissue around themselves. These cells maintain healthy bone tissue by secreting enzymes and controlling the bone mineral content; tissue by secreting enzymes and controlling the bone mineral content; they also control the calcium release from the bone tissue to the blood. they also control the calcium release from the bone tissue to the blood.

4.4. OSTEOCLASTSOSTEOCLASTS are large cells that break down bone tissue. They are are large cells that break down bone tissue. They are very important to bone growth, healing, and remodeling. very important to bone growth, healing, and remodeling.

5.5. The last type of cells are The last type of cells are bone-liningbone-lining cells. These are made from cells. These are made from osteoblasts along the surface of most bones in an adult. Bone-lining osteoblasts along the surface of most bones in an adult. Bone-lining cells are thought to regulate the movement of calcium and phosphate cells are thought to regulate the movement of calcium and phosphate into and out of the bone.into and out of the bone.

BONBONE CEE CELL LL

Page 6: HUMAN BOne & JOINT NANUNG DANAR DONO, S.Pt., MP. International Class – SMAN 1 Teladan Yogyakarta.

1. Depending on the Bone1. Depending on the Bone Member Member : :

a.a. Skull : Skull : cranial & facial bonescranial & facial bonesb.b. Body : Body : sternum, ribs, vertebral columnsternum, ribs, vertebral columnc.c. Extremities : upper & lower extremities.Extremities : upper & lower extremities.

2. Depending on the Bone2. Depending on the Bone Shape : Shape :

RegularRegular Shape : Shape :• Long/Pipe bone : Long/Pipe bone : humerus, tibia, femur, ulna, metacarpals.humerus, tibia, femur, ulna, metacarpals.• Flat bone : Flat bone : ribs, cranial bones, bones of shoulder girdleribs, cranial bones, bones of shoulder girdle..• Short bone : Short bone : the wrists and anklesthe wrists and ankles

IrregularIrregular Shape : Shape : the bones of the vertebrae and a few in the the bones of the vertebrae and a few in the skull (maxilla & mandible)skull (maxilla & mandible)..

BONBONE DIVISE DIVISION ION Infant has more than

300

bones.

Adult has

206

ones

Page 7: HUMAN BOne & JOINT NANUNG DANAR DONO, S.Pt., MP. International Class – SMAN 1 Teladan Yogyakarta.

3. Depending on the Bone3. Depending on the Bone Material Composer Material Composer : :

a.a. BoneBone : : Composed of Osteoblast which produces Composed of Osteoblast which produces OsteoblastOsteoblast & & OsteocytesOsteocytes..

There are three types of cartilage ::• HyalineHyaline : exist at the joints, at the surface of a bone, : exist at the joints, at the surface of a bone,

trachea, larynx, etc.trachea, larynx, etc.• FibrocartilageFibrocartilage : composed of collagen fibrous; : composed of collagen fibrous;

intervertebral disc, etc.intervertebral disc, etc.• ElasticElastic : composed of elastic fibrous; at the ear & : composed of elastic fibrous; at the ear &

epiglottis.Sepiglottis.S

b.b. CartilageCartilage : : Composed of Composed of CondrocytesCondrocytes which produce which produce CondrinCondrin as matrix cells. as matrix cells. Chondrocytes produce matrix called chondroblasts. They are Chondrocytes produce matrix called chondroblasts. They are responsible for appositional growth.responsible for appositional growth.

Page 8: HUMAN BOne & JOINT NANUNG DANAR DONO, S.Pt., MP. International Class – SMAN 1 Teladan Yogyakarta.

HYALINE CARTILAGEHYALINE CARTILAGEcontains cells called contains cells called chondrocyteschondrocytes embedded in a unique matrix embedded in a unique matrix that gives the tissue both that gives the tissue both strengthstrength and and flexibilityflexibility. The chondrocytes . The chondrocytes housed in their spaces called "housed in their spaces called "lacunaelacunae". Some spaces contain ". Some spaces contain more than one chondrocytes. more than one chondrocytes. Also note the outside of the cartilage tissue is connective tissue Also note the outside of the cartilage tissue is connective tissue called "perichondrium". called "perichondrium". Layers of "chondroblasts" are found in the inner layers. They give Layers of "chondroblasts" are found in the inner layers. They give rise to new chondrocytes as they secrete matrix around rise to new chondrocytes as they secrete matrix around themselves. themselves.

Cartilage can grow :Cartilage can grow :1.1. from the outside (from the outside (appositionalappositional growth) and growth) and 2.2. from within (from within (interstitialinterstitial growth). growth).

Page 9: HUMAN BOne & JOINT NANUNG DANAR DONO, S.Pt., MP. International Class – SMAN 1 Teladan Yogyakarta.

ELASTIC CARTILAGEELASTIC CARTILAGEThe cartilage in the The cartilage in the EAREAR contains many elastic fibers and is therefore contains many elastic fibers and is therefore called "elastic cartilage". Elastic cartilage can be distinguished by called "elastic cartilage". Elastic cartilage can be distinguished by the stain for the stain for elastinelastin that brings out the dense bundles. that brings out the dense bundles.

FIBRO-CARTILAGEFIBRO-CARTILAGEFibrocartilage is distinguished by very scattered, infrequent Fibrocartilage is distinguished by very scattered, infrequent chondrocytes and collagen fibers running in the matrix. chondrocytes and collagen fibers running in the matrix. Fibrocartilage found at the Fibrocartilage found at the intervertebral disk.intervertebral disk.

Page 10: HUMAN BOne & JOINT NANUNG DANAR DONO, S.Pt., MP. International Class – SMAN 1 Teladan Yogyakarta.

JOJOINT & ARTHROLOINT & ARTHROLOGYGY

Page 11: HUMAN BOne & JOINT NANUNG DANAR DONO, S.Pt., MP. International Class – SMAN 1 Teladan Yogyakarta.

The scientific study of joints is called arthrology.The scientific study of joints is called arthrology.The study of the motion of the human body is called The study of the motion of the human body is called kinesiologykinesiology..

Bones are too rigid to bend. Flexible connective Bones are too rigid to bend. Flexible connective tissues from joints and permit movement.tissues from joints and permit movement.

A A jointjoint, also called , also called articulationarticulation (connection between (connection between bones) is a point of contact.bones) is a point of contact.

ARTHROLOGYARTHROLOGYARTHROLOGY

Page 12: HUMAN BOne & JOINT NANUNG DANAR DONO, S.Pt., MP. International Class – SMAN 1 Teladan Yogyakarta.

StructurallyStructurally joints are classified as following joints are classified as following (what types of connective tissues make up the joint)(what types of connective tissues make up the joint) :: Fibrous jointsFibrous joints : the bones are held together : the bones are held together

by fibrous connective tissue that is rich in by fibrous connective tissue that is rich in collagen fibers. No synovial cavity.collagen fibers. No synovial cavity.

Cartilaginous jointsCartilaginous joints: the bones are held : the bones are held together by cartilage. No synovial cavity.together by cartilage. No synovial cavity.

Synovial jointsSynovial joints: the bones forming the joint : the bones forming the joint have a synovial cavity and are united by have a synovial cavity and are united by dense irregular connective tissue.dense irregular connective tissue.

JOINT CLASSIFICATIONJOINT CLASSIFICATIONJOINT CLASSIFICATION

Page 13: HUMAN BOne & JOINT NANUNG DANAR DONO, S.Pt., MP. International Class – SMAN 1 Teladan Yogyakarta.

FunctionallyFunctionally joints are classified as following joints are classified as following (what degree of movement do I have at that joint)(what degree of movement do I have at that joint) : : SYNARTHROSIS: an immovable joint (sendi

mati). AMPHIARTHROSIS: a slightly movable joint

(sendi kaku). DIARTHROSIS: a freely movable joint. All

diarthroses are synovial joints (sendi gerak).

JOINT CLASSIFICATIONJOINT CLASSIFICATION

Page 14: HUMAN BOne & JOINT NANUNG DANAR DONO, S.Pt., MP. International Class – SMAN 1 Teladan Yogyakarta.

A.A. SutureSuture - We already met these, found only in the skull, made of dense - We already met these, found only in the skull, made of dense fibrous CT (irregular) that is a remnant of the membranous fetal "skull". fibrous CT (irregular) that is a remnant of the membranous fetal "skull". Some sutures are temporary and ossify to become synostosis (like the Some sutures are temporary and ossify to become synostosis (like the one that used to be between the two halves of the mandible). In the one that used to be between the two halves of the mandible). In the elderly, all sutures may ossify. elderly, all sutures may ossify.

B.B. GomphosisGomphosis - Teeth in sockets (alveoli). Here, the dense (fibrous) CT - Teeth in sockets (alveoli). Here, the dense (fibrous) CT that holds the tooth in the alveolar bone is regularly arranged, and is that holds the tooth in the alveolar bone is regularly arranged, and is more specifically known as the periodontal ligament. more specifically known as the periodontal ligament.

C.C. SynchondrosisSynchondrosis - Bones are joined by hyaline cartilage. Examples are - Bones are joined by hyaline cartilage. Examples are epiphyseal plates (a temporary joint), or the joint between the first seven epiphyseal plates (a temporary joint), or the joint between the first seven ribs and the sternum (may also ossify with age). ribs and the sternum (may also ossify with age).

D.D. SyntosisSyntosis - Former joint that has now closed by bony fusion. Examples - Former joint that has now closed by bony fusion. Examples are metopic suture between fetal two frontal bones or the epiphyseal are metopic suture between fetal two frontal bones or the epiphyseal line once an epiphyseal growth plate has closed. The lines of fusion line once an epiphyseal growth plate has closed. The lines of fusion may obliterate.may obliterate.

SYNARTHROSIS - IMMOVABLE JOINTSYNARTHROSIS - IMMOVABLE JOINTThese may be structurally fibrous or cartilaginousThese may be structurally fibrous or cartilaginous

FUNCTIONAL CLASSIFICATIONFUNCTIONAL CLASSIFICATION

Page 15: HUMAN BOne & JOINT NANUNG DANAR DONO, S.Pt., MP. International Class – SMAN 1 Teladan Yogyakarta.

A.A. SyndesmosisSyndesmosis - Bones are joined by an interosseous - Bones are joined by an interosseous membrane or a ligament made of dense fibrous CT (irregular membrane or a ligament made of dense fibrous CT (irregular in the case of the interosseous membrane or regular in the in the case of the interosseous membrane or regular in the case of a ligament), with more connecting CT than suture, case of a ligament), with more connecting CT than suture, allowing for a bit of movement. Example is interosseous allowing for a bit of movement. Example is interosseous membrane between tibia and fibula or radius and ulna, or membrane between tibia and fibula or radius and ulna, or interosseous ligament between distal tibia and fibula. interosseous ligament between distal tibia and fibula.

B.B. SymphysisSymphysis - Bones are held together by a fibrocartilaginous - Bones are held together by a fibrocartilaginous pad or disc. Examples are intervertebral joints (between pad or disc. Examples are intervertebral joints (between bodiesbodies of vertebrae, the joints between articular facets are of vertebrae, the joints between articular facets are synovial - and so are not symphyses) and pubic symphysis. synovial - and so are not symphyses) and pubic symphysis.

AMPHIARTHROSIS - SLIGHTLY MOVABLE JOINT AMPHIARTHROSIS - SLIGHTLY MOVABLE JOINT These may be structurally fibrous or cartilaginousThese may be structurally fibrous or cartilaginous

FUNCTIONAL CLASSIFICATIONFUNCTIONAL CLASSIFICATION

Page 16: HUMAN BOne & JOINT NANUNG DANAR DONO, S.Pt., MP. International Class – SMAN 1 Teladan Yogyakarta.

A.A. GlidingGliding (linear) movements are relatively simple, the (linear) movements are relatively simple, the opposing surfaces slide past one another, as between opposing surfaces slide past one another, as between carpals, between tarsals and between clavicle and sternum. carpals, between tarsals and between clavicle and sternum.

B.B. AngularAngular movements are more complicated; know these and movements are more complicated; know these and practice them: practice them:

DIARTHROSIS - FREELY MOVABLE JOINTDIARTHROSIS - FREELY MOVABLE JOINT All diarthroses are structurally synovial, because they need a joint cavity in order to All diarthroses are structurally synovial, because they need a joint cavity in order to

be freely movable. These are common throughout the body, and are the most familiar be freely movable. These are common throughout the body, and are the most familiar type of joint, found in many shapes. type of joint, found in many shapes.

FUNCTIONAL CLASSIFICATIONFUNCTIONAL CLASSIFICATION

Flexion. Flexion. Extension. Extension. HyperextensionHyperextension AbductionAbduction Adduction Adduction Circumduction . Circumduction .

Page 17: HUMAN BOne & JOINT NANUNG DANAR DONO, S.Pt., MP. International Class – SMAN 1 Teladan Yogyakarta.

DIARTHROSIS - FREELY MOVABLE JOINTDIARTHROSIS - FREELY MOVABLE JOINT All diarthroses are structurally synovial, because they need a joint cavity in order to All diarthroses are structurally synovial, because they need a joint cavity in order to

be freely movable. These are common throughout the body, and are the most familiar be freely movable. These are common throughout the body, and are the most familiar type of joint, found in many shapes. type of joint, found in many shapes.

FUNCTIONAL CLASSIFICATIONFUNCTIONAL CLASSIFICATION

FlexionFlexion - generally (but not always) decreases the angle between - generally (but not always) decreases the angle between articulating bones or structures, as in bending the elbow or putting the articulating bones or structures, as in bending the elbow or putting the chin to the chest. chin to the chest.

ExtensionExtension - generally (but not always) increases the angle between - generally (but not always) increases the angle between articulating bones, and brings them back to anatomical position. articulating bones, and brings them back to anatomical position.

HyperextensionHyperextension - extension continues beyond anatomical position, - extension continues beyond anatomical position, such as in tilting the head back with the face toward the ceiling. such as in tilting the head back with the face toward the ceiling.

AbductionAbduction - movement of a bone away from the midline of the body - movement of a bone away from the midline of the body AdductionAdduction - movement of a bone toward the midline of the body, brings - movement of a bone toward the midline of the body, brings

it back to anatomical position. it back to anatomical position. CircumductionCircumduction - a circular motion that combines flexion, extension, - a circular motion that combines flexion, extension,

abduction, adduction in succession. abduction, adduction in succession.

Page 18: HUMAN BOne & JOINT NANUNG DANAR DONO, S.Pt., MP. International Class – SMAN 1 Teladan Yogyakarta.

C.C. RotationalRotational movements - bone moves in a single plane around its axis. This can be movements - bone moves in a single plane around its axis. This can be left and right, as in turning the head from side to side (indicating "no"). It can also be left and right, as in turning the head from side to side (indicating "no"). It can also be medial or lateral with relation to the trunk, as in the lower or upper limb. Turning your medial or lateral with relation to the trunk, as in the lower or upper limb. Turning your foot "out" is lateral rotation at the hip, while turning your toes "in" is medial rotation at foot "out" is lateral rotation at the hip, while turning your toes "in" is medial rotation at the hip. Pronation and supination are rotational movements reserved for the elbow the hip. Pronation and supination are rotational movements reserved for the elbow where radius articulates with capitulum of the humerus. where radius articulates with capitulum of the humerus.

D.D. SpecialSpecial Movements at Diarthroses - Some additional movements are possible in Movements at Diarthroses - Some additional movements are possible in addition to the basic ones previously mentioned. These special movements occur at addition to the basic ones previously mentioned. These special movements occur at specific joints. See text for illustrations. Elevation vs. depression (like shoulder specific joints. See text for illustrations. Elevation vs. depression (like shoulder shrugging or mandible closing and opening), protraction vs. retraction (such as with shrugging or mandible closing and opening), protraction vs. retraction (such as with shoulders or mandible), inversion vs. eversion (ankle movement, turns sole of foot shoulders or mandible), inversion vs. eversion (ankle movement, turns sole of foot inward and outward, respectively), inward and outward, respectively), dorsiflexiondorsiflexion vs. vs. plantar flexionplantar flexion (ankle movement, (ankle movement, bringing toes up toward the lower leg vs. pointing toe down, respectively), opposition bringing toes up toward the lower leg vs. pointing toe down, respectively), opposition (such as between the thumb and other fingers), and lateral flexion such as with the (such as between the thumb and other fingers), and lateral flexion such as with the trunk. trunk.

DIARTHROSIS - FREELY MOVABLE JOINTDIARTHROSIS - FREELY MOVABLE JOINT FUNCTIONAL CLASSIFICATIONFUNCTIONAL CLASSIFICATION

Page 19: HUMAN BOne & JOINT NANUNG DANAR DONO, S.Pt., MP. International Class – SMAN 1 Teladan Yogyakarta.

SuturesSutures: Because a suture is immovable, it is functionally : Because a suture is immovable, it is functionally classified as a classified as a synarthrosissynarthrosis. Some sutures are replaced by bone . Some sutures are replaced by bone in the adult. Such a suture is called in the adult. Such a suture is called synostosissynostosis. We already met . We already met these, found only in the skull, made of dense fibrous CT these, found only in the skull, made of dense fibrous CT (irregular) that is a remnant of the membranous fetal "skull". In the (irregular) that is a remnant of the membranous fetal "skull". In the elderly, all sutures may ossify. elderly, all sutures may ossify.

SyndesmosesSyndesmoses: Example : Example tibia/fibulatibia/fibula. Because it permits slight . Because it permits slight movement, a syndesmosis is classified functionally as an movement, a syndesmosis is classified functionally as an amphiarthrosisamphiarthrosis..

Gomphoses Gomphoses : The only example are the articulations of the roots : The only example are the articulations of the roots of the of the teethteeth with the sockets of the alveolar processes of the with the sockets of the alveolar processes of the maxillae and mandible. The dense fibrous connective tissue is maxillae and mandible. The dense fibrous connective tissue is called the periodonatal ligament. This is functionally classified as called the periodonatal ligament. This is functionally classified as a a synarthrosissynarthrosis..

AMPHIARTHROSIS - SLIGHTLY MOVABLE JOINT These are joints that lack a synovial cavity & permit little or no movementThese are joints that lack a synovial cavity & permit little or no movement

FUNCTIONAL CLASSIFICATIONFUNCTIONAL CLASSIFICATION

Page 20: HUMAN BOne & JOINT NANUNG DANAR DONO, S.Pt., MP. International Class – SMAN 1 Teladan Yogyakarta.

1.1. Ball-and-Socket Joints Ball-and-Socket Joints ((sendi pelurusendi peluru)) 2.2. Hinge JointsHinge Joints ((sendi engselsendi engsel))3.3. Pivot Joints Pivot Joints ((sendi putarsendi putar))4.4. Saddle Joints Saddle Joints ((sendi pelanasendi pelana))5.5. Planar jointsPlanar joints ((sendi luncur/gesersendi luncur/geser))6.6. Condyloid Joints or Condyloid Joints or Ellipsoidal Ellipsoidal

((sendi kondiloidsendi kondiloid))

SUBTYPES OF DIARTHROSESSUBTYPES OF DIARTHROSES Based on structural classifications related to the types of movements they allowBased on structural classifications related to the types of movements they allow

FUNCTIONAL CLASSIFICATIONFUNCTIONAL CLASSIFICATION

Page 21: HUMAN BOne & JOINT NANUNG DANAR DONO, S.Pt., MP. International Class – SMAN 1 Teladan Yogyakarta.

1.1. BALL-AND-SOCKET JointsBALL-AND-SOCKET Joints- - ((sendi sendi pelurupeluru) this ) this consists of the ball-like surface of one bone fitting into consists of the ball-like surface of one bone fitting into a cuplike depression of another bone. Egs. Shoulder a cuplike depression of another bone. Egs. Shoulder and hip joints. and hip joints. MultiaxialMultiaxial..

2.2. HINGE Joints HINGE Joints - - ((sendi sendi engselengsel)) the convex surface of the convex surface of one fits into the concave surface of another. Eg. Knee, one fits into the concave surface of another. Eg. Knee, elbow, ankle, interphalangeal. elbow, ankle, interphalangeal. Monaxial Monaxial (uniaxial; (uniaxial; means one direction movement).means one direction movement).

3.3. PIVOT Joints PIVOT Joints - - ((sendi sendi putarputar)) here the rounded or here the rounded or pointed surface of one bone articulates with a ring pointed surface of one bone articulates with a ring formed partly by another bone & partly by a ligament. formed partly by another bone & partly by a ligament. This is This is monaxialmonaxial. Examples atlanto-axial joint, . Examples atlanto-axial joint, radioulnar joint:turns palm anteriorly and posteriorly.radioulnar joint:turns palm anteriorly and posteriorly.

TYPES OF SYNOVIAL JOINTSTYPES OF SYNOVIAL JOINTS

Page 22: HUMAN BOne & JOINT NANUNG DANAR DONO, S.Pt., MP. International Class – SMAN 1 Teladan Yogyakarta.

4.4. SADDLE Joints SADDLE Joints - - ((sendi sendi pelanapelana)) here the articular here the articular surface of one bone is saddle-shaped and the articular surface of one bone is saddle-shaped and the articular surface of the other fits into the “saddle”. Eg. surface of the other fits into the “saddle”. Eg. Carpometacarpal joint. Carpometacarpal joint. BiaxialBiaxial..

5.5. PLANAR joints PLANAR joints - - ((sendi luncur/sendi luncur/gesergeser)) the articulating the articulating surfaces are flat or slightly curved. Example are surfaces are flat or slightly curved. Example are intercarpal joints, intertarsal joints, sternoclavicular intercarpal joints, intertarsal joints, sternoclavicular joints, acromioclavicular joints, sternocostal joints, joints, acromioclavicular joints, sternocostal joints, vertebrocostal joints.vertebrocostal joints.

6.6. CONDYLOID Joints CONDYLOID Joints - - ((sendi sendi kondiloidkondiloid)) also called also called ellipsoidalellipsoidal joint. The convex oval-shaped projection of joint. The convex oval-shaped projection of one fits into the oval-shaped depression of another. Eg. one fits into the oval-shaped depression of another. Eg. Wrist and metacarpophalangeal joints. Wrist and metacarpophalangeal joints. BiaxialBiaxial..

TYPES OF SYNOVIAL JOINTSTYPES OF SYNOVIAL JOINTS

Page 23: HUMAN BOne & JOINT NANUNG DANAR DONO, S.Pt., MP. International Class – SMAN 1 Teladan Yogyakarta.

1.1. Ball-and-Socket Joints Ball-and-Socket Joints ((sendi pelurusendi peluru)) 2.2. Hinge JointsHinge Joints ((sendi engselsendi engsel))3.3. Pivot Joints Pivot Joints ((sendi putarsendi putar))4.4. Saddle Joints Saddle Joints ((sendi pelanasendi pelana))5.5. Planar jointsPlanar joints ((sendi luncur/gesersendi luncur/geser))6.6. Condyloid Joints or Condyloid Joints or Ellipsoidal Ellipsoidal

((sendi kondiloidsendi kondiloid))

TYPES OF SYNOVIAL JOINTSTYPES OF SYNOVIAL JOINTS

TYPES OF SYNOVIAL JOINTSDepending on direction of the movements.Depending on direction of the movements.

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1.1. Bone & Joint disordersBone & Joint disorders : fracture, fissure, dislocation (luxations) : fracture, fissure, dislocation (luxations)2.2. InfectionInfection3.3. NecrosesNecroses. Why?. Why?4.4. Mineral Mineral DeficiencyDeficiency (Particularly Ca-P) : Egs. milk fever (Particularly Ca-P) : Egs. milk fever5.5. ImpairedImpaired growth : X/O shaped growth : X/O shaped6.6. OsteoporosisOsteoporosis : Deficiency of vit. D & mineral Ca-P : Deficiency of vit. D & mineral Ca-P7.7. Osteoarthritis Osteoarthritis is localized "wear-and-tear" arthritis that occurs normally in is localized "wear-and-tear" arthritis that occurs normally in

old age, or may be secondary to injury.old age, or may be secondary to injury. 8.8. Rheumatic arthritis Rheumatic arthritis is a systemic disease where your immune system is a systemic disease where your immune system

attacks and destroys your joints (an autoimmune disorder).attacks and destroys your joints (an autoimmune disorder). 9.9. Ankylosing spondilitis Ankylosing spondilitis (my dad's disease) causes fusing of axial elements. (my dad's disease) causes fusing of axial elements. 10.10. Bone Bone CancerCancer : : milloma multiple, osteosarkomamilloma multiple, osteosarkoma11.11. Joint painJoint pain12.12. Homeostatic Imbalances Homeostatic Imbalances - Realize that "arthritis" is a very generic term for - Realize that "arthritis" is a very generic term for

a family of (possibly several hundred) related joint and muscle disorders. a family of (possibly several hundred) related joint and muscle disorders. 13.13. Etc.Etc.

SKELETAL DISSORDERSSKELETAL DISSORDERS

SKELETAL DISORDERS

Page 25: HUMAN BOne & JOINT NANUNG DANAR DONO, S.Pt., MP. International Class – SMAN 1 Teladan Yogyakarta.

““ArthArth-…” = joint-…” = joint“…“…--algiaalgia” = pain” = pain“…“…--ectomyectomy” = removal of” = removal of“…“…--itisitis” = inflammation of” = inflammation of

So what do you think "So what do you think "synovitissynovitis" means? " means? How about someone having a "How about someone having a "bursectomybursectomy"? "? Might your grandma have "Might your grandma have "arthralgiaarthralgia"?"?

MEDICAL TERMINOLOGYMEDICAL TERMINOLOGY