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May 21, 2020
HROB FINAL EXAM CHAPTER SUMMARIES!
HROB Chapter 1 Regulation: legally binding rules established by the special regulatory bodies created to enforce compliance with the law and aid in interpretation. employment(labour) standards legislation laws present in every Canadian jurisdiction that establish minimum employee entitlements and set a limit on the maximum number of hours of work permitted per day or week. fundamental rights and freedoms: 1. freedom of conscience and religion 2. freedom of thought, belief, opinion, and expression, including the press and other media of communication 3. freedom of peaceful assembly 4. freedom of association. discrimination: a distinction, exclusion, or preference based on one of the prohibited grounds, that has the effect of nullifying or impacting the right if a person to full and equal recognition and exercise of his or her human rights and freedoms. unintentional/constructive/systemic discrimination:discrimination that is embedded in policies and practices that appear neutral on the surface and are implemented impartially but have an adverse impact on specific groups of people for reasons that are not job related or required for the safe and efficient operation of the business. reasonable accommodation: the adjustment of employment policies and practices that an employer may be expected to make so that no individual is denied benefits, disadvantaged in employment, or prevented from carrying out the essential components of a job because of grounds prohibited in human rights legislation. undue hardship: the point to which employers are expected to accommodate under human rights legislative requirements. bona fide occupational requirement (BFOR): a justifiable reason for discrimination based on business necessity (that is, required for the safe and efficient operation of the organization) or a requirement that can be clearly defended as intrinsically required y the tasks an employee is expected to perform. discrimination on the basis of race and colour is illegal in every Canadian jurisdiction. (race and colour) discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation is prohibited in all jurisdictions.(sexual orientation) discrimination on the basis of religion can take many forms in Canada's multicultural society.(religion) discrimination on the basis of family status are evolving.(family status) harassment: unwelcome behaviour that demeans, humiliates, or embarrasses a person and that a reasonable person should have known would be unwelcome.(sexual harassment) employer responsibility: protecting employees from harassment is part of an employer's responsibility to provide a safe and healthy working environment. harassment policies: to reduce liability, employers should establish sound harassment policies, communicate such policies to all employees, enforce the policies in a fair and consistent manner, and take an active role in maintaining a working environment that is free of harassment.
the plight of the four designated groups: women aboriginals people with disabilities visible & minorities. EEP(employment equity program): step 1: senior-management commitment and support 2: data collection and analysis 3: employment system review 4: plan development 5: implementation 6: monitoring, evaluating, and revising diversity management: activities designed to integrate all members of an organization's multicultural workforce and use their diversity to enhance the firm's effectiveness. Creating an inclusive environment: top management commitment _ integration of diversity initiatives and talent management _ diversity training programs _ support groups _ critical relationship networks _ open dialogue _ management responsibility and accountability. conclusion: for organizations to reap the benefits of a diverse workforce, must make diversity an essential element of their operations, creating strong links btw diversity and corporate strategies.
Chapter 2 Perception, Personality, and Emotions
Perception Defined Perception: The process by which individuals organize and interpret their impressions in order to give meaning to their environment. Perception is important to the study of OB because people's behaviour is based on their perception of what reality is, not on reality itself.
Factors Influencing Perception A number of factors affect perception, these factors are the perciever, the target, and the situation;
The Perceiver • When the perciever looks at a target and attempts to interpret what they see, the
interpretation is influenced by the perceiver's personal characteristics. These characteristics include a person's attitudes, personality, motives, interests, past experiences, and expectations.
The Target • A target's characteristics also affect what is perceived. For example, loud people
are more likely to get noticed than quiet people. Novelty, motion, sounds, size and other characteristics of a target shape the way we see it.
The Situation • The time at which we see an object or event can influence attention, as can
location, light, heat, or any number of situational factors.
Perceptual Errors Some of the errors that distort the perception process are attribution theory, selective perception, halo effect, contrast effects, projection, and stereotyping.
Attribution Theory • Attribution Theory is the theory that when we observe what seems like atypical
behaviour by and individual, we attempt to determine whether it is internally or externally caused.
o Internally caused behaviour is believed to be under the personal control of the individual.
o Externally caused behaviour is believed to result from outside causes. • In trying to determine if behaviour is internally or externally caused, we rely on
three rules about behaviour: (1) distinctiveness, (2) consensus, and (3) consistency.
Distinctiveness • Distinctiveness: A behavioural rule that considers whether an individual acts
similarly across a variety of situations. o Is the students always under performing? Or is the student's behaviour in
one situation uncharacteristic of behaviour usually shown in other situations? If the behaviour is unusual then the observer is likely to make an external attribution. If it is not unusual, the observer will probably judge it as internally caused.
Consensus • Consensus: A behavioural rule that considers if everyone faced with a similar
situation responds in the same way. • If everyone who is faced with a similar situation responds in the same way, we
can say the behaviour shows consensus. From an attribution perspective, if consensus is high, you would be expected to give an external attribution to the situation.
Consistency • Consistency: A behavioural rule that considers whether the individual has been
acting in the same way over time. o If a student is usually on time for class, being 10 minutes late will be
perceived differently from the way it is when the student is routinely late. How Attributions Get Distorted One of the more interesting findings from attribution theory is that there are errors or biases that distort attributions.
• Fundamental attribution error: The tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the influence of internal factors when making judgements about the behaviour of others.
• Self-serving bias: The tendency for individuals to attribute their own success to internal factors while putting the blame for failures on external factors.
• Selective Perception: People's selective interpretation of what they see based on their interests, background, experience, and attitudes.
o How does selectivity work as a shortcut in judging others? Since we cannot take in all that we observe, we take in bits and pieces. But those bits and pieces are not chosen randomly. Rather, they are selectively chosen according to our interests, background, experience, and attitudes.
Halo Effect • Halo Effect: Drawing a general impression of an individual on the basis of a
single characteristic. o Think about what happens when students evaluate their instructor.
Students may give more weight to a single trait, such as enthusiasm, and allow their entire evaluation to be coloured by how they judge their instructor on that trait.
Contrast Effect • Contrast Effect:The concept that our reaction to one person is often influenced
by other people we have recently encountered. Projection
• Projection:Attributing one's own characteristics to other people. • People who engage projection tend to perceive others according to what they
themselves are like, rather than perceiving others as they really are. Stereotyping
• Stereotyping: Judging someone on the basis of one's perception of the group to which that person belongs.
• We rely on generalizations every day because they help us make decisions quickly. It's less difficult to deal with an unmanageable number of stimuli if we use heuristics (judgement shortcuts in decision making).In organizations, we frequently hear comments that represent stereotypes based on gender, age, race, religion, ethnicity, and even weight. One of the problems with stereotypes is that they are widespread and often useful generalizations, despite the fact that they may not contain a shred of truth when applied to a particular person or situation.
• Stereotypes can lead to strong negative reactions, such as prejudice. Prejudice
• Prejudice: An unfounded dislike of a person or group based on their