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HOLLYWOOD Stars & Studios THE HOLLYWOOD STUDIOS 1915-25: transition from Trust to STUDIO SYSTEM “Studio Eraâ€‌ typified by: –Picture...

Jan 02, 2016

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  • HOLLYWOODStars & Studios

  • THE HOLLYWOOD STUDIOS

    1915-25: transition from Trust to STUDIO SYSTEMStudio Era typified by:Picture palacesMovie audience that included all classesStandardized production of feature-length films (1 hrs)Concentration of production in HollywoodOLIGOPOLY & VERTICAL INTEGRATION

  • OLIGOPOLYA few large firms control an entire industryDue to high cost of film productionFeature-length films were expensiveSalaries increased, esp. for starsProduction values increasedSound added to costs of equipment & production

  • OLIGOPOLYCosts of distribution, picture palaces & converting to soundSmall companies began to merge in order to competeBy late 1920s, 8 companies controlled 91% of box-officeThese companies known as 8 Majors

  • VERTICAL INTEGRATIONCompany controls product from production to retail saleBIG 5MGM, PARAMOUNT, FOX, WARNER BROS., & RKOVertically integrated: production, distribution & exhibition

  • VERTICAL INTEGRATIONLITTLE 3COLUMBIA, UNIVERSAL, & UNITED ARTISTSNot totally vertically integratedColumbia & Universal in production & distribution, but no theatersUnited Artists only distributed films

  • THE DREAM FACTORYDIVISION OF LABOR Labor highly specialized & efficient, becoming highly unionizedTHE CONTRACT SYSTEMMost workers under contract for 5-7 yearsRenewable by studio every 6 monthsStudios maintained prop & costume deptsFilmed on own lots

  • THE DREAM FACTORYTHE STUDIO LOOKConsistent labor, props, settings resulted in "Studio LookStudios tended to build their films around their stars

  • Paramount Stars

    Marlene Dietrich

  • Paramount StarsThe Marx Bros

    Mae West

  • Paramount Stars

    Bing Crosby, Dorothy Lamour & Bob Hope

  • Fleischer Bros. Studio

    Popeye

  • Fleischer Bros. Studio

    Superman

  • Fleischer Bros. Studio

    Betty Boop

  • Metro-Goldwyn-Meyer

  • MGM Stars

    Greta Garbo

  • MGM Stars

    Clark Gable Spencer Tracy

  • MGM Movies

    Tarzan the Ape Man (1932)

  • MGM Movies

    Love Finds Andy Hardy (1938)

  • Hal Roach Studio

    Laurel & Hardy

  • Hal Roach Studio

    Our Gang

  • MGM Animation

  • MGM Animation

    Tex Averys Wolfie and Red

  • 20th Century-Fox

  • 20th Century-Fox Stars

    Sonja Henie Shirley Temple

  • 20th Century-Fox Stars

    Betty Grable Tyrone Power

  • 20th-Century Fox Movies

    Charlie Chan at the Olympics (1937)

  • Warner Bros.

  • Warner Bros. StarsHumphrey Bogart

  • Warner Bros. Stars

    Bette Davis

  • Warner Bros. Animation

  • RKO Movies

  • Disney Animation

    Mickey Mouse Donald Duck

  • Disney Animation

    Snow White (1937)

  • Universal

  • Universal Serials

  • Walter Lantz Studio

    Woody Woodpecker Chilly Willy

  • Universal Movies

    Abbott & Costello

  • Universal Horror Movies

  • Universal Horror Movies

  • Columbia

  • Columbia Movies

    Claudette Colbert Clark GableFrank Capras It Happened One Night (1934)

  • Columbia Movies

    Batman & Robin

  • Columbia Shorts

    The Three Stooges

  • United Artists

    Douglas Fairbanks, Mary Pickford, Charlie Chaplin & DW Griffith

  • Monogram Movies

    Federal Bullets (1937)

  • Monogram Stars

    The Bowery Boys

  • Republic

  • Republic Movies

  • ADAPTING TO NEW TECHNOLOGIESSOUNDHelp define spaceOffscreen sound creates sense of 3-dimensional worldOnscreen sound defines space it comes fromDIALOGUE: sound a way of developing characters & defining character traits

  • ADAPTING TO NEW TECHNOLOGIESMUSICNondiegetic music reinforces proper emotional responsesHelps define & identify charactersBoth outgrowths of live music in silent film exhibitionMarket for records of film music

  • ADAPTING TO NEW TECHNOLOGIESSOUND DEVICES FOR CONTINUITYWork with continuity editingCreate smooth transitions between shots & scenesKeeping attention on narrativeSOUND BRIDGEDIALOGUE HOOK

  • ADAPTING TO NEW TECHNOLOGIESDEEP FOCUSBy late 1930s, trend toward deep focusNew film stocks & lensesAdapted to CHC narrative styleEstablish relationships among characters in a number of planesTakes became longer

  • ADAPTING TO NEW TECHNOLOGIESCOLORHAND-COLORING (1896-1910) & TINTING & TONING (1910-27)TECHNICOLORTECHNICOLOR, INC. (1915) 2-COLOR TECHNICOLOR (1920s)Red & blue3-COLOR TECHNICOLOR (1932)Red, green, & blue3 rolls exposed simultaneously