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History of HCI

Feb 25, 2016

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History of HCI. Damian Gordon. ~20,000BC. Ishango bone. Might be an early example of a Tally Stick . An ancient memory aid device to record and document numbers, quantities, or even messages. Historical reference is made by Pliny the Elder (23-79AD) about the best wood to use for tallies - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Man and Machine: Introduction

History of HCIDamian Gordon1

Ishango boneMight be an early example of a Tally Stick.An ancient memory aid device to record and document numbers, quantities, or even messages.Historical reference is made by Pliny the Elder (23-79AD) about the best wood to use for talliesMarco Polo (12541324) who mentions the use of the tally in China.~20,000BC2AbacusAlso called a counting frameA calculating tool for performing arithmetic processes.The user of an abacus is called an abacist.

~2500BC3Abacus

CountryEraMesopotamia27002300 BCPersia~600 BCGreece~500 BCRomans1 BCChina~200 BCIndia~ 500 ADJapan~ 1600 ADKorea~ 1400 AD~2500BC4Antikythera MechanismAn ancient mechanical computer designed to calculate astronomical positions. It was recovered in 190001 from the Antikythera wreck, but its complexity and significance were not understood until decades later. ~150-100BC

5

6AstrolabeAn astronomical instrument used by astronomers, navigators, and astrologers. Its many uses include locating and predicting the positions of the Sun, Moon, planets, and stars; determining local time given local latitude and vice-versa; surveying; triangulation; and to cast horoscopes.~150-100BC

7John Napier of MerchistonBorn 1550Died 4 April 1617Born in Merchiston Tower, EdinburghA Scottish mathematician, physicist, astronomer & astrologer, and also the 8th Laird of Merchistoun.John Napier

8An abacus created by John Napier for calculation of products and quotients of numbersA rod's surface comprises 9 squares, and each square, except for the top one, comprises two halves divided by a diagonal line. The first square of each rod holds a single-digit, and the other squares hold this number's double, triple, quadruple and so on until the last square contains nine times the number in the top square. The digits of each product are written one to each side of the diagonal; numbers less than 10 occupy the lower triangle, with a zero in the top half.Napiers Bones~1617AD

9The slide rule is a mechanical analog computer. The slide rule is used primarily for multiplication and division, and also for functions such as roots, logarithms and trigonometry.William Oughtred and others developed the slide rule in the 17th century based on the emerging work on logarithms by John Napier.Slide Ruler

~1620AD10Born February 29, 1860Died November 17, 1929Born in Buffalo, New YorkAn American statistician who developed a mechanical tabulator based on punched cards to rapidly tabulate statistics from millions of pieces of data. He was the founder of the company that became IBM.Herman Hollerith

11Hollerith developed a mechanism using electrical connections to trigger a counter, recording information. A key idea was that data could be coded numerically. Hollerith saw that if numbers could be punched in specified locations on a card, in the now familiar rows and columns, then the cards could be counted or sorted mechanically and the data recorded. Punch Cards

1884AD12The 1880 census had taken eight years to process.Hollerith built machines under contract for the Census Office, which used them to tabulate the 1890 census in only one year. Hollerith then started his own business in 1896, founding the Tabulating Machine Company.Punch CardsIn 1911 the Tabulating Machine Company merged with the Computing Scale Corporation, the International Time Recording Company, and the Bundy Manufacturing Company to form the Computing Tabulating Recording CorporationThis company was renamed to International Business Machines, IBM in 1924

13The warning printed on most cards intended for circulation as documents (checks, for example), "Do not fold, spindle or mutilate," became a catch phrase for the post-World War II era.Punch Cards1884AD

14The Victorian Internet is a term coined in the late 20th century to describe advanced 19th century telecommunications technologies such as the telegraph and pneumatic tubes.Victorian Internet1880s

15According to Tom Standages The Victorian Internet (1998), besides news reporting, telegraphy, as the first true global network, permitted applications such as message routing, social networks (between Morse operators -- with gossip and even marriages among operators via telegraph), cryptography and text coding, abbreviated slang, network security experts, hackers, wire fraud, spamming, e-commerce, stock exchange minute-by-minute reports via ticker tape machines, and many others.Victorian Internet1880s

16Victorian Internet1901

17Alan Mathison TuringBorn 23 June 1912Died 7 June 1954Born in London, EnglandCreator of the modern computerAlan Turing

18On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the EntscheidungsproblemBefore the war, Alan Turing's 1936 paper proved enormously influential in computer science in two ways. Its main purpose was to prove that there were problems (namely the halting problem) that could not be solved by any sequential process. In doing so, Turing provided a definition of a universal computer which executes a program stored on tape. This construct came to be called a Turing machine (Except for the limitations imposed by their finite memory stores, modern computers are said to be Turing-complete, which is to say, they have algorithm execution capability equivalent to a universal Turing machine.)19Bletchley ParkDuring the Second World War, Turing was a main participant in the efforts at Bletchley Park to break German ciphers. He contributed several insights into breaking both the Enigma machine and the Lorenz SZ 40/42, and was, for a time, head of Hut 8, the section responsible for reading German naval signals.

20a theoretical device that manipulates symbols on a strip of tape according to a table of rules. Despite its simplicity, a Turing machine can be adapted to simulate the logic of any computer algorithm, and is particularly useful in explaining the functions of a CPU inside a computer.Turing Machine

1936AD21Born March 11, 1890Died June 28, 1974Born in Everett, MassachusettsAmerican engineer, science administrator, and the first presidential science advisorHe is known for his work on analog computing, his political role in the development of the atomic bomb as a primary organizer of the Manhattan Project, and the idea of the Memex machineVannevar Bush

22The Memex Machine1945AD

23The Memex Machine1945AD

24The Memex Machine1945AD

25The theoretical proto-hypertext computer system Bush proposed in his 1945 The Atlantic Monthly article As We May Think. The memex is a device in which an individual compresses and stores all of their books, records, and communications which is then mechanized so that it may be consulted with exceeding speed and flexibility. The Memex Machine1945AD

A document can be given a simple numerical code that allows the user to access it after dialling the number combination. Documents are also able to be edited in real-time. This process makes annotation fast and simple. The memex has influenced the development of subsequential hypertext and intellect augmenting computer systems.26Curta CalculatorThe Curta is a hand-cranked mechanical calculator.It has an extremely compact design, a small cylinder that fits in the palm of the hand. It can be used to perform addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, and, with more difficulty, square roots and other operations. The Curta's design is a descendant of Gottfried Leibniz's Stepped Reckoner and Thomas's Arithmometer, accumulating values on cogs, which are added or complemented by a stepped drum mechanism.1948AD

27Joseph LickCarl Robnett LickliderBorn March 11, 1915Died June 26, 1990Born in St. Louis, Missouri, USAAn American computer scientist and psychologistJ. C. R. Licklider

28Mancomputer symbiosisIn ManComputer Symbiosis, Licklider outlined the need for simpler interaction between computers and computer users.The hope is that, in not too many years, human brains and computing machines will be coupled together very tightly and that the resulting partnership will think as no human brain has ever thought and process data in a way not approached by the information-handling machines we know today.1960AD29Born 1937Born in New York City, New YorkA sociologist, philosopher, and pioneer of information technology. Nelson founded Project Xanadu in 1960 with the goal of creating a computer network with a simple user interface.He coined the terms "hypertext" and "hypermedia" in 1963 and published it in 1965. Ted Nelson

30Project XanaduDuring his first year as a graduate student at Harvard, Ted Nelson began implementing the system which contained the basic outline of what would become Project Xanadu: a word processor capable of storing multiple versions, and displaying the differences between these versions.In Nelson founded Project Xanadu in 1960 with the goal of creating a computer network with a simple user interface.1960AD31Project XanaduOn top of this basic idea, Nelson wanted to facilitate nonsequential writing, in which the reader could choose his or her own path through an electronic document. He built upon this idea in a paper to the ACM in 1965, calling the new idea "zippered lists". These zippered lists would allow compound documents to be formed from pieces of other documents, a concept named transclusion.Nelson claims some aspects of his vision are in the process of being fulfilled by the World Wide Web, but he dislikes the World Wide Web, XML and all embedded markup - regarding the Web as a gross over-simplification of his original vision:

HTML is precisely what we were trying to PREVENT ever-breaking links, links going outward only, quotes you can't follow to their origins, no version management, no rights management. Ted Nelson

1960AD32Born January 30, 1925Born in Portland, OregonAn inventor and early co