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History of Computers

Oct 26, 2014

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History of Computers The Earliest Computing Devices: 1. Abacaus

It is the first manual data processing device w/c was developed in China in 12th century A.D. The deivce has a frame with beads strung on wires or rods and arithmetic calculations are performed by manipulating the beads. The abacus is simple, and it is effective. 2. Napiers Bones

John Napier was Scottish mathematicians who become famous for his invention of logarithms. The us of logs enabled him to reduce any multiplication problem to a problem of addition. It is an abacus created by John Napier for calculation of products and quotients of numbers that was based on Arab mathematics and lattice multiplication used byMatrakci Nasuh in the Umdet-ul Hisab and Fibonacci writing in the Liber Abaci.

3. Oughtreds Slide Rule

This invention is attributed to the English mathematician William Oughtred. Basically, a slide rule consists of two movable rulers placed side by side. Each ruler is marked off in such a way that the actual distances from the beginning of the ruler are proportional to the logarithms of the numbers printed on the ruler. 4. Pascals Calculator (Pascaline)

The Pascaline, invented by Blaise Pascal in France in 1642[1], was a mechanical calculator that could add and subtract directly. Its introduction in 1645 launched the development of mechanical calculators, first in Europe and then all over the world, development which culminated three centuries later by the invention of the first microprocessor developed for a Busicom calculator in 1971. 5. Leibnizs Calculator

This machine could do mathematical calculations and save labor. It utilized the same techniques for addition and subtraction also multiplication, division and also extracting square roots. Can multiply, devide, add and substract. Mechanical device made of copper and steel. Carriage is performed with a stepped wheel, which mechanism is still in use today. Chronologically the speed of calculation for multiplication or division was acceptable. But like the Pascaline, this calculator required that the operator using the device had to understand how to turn the wheels and know the way of performing calculations with the calculator. 6. Babbages Analytical Engine

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A special-purpose calculator designed to tabulate logarithms and trigonometric functions by evaluating finite differences to create approximating polynomials. Babbage's first attempt at a mechanical computing device was the difference engine, a special-purpose calculator designed to tabulate logarithms and trigonometric functions by evaluating finite differences to create approximating polynomials. During this project he realized that a much more general design was possible and started work designing the analytical engine. 7. Holleriths Punched-card Machine

It is a piece of stiff paper that contains digital information represented by the presence or absence of holes in predefined positions. Now almost an obsolete recording medium, punched cards were widely used throughout the 19th century for controlling textile looms and in the late 19th and early 20th century for operating fairground organs and related instruments. They were used through the 20th century in unit record machines for input, processing, anddata storage. Early digital computers used punched cards, often prepared using keypunch machines, as the primary medium for input of both computer programs and data. Some voting machines use punched cards. Five Generations of Computers: 1. First generation 1941-1958 (Vacuum Tube Years) World War gave rise to numerous developments and started off the computer age. Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC) was produced by a partnershp between University of Pennsylvannia and the US government. It consisted of 18,000 vacuum tubes and 7000 resistors. It was developed by John Presper Eckert and John W. Mauchly and was a general purpose computer. "Von Neumann designed the Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer (EDVAC) in 1945 with a memory to hold both a stored program as well as data." Von Neumann's computer allowed for all the computer functions to be controlled by a single source. Then in 1951 came the Universal Automatic Computer(UNIVAC I), designed by Remington rand and collectively owned by US census bureau and General Electric. UNIVAC amazingly predicted the winner of 1952, presidential elections, Dwight D. Eisenhower. In first generation computers, the operating instructions or programs were specifically built for the task for which computer was manufactured. The Machine language was the only way to tell these machines to perform the operations. There was great difficulty to program these computers ,and more when there were some malfunctions. First Generation computers used Vacuum tubes and magnetic drums(for data storage). UNIVAC (UNIversal Automatic Computer) 1951

Eckert and Mauchly completed the first commercial computer in the USA the UNIVAC (Universal Automatic Computer) First computer built for business Short Code - A set of instructions called Short Code is developed for the UNIVAC. Programmers

The most famous UNIVAC product was the UNIVAC I mainframe computer of 1951, which became known for predicting the outcome of the U.S. presidential election the following year. This incident is particularly infamous because the computer predicted an Eisenhower landslide when traditional pollsters all called it for Adlai Stevenson. The numbers were so skewed that CBS's news boss in New York, Mickelson, decided the computer was in error and refused to allow the prediction to be read. Instead they showed some staged theatrics that suggested the computer was not responsive, and

announced it was predicting 8-7 odds for an Eisenhower win (the actual prediction was 100-1). When the predictions proved true and Eisenhower won a landslide within 1% of the initial prediction, Charles Collingwood, the on-air announcer, embarrassingly announced that they had covered up the earlier prediction.[1] In 1955 Remington Rand merged with Sperry Corporation to become Sperry Rand. The UNIVAC division of Remington Rand was renamed the Univac division of Sperry Rand. General Douglas MacArthur was chosen to head the company. In the 1960s, UNIVAC was one of the eight major American computer companies in an industry then referred to as "IBM and the seven dwarfs" - a play on Snow White and the seven dwarfs, with IBM, by far the largest, being cast as Snow White and the other seven as being dwarfs: Burroughs, Univac, NCR, CDC, GE, RCA and Honeywell.[2] In the 1970s, after GE sold its computer business to Honeywell and RCA sold its to Univac, the analogy to the seven dwarfs became less apt and the remaining small firms became known as the "BUNCH" (Burroughs, Univac, NCR, Control Data, and Honeywell). Around 1975, to assist "corporate identity" the name was changed to Sperry Univac, along with Sperry Remington, Sperry New Holland, etc. In 1978 Sperry Rand, an old fashioned conglomerate of disharmonious divisions (computers, typewriters, office furniture, hay balers, manure spreaders, gyroscopes, avionics, radar, electric razors), decided to concentrate on its computing interests and unrelated divisions were sold. The company dropped the Rand from its title and reverted back to Sperry Corporation. In 1986, Sperry Corporation merged with Burroughs Corporation to become Unisys. Since the 1986 marriage of Burroughs and Sperry, Unisys has metamorphosed from a computer manufacturer to a computer services and outsourcing firm, competing in the same marketplace as IBM, Electronic Data Systems (EDS), and Computer Sciences Corporation. Unisys continues to design and manufacture enterprise class computers with the ClearPath and ES7000 server lines. EDVAC (Electronic Discreet Variable Computer) 1952 John Von Neumann, designed with a central control unit which would calculate and output all mathematical and logical problems and a memory which could be written to and read. (RAM in modern terms) which would store programs and data. The EDVAC was a binary serial computer with automatic addition, subtraction, multiplication, programmed division and automatic checking with an ultrasonic serial memory[1] capacity of 1,000 44-bit words (later set to 1,024 words, thus giving a memory, in modern terms, of 5.5 kilobytes). Physically, the computer comprised the following components: a magnetic tape reader-recorder (Wilkes 1956:36[1] describes this as a wire recorder.) a control unit with an oscilloscope a dispatcher unit to receive instructions from the control and memory and direct them to other units a computational unit to perform arithmetic operations on a pair of numbers at a time and send the result to memory after checking on a duplicate unit a timer a dual memory unit consisting of two sets of 64 mercury acoustic delay lines of eight words capacity on each line three temporary tanks each holding a single word

EDVAC's addition time was 864 microseconds and its multiplication time was 2900 microseconds (2.9 milliseconds). The computer had almost 6,000 vacuum tubes and 12,000 diodes, and consumed 56 kW of power. It covered 490 ft (45.5 m) of floor space and weighed 17,300 lb (7,850 kg). The full complement of operating personnel was thirty people for each eight-hour shift. ENIAC ( Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer) 1946 ENIAC (pronounced /ni.k/), short for Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer, was the first general-purpose, electronic computer. It was a Turingcomplete, digital computer capable of being reprogrammed to solve a full range of computing problems. ENIAC was designed to calculate artillery firing tables for the United States Army's Ballistic Research Laboratory, but its first use was in calculations for thehydrogen bomb.[4][5] When ENIAC was announced in 1946 it wa