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History of computers 1

Oct 19, 2014

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Technology

 

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IntroductionCOMP1 AMrs. Annalie P. Golo

TopicsFour basic periodsThe Computer Age GenerationThe Computer Today

A History of Information Technology and Systems

Four basic periods Characterized by a principal technology used to solve the input, processing, output and communication problems of the time: Premechanical, Mechanical, Electromechanical, and Electronic

A. The Premechanical Age: 3000 B.C. - 1450 A.D.

1. Writing and Alphabets--communication. speaking and picture drawings. 3000 B.C., the Sumerians in Mesopotamia (what is today southern Iraq) devised cuneiform -- the first true written language and the first real information system

Cuneiform

- Around 2000 B.C., Phoenicians created symbols- The Greeks later adopted the Phoenician alphabet and added vowels; the Romans gave the letters Latin names to create the alphabet we use today.

A. The Premechanical Age: 3000 B.C. - 1450 A.D. 2. Paper and Pens--input technologies. Sumerians' input technology was a stylus that could scratch marks in wet clay. About 2600 B.C., the Egyptians write on the papyrus plant around 100 A.D., the Chinese made paper from rags, on which modern-day papermaking is based.

A. The Premechanical Age: 3000 B.C. - 1450 A.D. 3. Books and Libraries: Permanent Storage Devices. Religious leaders in Mesopotamia kept the earliest "books" The Egyptians kept scrolls Around 600 B.C., the Greeks began to fold sheets of papyrus vertically into leaves and bind them together.

A. The Premechanical Age: 3000 B.C. - 1450 A.D. 4. The First Numbering Systems. Egyptian system: The numbers 1-9 as vertical lines, the number 10 as a U or circle, the number 100 as a coiled rope, and the number 1,000 as a lotus blossom. The first numbering systems were invented between 100 and 200 A.D. by Hindus in India Around 875 A.D., the concept of zero was developed.

5. The First Calculators: The Abacus. abax or abakos = board

B. The Mechanical Age: 1400s 1800s

The Pascaline The first mechanical calculator invented by Blaise Pascal, a French mathematician, in 1642.

The Stepped Reckoner was invented by Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz in 1674. An Ambitious calculator that performed multiplication and divisionwhich uses a stepped Cylindrical gear.

Holleriths Tabulating Machine and Punch Cards an electromechanical punched-card tabulating machine for use in the 1890 census; this was invented by Herman Hollerith in 1889

The Dawn of the Computer AgeThe Electromechanical Age: 1840 - 1940

The Harvard Mark I Howard Aiken in 1973 submitted a proposal to IBM for a digital calculating machine capable of performing the four fundamental operationsof arithmetic and operating in a predetermined sequence.First fully automatic computer to be completed. - It was 51 feet long and 8 ft. high.

The ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer) was built starting 1943 by John Presper Echertand John W. Mauchly which was built with vacuum tubes that were purely electronic switches that replaced relays and is regarded as the first successful general digital

The EDVAC (Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer)this machine was planned by John von Neuman withEckert and Mauchly in 1945 and their aim was to store programs as well as data and numbers in memory.

IBM 701 this was IBMs first entry into the commercial computer market. This marked the beginning of the computer age.

The ComputerAge GenerationThe Electronic Age: 1940 - Present.

The Age of Vacuum Tube: First Generation Computer (1951-1958)

Were used as the internal components of the First generation computer which begun with the introduction of the first commercially viable electronic computer: the UNIVAC , was designed and patterned after the ENIAC.

Second Generation Computer1959-1964 The transistor were used as the internal components of the second generation computer. Were much smaller, faster, and reliable than vacuum tubes. They consumed less electrical energy and needed no warm-up time.Languages moved from machine language to assembly languages then high-level languages

Third Generation Computer1965-1970The Age of Integrated CircuitIC in 1965, began to replace transistors as the internal components used to construct the computer. Even the entire circuit board of transistorsCan be replaced completely with one chip.are made of silicon(is a semiconductor crystalline substance thatcan conductelectric current) chip.

Third Generation Computer

Offered many advantagesReliability CompactnessLow cost Can be manufactured inexpensively

Fourth Generation Computer1971 - presentThe Age of Microprocessoris just an extension of the third generation technology whichis to put more power and capabilities in one chip called microprocessor which is considered as the brain of the computer and almost all computations and operations of the computercircuitry are being done and coordinated. It can be used and applied for digital watches, pocket calculators etc.

Fifth Generation (Onward): Information SuperhighwayThe fifth generations focus is more on connectivity.This is to permit computer users to connect their computersTo other computers.The Japanese coined the term fifth generation computer to describe their plan to build a powerfulComputer by mid-1990s. Later the term evolved to encompass computer intelligence: artificial intelligence, natural language, and expert system.

The ComputerToday

Mainframesare housed inside an air-conditioned room in big companies to keep them in good working condition.

Mainframesa single mainframe can replace dozens or even hundreds of smaller servers.

critical applications typically bulk data processing such as census, industry and consumer statistics.

also mainframes, though they are smaller and less expensive compared to mainframes.Minicomputers

MinicomputersMinicomputers are computers that are somewhere in between a microcomputer and a mainframe computer.

.when the computer is connected to a main computer called server (to form a network).Workstations

Personal Computeris for single or personal use by a certain individual

Laptop Computersthey are so light and handy enough to rest in our lap while we are Working with our daily activity. In our present, the typical laptop is called NOTEBOOK COMPUTER that weighs much less and can be carried like a book.

Pocket PCsare the fast emerging type of portable computers now. They are small enough to be put into a jackets pocket. They are more expensive.

Supercomputersused for scientific research that involveswith the manipulation of highly complexmathematical data and equations. These data requires trillions of operations to solve.

Embedded and Special Purpose computersThey perform specific tasks such as controlling the temperature and humidity in a big building offices, and to monitor the heart rate of patients in the hospital. Usually built-in to a chip (integrated circuit) with a special-purpose program inside.

Just a thoughtA value has a value only if its value is valued.

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