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Nov 27, 2015





omputershave existed for much of humanhistory. For many centuries people used their own brain-power to perform calculations. They always searched easy and efficient ways for performing calculations. ABACUS Theabacusis known as the first external aid to computing math-a calculation device. The Chinese abacus was developed about 5000 years ago. It was built out of wood and beads. Before the invention of the Chinese abacus, counting rods, other symbolic methods such as tally sticks, notches on bones, and the like, were undoubtedly used as a tool for counting and calculation. Abacus could be held and carried around easily. It was so successful that its use spread from China to many other countries.The abacus does not actually do the computing, as today's calculators do. It helps people keep track of numbers as they do the computing.

Figure 1 Abacus

JOHN NAPIERS CALCULATING DEVICE John Napier was a Scottishmathematicianand inventor. Napier is famous for creating mathematical logarithms, creating the decimal point, and for inventing Napier's Bones, a calculating instrument. He presented the idea of logarithm in the early 17th century. Napier invented several mechanical methods of simplifying and speeding up multiplication, the most famous being special rods, later known asNapier's bones. NAPIERS BONES.Napier's bonesis a manually-operated calculating device. Which was based onArab mathematics. The complete device usually includes a base board with a rim; the user places Napier's rods inside the rim to conduct multiplication or division. Using the multiplication tables embedded in the rods, multiplication can be reduced to addition operations and division to subtractions.

Figure 2 Napier's Bones original instrument SLIDE RULE The circular (1632) and rectangular (1620) slide rules were invented by Episcopalian minister and mathematician William Oughtred. The invention of the slide rule was made possible byJohn Napier'sinvention of logarithms, which slide rules are based upon. Before the invention of the pocket or handheldcalculator, the slide rule was a popular tool for calculations. The use of slide rules continued until about 1974, after whichelectronic calculatorsbecame more popular. Figure 3 Slide Rule

CALCULATING DEVICE EOF BLAISE PASCAL (1623-1662) Frenchinventor, Blaise Pascal was one of the most reputed mathematicianand physicist of his time. He is credited with inventing an earlycalculator, amazingly advanced for its time, called the Pascaline. PASCALINEPascal's device used a series of toothed wheels, which were turned by hand and which could handle numbers up to 999,999.999. Pascal's device was also called the "numerical wheel calculator" andwas one of the world's first mechanical adding machines.

It consisted of series of wheels or gears. Each wheel/gear displayed the digits from 0 to 9. This calculating device performed arithmetic operations and displayed numbers by rotation of different wheels/gears. Each wheel rotated in steps and a wheel completed one rotation in 10 steps.

Figure 4 Pascaline's Calculator

CALCULATING DEVICE OF GOTTFRIED VON LEIBTNIZVon Leibniz was very impressed with the calculating machine developed by Pascal (1646).Von Leibniz improved upon Pascal's device. In 1671, he invented a machine to perform multiplication, division and extraction of square roots. His device, called the "Leibniz Wheel" was a hand-cranked calculator that could only handle simple arithmetical operations and never became widely used. Leibniz also invented a device called "Stepped-Reckoner" which was a sophisticated calculating device, but never managed to fully perfect it.

PUNCHED BOARD SYSTEM-JOSEPH MARIE JACQUARD (1752-1834)In 1804, French silk weaverJoseph Marie Jacquard invented the Jacquard Loom that weaved complex designs. Jacquard invented a way of automatically controlling the warp and weft threads on a silk loom by recording patterns of holes in a string of cards.The Jacquard cards were later modified and evolved into computing punch cards.

Figure 5 Jacquard Loom (Power Loom) CALCULATING DEVICE OF CHARLES XAVIER (1785-1870)Arithmometer,early calculating machine, built in 1820 byCharles Xavier Thomas de Colmarof France.TheArithmometerwas the firstdigitalmechanical calculatorstrong enough and reliable enough to be used daily in an office environment. This calculator could add and subtract two numbers directly and could performlong multiplicationsand divisions effectively by using a movable accumulator for the result.

Figure 6 Arithmometer CALCULATING MACHINES-CHARLES BABBAGE (1791-1871)In Babbage's times there was a really high error rate in the calculation of math tables, when Babbage planned to find a new method that could be use to make it mechanically, removing the human error factor. This idea started to tickle his brain very early, in 1812.

DIFFERENCE ENGINEAdifference engineis an automaticmechanical calculatordesigned to tabulatepolynomial functions. The name derives from the method ofdivided differences, a way to interpolate or tabulate functions by using a small set of polynomial coefficients. Both logarithmicandtrigonometric functions, functions commonly used by both navigators and scientists, can beapproximatedby polynomials.

Figure 7 Difference Engine

ANALYTICAL ENGINETheAnalytical Enginewas a proposed mechanicalgeneral-purpose computerdesigned by English mathematicianCharles Babbage.It was first described in 1837 as the successor to Babbage'sDifference engine, a design for a mechanical computer. The Analytical Engineincorporated anarithmetic logic unit,control flowin the form ofconditional branchingandloops, and integratedmemory.

Figure 8 Analytical Engine

LADY AUGUSTRA ADA (1816-1852)She was an English mathematician and writer chiefly known for her work onCharles Babbage's early mechanical general-purpose computer, theAnalytical Engine. Her notes on the engine include what is recognised as the firstalgorithmintended to be carried out by a machine. Because of this, she is often described as the world's first computerprogrammer.

PUNCHED CARDS BY HERMAN HOLLERITH (1860-1929)Herman Hollerith first got his idea for the punch-card tabulation machine from watching a train conductor punch tickets. For his tabulation machine he used the punched card invented in the early 1800s. His device could automatically read information which had been punched onto card.

Computer "punched cards" were read electronically, the cards moved between brass rods, and the holes in the cards, created a electric current where the rods would touch.

Figure 9 Punched Cards Format ATANASOFF-BERRY COMPUTERProfessor John Atanasoffand graduate studentClifford Berrybuilt the world's first electronic-digital computer at Iowa State University between 1939 and 1942. The Atanasoff-Berry Computer represented several innovations in computing, including a binary system of arithmetic, parallel processing, regenerative memory, and a separation of memory and computing functions.

BOOLEAN ALGEBRABoolean algebra was introduced in 1854 byGeorge Boole. Boolean algebra is the algebra of logic.Boolean algebrais the subarea ofalgebrain which the values of thevariablesare thetruth valuestrueandfalse, usually denoted 1 and 0 respectively.The Boolean algebras rules are used for designing the circuits inside chips.

VON NEUMANNS STORED PROGRAMstored program concept,Storage of instructions incomputermemoryto enable it to perform a variety of tasks in sequence or intermittently. The idea was introduced in the late 1940s byJohn von Neumann, who proposed that a program be electronically stored in binary-number format in a memory device so that instructions could be modified by the computer as determined by intermediate computational results. Engineers in England built the first stored-program computer, theManchester Mark I, shortly before the Americans builtEDVAC, both operational in 1949.

Figure 10 Stored Program Structure

MARK-1 OR ASCCIn 1944, an American DR. Howard Aiken, a professor of Harvard University, designed a calculating machine. It was names as Mark-1. Mark I is considered to be the first digital computer, its architecture was significantly different from modern machines. The machine contained more than 750,000 components, was 50 feet long, 8 feet tall, and weighed approximately 5 tons.Mark-1 is also known as ASCC (Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator).

Figure 11 IBM-MARK-1 ENIAC (1943-1946)ENIAC(Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer)[1][2]was the first electronicgeneral-purposecomputer. It wasTuring-complete, digital, and capable of being reprogrammed to solve a full range of computing problems. ENIAC was conceived and designed byJohn MauchlyandJ. Presper Eckertof the University of Pennsylvania in 1946. ENIAC contained 17,468vacuum tubes, 7,200 crystaldiodes, 1,500relays, 70,000resistors, 10,000capacitorsand around 5 million hand-solderedjoints.

Figure 12 ENIAC EDVAC (1946-1952)EDVAC(ElectronicDiscreteVariableAutomaticComputer) was one of the earliestelectroniccomputers. Unlike its predecessor theENIAC, it wasbinaryrather thandecimal, and was astored program computer.

Figure 13 EDVAC EDSAC (1947-1949)The EDSAC was started by Professor Maurice Wilkes in 1946. The first log entry of the machine working is on the 6th of May 1949, when the EDSAC computed a table of squares. The EDSAC was added to over its life, with the addition of a telephone dial, a faster teleprinter, several new inst