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History Computers

Nov 02, 2014

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History of computers

Introduction to Computer Science (I)Introduction

T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE

Information Technology in Our Lives Digital Convergence Converting whatever we can in the physical and communications world to binary on/off signals, called bits Text Voice Picture Movie

T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE

At Home Email, Internet shopping, virtual museum, banking transactions, news Small computers in VCRs, automobiles, airconditioning systems, washing machines,

T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE

At Play Group chatting, games, songs and movies from Internet

T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE

At Work Mobile worker Office software, Database, ERP, SCM, CRM

T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE

At School or College Computer-based courses, distance learning

T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE

The History of Computing 3000 B.C.: The Abacus The original mechanical counting device

Image courtesy of Computer History Museum, http://www.computerhistory.org T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE

1623-1662: Blaise Pascal French mathematician and philosopher Built the Pascaline in 1642

T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE

Image courtesy of Computer History Museum, http://www.computerhistory.org

1642: The Pascaline A counting-wheel design A single revolution of one wheel would engage gears that turned the wheel one tenth of a revolution to its immediate left

Image courtesy of Computer History Museum, http://www.computerhistory.org T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE

1801: Jacquards loom Frenchman Joseph-Marie Jacquard (1753-1871) Weaving loom The first significant use of binary automation

Image courtesy of Computer History Museum, http://www.computerhistory.org T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE

Jacquard Loom Salesmans Model

Image courtesy of Computer History Museum, http://www.computerhistory.org

T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE

1793-1871: Charles Babbage Envisioned a steam-powered difference engine and then an analytical engine

Image courtesy of Computer History Museum, http://www.computerhistory.org T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE

1842: Bassages Difference Engine and the Analytical Engine

T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE

Image courtesy of Computer History Museum, http://www.computerhistory.org

Diagram Showing Method

T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE

Image courtesy of Computer History Museum, http://www.computerhistory.org

1816-1852: Lady Ada Augusta Lovelace Punched cards could be prepared to instruct Babbages engine to repeat certain operations The first programmer

T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE

Source: http://archive.computerhistory.org/

1860-1929: Herman Hollerith Devised a punched-card tabulating machine to speed up the 1890 U.S. census

T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE

Image courtesy of Computer History Museum, http://www.computerhistory.org

1890: Holleriths Tabulating Machine Used a hand punch to enter data onto cards

Image courtesy of Computer History Museum, http://www.computerhistory.org T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE

A Pantograph Punch

Image courtesy of Computer History Museum, http://www.computerhistory.org T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE

1874-1956: Thomas Watson, Sr. In 1896 Herman Hollerith founded the Tabulating Machine Company, which merged in 1911 with several other company to form the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company. It was renamed the International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) by company president Thomas J. Watson in 1924.

T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE Image courtesy of Computer History Museum, http://www.computerhistory.org

1920s-1950s: The Electro-Mechanical Accounting Machine Era Punched-card technology

T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE

Image courtesy of Computer History Museum, http://www.computerhistory.org

Punched Card Office

Image courtesy of Computer History Museum, http://www.computerhistory.org T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE

1903-1995: Dr. John V. Atanasoff and His ABC (Atanasoff Berry Computer)

T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE

Source: http://archive.computerhistory.org/

1942: The First Elecronic Digital Computer: The ABC

Source: http://archive.computerhistory.org/ T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE

1946: The Electronic ENIAC Computer Dr. John W. Mauchly (middle) collaborated with J. Presper Ecjert, Jr. (foreground) at the University of Pennsylvania to develop a machine that would compute trajectory tables for the U.S. Army. Used vacuum tubes ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer)

T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE Image courtesy of Computer History Museum, http://www.computerhistory.org

1951: The UNIVAC I and the First Generation of Computers Used vacuum tubes in the first generation of computers (1951-1959) The Universal Automatic Computer (UNIVAC I) was developed by Mauchly and Eckert for the RemingtonRand Corporation The first commercially viable electronic digital computer

T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE

Source: http://archive.computerhistory.org/

1954: The IBM 650 IBMs first entry into the commercial computer market was the IBM 701 in 1953 IBM 650, introduced in 1954, was designed as a logical upgrade to existing punched-card machines

T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE

Source: http://archive.computerhistory.org/

1907-1992: Amazing Grace Murray Hopper In 1959, Dr. Hopper led an effort that laid the foundation for the development of COBOL Found the first bug in a computera real one. She repaired the Mark II by removing a moth that was caught in Relay Number II.

T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE

Source: http://archive.computerhistory.org/

1958: The First Integrated Circuit The first integrated circuit, a phase-shift oscillator, was invented in 1958 by Jack S. Kilby of Texas Instruments.

T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE

Image courtesy of Computer History Museum, http://www.computerhistory.org

1963: The PDP-8 Minicomputer In 1963 Digital Equipment Corporation introduced the PDP-8 The first successful minicomputer

T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE

Source: http://archive.computerhistory.org/

1964: The IBM System/360 and the Third Generation of Computers The third generation was characterized by computers built around integrated circuits A family of computers with upward compatibility; when a company outgrew one model it could move up to the next model without worrying about converting its data

T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE

Image courtesy of Computer History Museum, http://www.computerhistory.org

1964: BASIC-More Than a Beginners Programming Language Dr. Thomas Kurtz and Dr. John Kemeny of Dartmouth College developed a programming language that a beginner could learn and use quickly

T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE

Image courtesy of Computer History Museum, http://www.computerhistory.org

1969: ARPANET and the Unbundling of Hardware and Software A U.S. Department of Defenses Advanced Research Project Agency (ARPA) sponsorship of a project, named ARPANET, was underway to unite a community of geographically dispersed scientists by technology When IBM unbundled and sold software separately, the software industry began to flourish

T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE

Source: http://archive.computerhistory.org/

1975: Microsoft and Bill Gates Bill gates and Paul Allen formed Microsoft Corporation, now the largest and most influential software company in the world

T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE

Source: http://archive.computerhistory.org/

1976: The Apple I Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak, along with Ronald G. Wayne formed the Apple Computer Company

T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE

Source: http://apple.computerhistory.org/stories

1981: The IBM PC IBM tossed its hat into the personal computer ring with its announcement of the IBM Personal Computer

T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE

Image courtesy of Computer History Museum, http://www.computerhistory.org

1982: Mitchell Kapor Designs Lotus 1-2-3 In 1982, Kapor founded Lotus Development Company. Kapor and the company introduced an electronic spread-sheet product, Lotus 1-2-3

Image courtesy of Computer History Museum, http://www.computerhistory.org

T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE

1984: The Macintosh and Graphical User Interfaces Apple Computer introduced the Macintosh desktop computer with a very friendly graphical user interface

T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE

Source: http://archive.computerhistory.org/

1985-Present: Microsoft Windows Microsoft introduced Windows, a GUI for IBM PCcompatible computers in 1985

T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE Image courtesy of Computer History Museum, http://www.computerhistory.org

1989: The World Wide Web Berners-Lee and a small team of scientists conceived HTML (the language of the Internet), URLs (Internet addresses), and put up the first server supporting the neq World Wide Web format

Image courtesy of Computer History Museum, http://www.computerhistory.org

T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE

1993: The Internet Browser The development in 1993 of the graphical browser Mosaic by Marc Andreesen and his team at the National Center For Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) made the web accessible to everyone. Marc Andreesen and entrepreneur Jim Clark founded Netscape in 1994 to create a web browser based on the Mosaic project.

T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE Image courtesy of Computer History Museum, http://www.computerhistory.org

1996: The Handheld Computer The PalmPilot handheld computer was introduced by Palm Computing, Inc.

T. K. Yin, NUK-CSIE

Image courtesy of Computer History Museum, http://www.computerhistory.org

Problem Transformation into Calculations Many real problems can be transformed into calculations. Then, these calculations can be conducted in computers. Examples: Image processing, optimization, ciphering and deciphering, simulations in dynamic syste