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Historical/Cultural/Philosophical Aspects of Exercise and Sports Science

Jan 16, 2016

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Historical/Cultural/Philosophical Aspects of Exercise and Sports Science. Foundations of Exercise and Sports Science. Introduction Science of Human Movement Interdisciplinary Science Multiple Applications. Foundations of Exercise and Sports Science. Emergence of a Scientific Discipline - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Historical/Cultural/Philosophical Aspects of Exercise and Sports Science

  • Foundations of Exercise and Sports ScienceIntroduction

    Science of Human Movement

    Interdisciplinary Science

    Multiple Applications

  • Foundations of Exercise and Sports ScienceEmergence of a Scientific Discipline

    Scientific discipline has central focusMerging disciplines create new onesMore advances with combined researchCommon interests are sometimes the cause

  • Foundations of Exercise and Sports ScienceExercise Science and Related Discipline

    Multiple parent disciplines including:PhysicsChemistryPhysiology/AnatomyMedicine

  • Creation and growth of a new discipline or an interdisciplinary area of study occurs as a result of the interaction of previous work and the growth of related disciplines this interaction can be noted from a historical perspective

  • Historical Aspects of Exercise and Sports Science

    Early writings Concentration on anatomical and medical aspects some sports aspects

    Herodicus late 400s BCHippocrates 460-377 BCGalen 131-201 AD

    Middle Ages/Renaissance Strong Anatomical and Medical Aspects beginnings of Biomechanics

    Leonardo Da Vinci (1452-1519)Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564)Giovanni Alfonso Borelli (1608-1679)

  • History Cont

    18th and 19th Century Emergence of Physics, Chemistry and Physiology as Disiplines

    Joseph Preistly (1733-1804) oxygenCal Willhelm Scheele (1742-1786) oxygenJoseph Black (1728-1799) carbon dioxideAntoine Lavoisier (1743-1794) metabolismWilliam Prout (1785-1850) beginnings of exercise metabolismEdward Hitchcock (1793-1864) structure and functionEdward Hitchcock Jr. M.D.(1828-1911) described use of physical education for healthClaude Bernard (1813-1878) Father of Physiology

  • History Cont

    20th Century: growth of Exercise Science

    George Wells (1860-1934) Harvard Scientificbasis for Physical EducationBruce Dill (1891-1986) Director of Harvard Fatigue Lab (1927-1946)Archibald V. Hill (1886-1977) muscle contraction mechanics, energy consumption Oxygen UptakeThomas K. Cureton (1901-1993) -Physical Fitness for HealthDavid C. Costill glycogen replacement - swimming physiologyJack H. Wilmore Physical Fitness and Health

  • History ContCurrentRobert B. Armstrong- Texas A&M muscle physiologyMichael Joiner Mayo Clinic blood flowLarry Durstine U. South Carolina exercise and blood lipidsTravis N. Triplett Appalachian State resistance training and osteoporosis/women

  • Current Sports Scientist in the USARandy Wilber USOC triathlon, road cyclingJay T. Kearney- Carmichael Training Systems- sports science- canoe/kayak and road cyclingWilliam A. Sands- USOC gymnastics explosive strength - Brian Schilling Memphis University weightlifting- MU type and training alterationsGreg G. Haff West Virginia weightlifting resistance training effects on fuel use

  • MathematicsPhysics PhysiologyChemistryPsychologyExercise and Sports ScienceSub-disciplines

  • The scope of Exercise and Sports Science three primary areas (sub-disciplines)

    Psychology: deals with behavioral aspects of exercise and sport including learning aspects

    Physiology: How physiologic systems respond and adapt to human movement

    Biomechanics: Study of physical/mechanical principles that underlie human motion

  • Foundations of Exercise and Sports ScienceExercise and Sports Science New Interdisciplinary SciencesCharacteristics of Science

    A science needs objectivity and evidence Need to distinguish between anecdotal and scientific evidence

  • Foundations of Exercise and Sports Science

    In search of Truth in Science (and Advertising)Testimonial approach often incorrect assumptionsTenacity - PropagandaKnowledge of authorityRationalistic method may lead to right or wrong hypothesis Scientific method can alleviate inappropriate conclusions

  • Foundations of Exercise and Sports ScienceThe Scientific Method

    Goal is discovering what is true science is not a philosophical debateBasic tenet truth is out there and it can be measuredQuestions lead to researchObservation: Phenomenon to be explainedHypothesis: Logical explanationsExperiment: Scientific study to verify hypothesesThe statistical approachMathematical tool to understand evidence

  • The Research Continuum: a generalization Basic Appliedtranslational Exercise ScientistsSports Scientistsmechanismsperformance

  • Foundations of Exercise and Sports ScienceBasic Versus Applied Research

    Basic ResearchTo acquire new knowledgeKnowledge has to be developed before it can be applied

    Translational Research: bridging the gap between basic and applied assigns mechanisms to applied findings

    Applied Research Obvious applications (sport health)Answers very specific research question

  • Foundations of Exercise and Sports ScienceAnimal Research in Exercise and Sports Science

    Many advances obtained through research on animalsAnimals have also benefitedOften combined with human researchGoal is to enhance knowledge of Exercise and Sports Science

  • Foundations of Exercise and Sports ScienceThe Research Continuum

    Questions may lead to other areas of science

    Need both basic, translational and applied research

    Maximum usefulness when adjacent levels understand and communicate issues of other levels

  • Foundations of Exercise and Sports ScienceMovement at Every Level

    Performance continuum: Individuals at different levelsThree categoriesSubnormalNormalSupernormalStudying all three categories yields better understanding of Exercise Science

  • Professional and Interest Group Organizations Associated with Exercise and Sports Sciences (Examples)American Alliance of Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (AAHPERD)American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM)European College of Sports Medicine (ECSM)International Society of Biomechanics in Sports (ISBS)National Strength and Conditioning Association (NSCA)United Kingdom Strength and Conditioning Association (UKSCA)

  • Sports Science What is it?Michael H. Stone, PhDPEXSEast Tennessee State University

  • EXERCISE SCIENCEPAEDIATRIC FACTORSGERIATRIC FACTORS ERGONOMICS SPORTS SCIENCEADULT FITNESS/ MEDICAL ASPECTSMECHANISMSNUTRITIONPERFORMANCE

  • Biology: interdisciplinary study of life

  • EXERCISE SCIENCE: GENERAL TERM - study of biological responses and adaptations to exercise and training depends upon the disciplines of biomechanics, physiology, psychology, sociology, mechanical, electrical, and computer engineering includes various specialities

  • SPORT SCIENCE: enhancement of sport performance and sport equipment through the application of scientific methods and principles

  • EXERCISE SCIENTISTS: -uses exercise or training to understand biology

    SPORT SCIENTISTS: -uses biology to understand sport function to bridge the gap between science and sport

  • To be a better sport scientist(s):1. be a very good scientist2. be interested in the sport(s) and the development of elite performance3. knowledge of sport(s) personal interest4. knowledge of training practices and outcomes5. be willing to train like they do ? better understand the sport6. regular discussions with athletes and coaches7. understand the politics8. provoke thought -challengeBecome part of the sport.

  • SPORTS SCIENCE:BASIC FUNCTIONS

    1. EDUCATION2. SPORTS TESTING AND FEEDBACK3. RESEARCH

  • EDUCATION

    1. coach (coaching the coach)/students2. athlete3. other sports scientists mentor junior scientists

  • SPORTS TESTING AND FEEDBACK

    INTEGRATED APPROACH PICK THE BEST TESTS - BUT!!!- relatively simple test - good reliability- insure fast and reliable feedback for coaches and athletes- make sure results are comprehensible and usable

    ONGOING RE-EXAMINATION OF TESTING SERVICE

  • RESEARCHa diligent and systematic enquiry or investigation in order to discover facts or principles to investigate carefully

    SEARCH FOR TRUTH AND CLARITYCURRENTLY - WITHOUT RESEARCH SPORT IS RARELY PUSHED AHEAD

  • RESEARCH AND SPORT SCIENCE

    1. Practical2. How can it be applied not always apparent to the coach/athlete3. Performance oriented- coach - sport scientists interaction- results should be reported ASAP- often carried out within the sports testing programme

  • DEVELOP INNOVATIVE TESTING-RESEARCH PROGRAMMESExample:1. get the coaches involved in collecting data - sport testing- research- talent ID2. get NGB sport science committees involved in collecting data3. use on-line services (MONITORING)

  • A NECESSITY: INTEGRATED PROGRAMME PLANNING

    Why should coaches be interested in Sport Science? a good coach does not simply imitate but innovates- Art and Science

    IDEALLY- SPORT SCIENCE , NGBS AND COACHES WORK TOGETHER TO FORMULATE A TRAINING/TESTING PROGRAMME

  • THE IDEAL: DELIVERING SPORT SCIENCE TO THE ELITE ATHLETE AND COACHES IN THE USACOACH/ATHLETE USOC SPORT SCIENCE NGBDATA COLLECTIONNGB SS COMMITTEE

  • TESTING/RESEARCH/PROGRAMME PLANNING:

    TWO IMPORTANT CONCEPTS

  • STRENGTHEXERCISESTRENGTHTRAININGPOWER EXERCISEPOWERTRAININGENDURANCEEXERCISEENDURANCETRAININGEXERCISE CONTINUUM?

  • RECOVERYRECOVERYRECOVERY

  • Foundations of Exercise ScienceSummary Points

    Exercise Science and Sports Science are new fields of study formed by merging other disciplinesMajor areas of concentration include: physiology, biomechanics and psychologyAnecdotal evidence can be presented through: testimonial approach, tenacity,

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