Feb 25, 2016
Angered by an insulting remark
attributed to Hamilton, Burr challenged the Federalist leader to a duel and fatally shot
Hamilton’s death in 1804 deprived the Federalists of their last great leader and earned
Burr the enmity of many
Secretly forming a political pact with some radical New
England Federalists.Burr planned to win the
governorship of New York in 1804.
Unite that state with the New England states, and then lead this group of states to secede
from the nation
Most Federalists followed Alexander Hamilton in opposing Burr, who was defeated in the New York election
The conspiracy then disintegrated
In 1806, Burr planned to take Mexico from Spain
and possibly unite it with Louisiana under his ruleJefferson learned of the conspiracy and ordered Burr’s arrest and trial for
A jury acquitted Burr, basing its decision on Marshall’s narrow definition of treason and the
lack of witnesses to any “overt act” by Burr
Berlin Decree (1806), Milan Decree (1807):Berlin Decree (1806), Milan Decree (1807):
These decrees issued by Napoleon dealt with shipping These decrees issued by Napoleon dealt with shipping and led to the War of 1812. The Berlin Decree initiated and led to the War of 1812. The Berlin Decree initiated the Continental System, which closed European ports to the Continental System, which closed European ports to
ships which had docked in Britain. The Milan Decree ships which had docked in Britain. The Milan Decree authorized French ships to seize neutral shipping authorized French ships to seize neutral shipping
vessels trying to trade at British ports. vessels trying to trade at British ports.
Orders-in-councilOrders-in-council British laws which led to the War of 1812. Orders-in-British laws which led to the War of 1812. Orders-in-council passed in 1807 permitted the impressment of council passed in 1807 permitted the impressment of sailors and forbade neutral ships from visiting ports sailors and forbade neutral ships from visiting ports
from which Britain was excluded unless they first went from which Britain was excluded unless they first went to Britain and traded for British goods. to Britain and traded for British goods.
1806: England closed ports under French
control to foreign shipping (incl. US), seized US ships & impressed Americans.
Napoleon ordered seizure of all merchant ships that
entered British ports.
ImpressmentImpressment An act of kidnapping An act of kidnapping a ship, its contents, a ship, its contents,
men and forcing men and forcing them into your navythem into your navy
•1806, Chesapeake was a US merchant ship 10 miles off the coast of Virginia. A British ship in the region ordered it to stop.
•British fired 3 shots at the Chesapeake before it surrendered
•3 Americans were killed, 18 wounded and 4 sailors impressed
Most Americans were angered over this incident and public opinion was to go to war with the British.
Regarding the Chesapeake Affair, the Washington
Federalist reported,“We have never, on any
occasion, witnessed the spirit of the people excited to so
great a degree of indignation, or such a thirst for revenge,
as on hearing of the late unexampled outrage on the
Chesapeake. All parties, ranks and professions were
unanimous in their detestation of the dastardly
deed, and all cried aloud for vengeance.”
•Jefferson’s response to the
Chesapeake Affair was the Embargo
Act of 1807….•Short of war,
Jefferson attempted to defend our
neutrality by stopping all
American exports to the world.
•Reasoning: Since England and France were at war with one another and traded for most of their natural resources with U.S., if we cut off
our exports to them it would force them to respect our neutrality….THIS IS CALLED
ECONOMIC COERCION. •It would have the reverse effect……
•The Embargo Act not only hurt France and Britain but it also hurt U.S. trade which was our
economic survival as a nation. As a result, many Americans defied the law and began to
smuggle goods from these countries as well as others.
•Hurt American businesses•New Englander’s shift from trade to industry•U.S. smuggled•New England talked of secession…..•Lasted 15 months, repealed in March of 1809
•American people were hostile towards Jefferson•Referred to the Embargo as “Dambargo, Mobrage,
Go Bar Em”….•Would be replaced by the
Non-Intercourse Act by President Madison which allowed U.S. exports and trade but not with France
and Great Britain……
“Our ships all in motion,Once whiten’d the ocean;
They sail’d and return’d with a Cargo;Now doom’d to decayThey are fallen a prey,
To Jefferson, worms and EMBARGO.”
A Federalist circular in Massachusetts A Federalist circular in Massachusetts against the embargo cried out,against the embargo cried out,
““Let every man who holds the name of Let every man who holds the name of America dear to him , stretch forth his hands America dear to him , stretch forth his hands
and put this accursed thing, this Embargo and put this accursed thing, this Embargo from him. Be resolute, act like sons of liberty, from him. Be resolute, act like sons of liberty,
of God, and your country; nerve your arms of God, and your country; nerve your arms with vengeance against the Despot (Jefferson) with vengeance against the Despot (Jefferson)
who would wrest the inestimable germ of who would wrest the inestimable germ of your Independence from you---and you shall your Independence from you---and you shall
be Conquerors!!!”be Conquerors!!!”