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  • Slide 1
  • Groups & Organizations
  • Slide 2
  • Part 1: Social Structure
  • Slide 3
  • DEFINITION: socially defined position within a group or societyDEFINITION: socially defined position within a group or society Status Set:Status Set: Refers to EVERY status that an individual holds at any given point in timeRefers to EVERY status that an individual holds at any given point in time Social Structure: Status
  • Slide 4
  • Ascribed v. Achieved Status Ascribed Status:Ascribed Status: A status assigned according to standards that are beyond a persons controlA status assigned according to standards that are beyond a persons control Achieved Status:Achieved Status: A status acquired by an individual on the basis of some special skill, knowledge or abilityA status acquired by an individual on the basis of some special skill, knowledge or ability
  • Slide 5
  • Ascribed v. Achieved Status?
  • Slide 6
  • DEFINITION: a social position that holds exceptional importance for identity, often shaping a persons entire lifeDEFINITION: a social position that holds exceptional importance for identity, often shaping a persons entire life What is your master status right now?What is your master status right now? Master Status
  • Slide 7
  • Social Structure: Role DEFINITION: the behavior expected of someone occupying a particular statusDEFINITION: the behavior expected of someone occupying a particular status The dynamic expression of statusThe dynamic expression of status Role Conflict:Role Conflict: The incompatibility among roles corresponding to two or more statusesThe incompatibility among roles corresponding to two or more statuses
  • Slide 8
  • Part 2: Social Groups
  • Slide 9
  • Social GroupSocial Group Social CategorySocial Category Social AggregateSocial Aggregate Types of Social Gatherings
  • Slide 10
  • Social Group: collection of people who interact, share similar characteristics and have a sense of unitySocial Group: collection of people who interact, share similar characteristics and have a sense of unity Social Category: collection of people who do not interact, but who share similar characteristicsSocial Category: collection of people who do not interact, but who share similar characteristics Social Aggregate: at any given time, a collection of people who are together but who interact very littleSocial Aggregate: at any given time, a collection of people who are together but who interact very little Types of Social Gatherings
  • Slide 11
  • Roman CatholicsRoman Catholics The BraveheartsThe Bravehearts Girls at Milton High SchoolGirls at Milton High School Fans at a Zac Brown Band concertFans at a Zac Brown Band concert Sigma Phil Epsilon brothers at UGASigma Phil Epsilon brothers at UGA The Silverman FamilyThe Silverman Family People on a bus tour in New YorkPeople on a bus tour in New York Milton High School 2014 Football teamMilton High School 2014 Football team Practice For each of the following indicate if it is a Group, Category, or Aggregate (category) (category) (group) (aggregate) (group) (group) (aggregate) (group)
  • Slide 12
  • Democrats living in GeorgiaDemocrats living in Georgia The cast of Miltons spring musicalThe cast of Miltons spring musical First time momsFirst time moms Customers eating at Chipotle on a Friday nightCustomers eating at Chipotle on a Friday night EagleStix 11U girls lax teamEagleStix 11U girls lax team Delta Zeta sisters nationwideDelta Zeta sisters nationwide World History PLC members at MHSWorld History PLC members at MHS Passengers on a flight to NYPassengers on a flight to NY Practice For each of the following indicate if it is a Group, Category, or Aggregate (category) (category) (group) (aggregate) (group) (category) (aggregate) (group)
  • Slide 13
  • Primary & Secondary Groups Primary Group:Primary Group: Small social group whose members share personal & enduring relationshipsSmall social group whose members share personal & enduring relationships Secondary Group:Secondary Group: Large & impersonal social group whose members pursue a specific interest or activityLarge & impersonal social group whose members pursue a specific interest or activity
  • Slide 14
  • Social Networks Social Network:Social Network: The web of relationships that is formed by the sum total of a persons interactions with other peopleThe web of relationships that is formed by the sum total of a persons interactions with other people Includes direct & indirect relationshipsIncludes direct & indirect relationships
  • Slide 15
  • Six Degrees of Separation? Experiment by Stanley Milgram in 1967Experiment by Stanley Milgram in 1967 Study has been questioned, but theory is interestingrandomly select 2 people in different parts of country and see how many connections would it take to link themStudy has been questioned, but theory is interestingrandomly select 2 people in different parts of country and see how many connections would it take to link them 2011 Facebook study average number of links 4.74 (less in US 4.37)2011 Facebook study average number of links 4.74 (less in US 4.37)
  • Slide 16
  • Part 3: Group Dynamics
  • Slide 17
  • Dyad: Group of 2Dyad: Group of 2 Most intimateMost intimate Each member has direct control over group existenceEach member has direct control over group existence Triad: Group of 3Triad: Group of 3 No one person can disband groupNo one person can disband group Easier decision-makingEasier decision-making Size Matters!
  • Slide 18
  • What is happens to groups as they get larger?What is happens to groups as they get larger? Size Matters!
  • Slide 19
  • Characteristics of In-Groups:Characteristics of In-Groups: Titles, external symbols & dressTitles, external symbols & dress Competition with members of the out-group; strengthens unity within each groupCompetition with members of the out-group; strengthens unity within each group Apply positive stereotypes to the in-group; negative stereotypes to the out-groupApply positive stereotypes to the in-group; negative stereotypes to the out-group In-Groups v. Out-Groups
  • Slide 20
  • Conformity:Conformity: a change in beliefs or actions that results in adherence to group normsa change in beliefs or actions that results in adherence to group norms How susceptible are individuals to group pressure?How susceptible are individuals to group pressure? Conformity within Groups
  • Slide 21
  • Pressure to Conform:Pressure to Conform: Strength of social pressureStrength of social pressure Immediacy of social pressureImmediacy of social pressure Number of people involved in the source of social pressureNumber of people involved in the source of social pressure
  • Slide 22
  • Conformity within Groups Asch Experiment: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TYIh4 MkcfJAAsch Experiment: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TYIh4 MkcfJA http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TYIh4 MkcfJA http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TYIh4 MkcfJA WYFFT Elevator Clip:WYFFT Elevator Clip: http://abcnews.go.com/WhatWouldYouDo /video/fall-elevator-19922451http://abcnews.go.com/WhatWouldYouDo /video/fall-elevator-19922451http://abcnews.go.com/WhatWouldYouDo /video/fall-elevator-19922451http://abcnews.go.com/WhatWouldYouDo /video/fall-elevator-19922451
  • Slide 23
  • Compliance: a change in behavior prompted by a direct request rather than social norms; obedienceCompliance: a change in behavior prompted by a direct request rather than social norms; obedience 6 Primary Factors:6 Primary Factors: Friendship, commitment, scarcity, reciprocity, social validation, authorityFriendship, commitment, scarcity, reciprocity, social validation, authority Compliance in Groups
  • Slide 24
  • Milgram Experiment:Milgram Experiment: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HwqN P9HRy7Yhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HwqN P9HRy7Yhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HwqN P9HRy7Yhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HwqN P9HRy7Y
  • Slide 25
  • Expressive Leaders:Expressive Leaders: Affiliation motivatedAffiliation motivated Cooperative style of managementCooperative style of management Instrumental Leaders:Instrumental Leaders: Achievement motivatedAchievement motivated Directive style of managementDirective style of management Group Leadership
  • Slide 26
  • Slide 27
  • Part 4: Performance in Groups
  • Slide 28
  • Group Behavior Group-Think:Group-Think: When members of a cohesive group endorse a single explanation or answer, usually at the expense of ignoring realityWhen members of a cohesive group endorse a single explanation or answer, usually at the expense of ignoring reality No toleration of dissenting opinionsNo toleration of dissenting opinions
  • Slide 29
  • Group Behavior Group-Think happens when there is:Group-Think happens when there is: A strong, persuasive group leaderA strong, persuasive group leader A high level of group cohesionA high level of group cohesion Intense pressure from the outside to make a good decisionIntense pressure from the outside to make a good decision
  • Slide 30
  • Slide 31
  • Slide 32
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= qYpbStMyz_I
  • Slide 33
  • Social Loafing:Social Loafing: The tendency to work less when responsibility for an outcome is spread throughout several members of a groupThe tendency to work less when responsibility for an outcome is spread throughout several members of a group Loafing & Compensation
  • Slide 34
  • Social Compensation:Social Compensation: The tendency to work harder when one is part of a group, rather than when he or she is aloneThe tendency to work harder when one is part of a group, rather than when he or she is alone
  • Slide 35
  • Pro-social Behavior DEFINITION: acting to benefit othersDEFINITION: acting to benefit others More likely to help if:More likely to help if: Have a high need for approvalHave a high need for approval Personal and social responsibilityPersonal and social responsibility Sense of empathySense of empathy
  • Slide 36
  • Pro-social Behavior More likely to be helped by others if:More likely to be helped by others if: Perceived as a potential leaderPerceived as a potential leader Not responsible for predicamentNot responsible for predicament Member of helpers groupMember of helpers group Bystander Effect:Bystander Effect: The more people present, the less likely each individual is to help someone in distressThe more people present, the less likely each individual is to help someone in distress
  • Slide 37
  • Slide 38
  • Part 5: Formal Organizations
  • Slide 39
  • Utilitarian Organizations:Utilitarian Organizations: An organization that provides material benefits in exchange for laborAn organization that provides material benefits in exchange for labor Formal Organizations
  • Slide 40
  • Normative Organizations:Normative Organizations: An organization that pursues what they believe to be a morally worthwhile goalAn organization that pursues what they believe to be a morally worthwhile goal Formal Organizations
  • Slide 41
  • Coercive Organizations:Coercive Organizations: An organization that serves as a form of punishment & treatmentAn organization that serves as a form of punishment & treatment Formal Organizations