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General Muhammad Zia Ul Haq

Apr 06, 2018



Faizan Qadir
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  • 8/3/2019 General Muhammad Zia Ul Haq


    General Muhammad Zia Ul Haq

  • 8/3/2019 General Muhammad Zia Ul Haq


    Zia comes to the power

    General Zia and the army took control of Pakistan on 5thJuly 1977. Two days later martial law was declared and

    the assemblies were suspended. However Zia stressedthat it was only until peace was restored. He promisedelections for october 1977 and said that he hoped thatBhutto and PPP would participate. I will never hetold an American Reporter, accept a political office .Infact there were no elections and it was not long beforehe was a president. His coup began an eleven-year

    period of military rule

    Zulfiqar Ali Bhuttos execution

    Zulfiqar was accused of murdering a political opponent Bysending FSF. A Trial in the Lahore High Court proved

    Zulfiqar guilty on 17th

    March 1978, He was sentencedto Death. There was widespread criticism on theDecision but Bhutto too decided not to defendhimselves and did not plead for his life. Bhutto washanged at district jail Rawalpindi on 4th April 1979. Hissupporters called it a JUDICIAL MURDER. Neither hiswife nor his daughter, Benazir was permitted to attend

    his funeral. They were detained

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    Uprising in BalochistanThe 1970s military operation in Balochistan was a a five-year

    conflict in which a separatist movement in Balochistan, thelargest province of Pakistan, engaged with the PakistanArmy after then-Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhuttoordered a military operation in the region in 1973. Themovement, initiated by Baloch nationalists in the aftermathof the secession of East Pakistan, had been fuelled byBhutto's dissolution of successive provincial governments. It

    was largely coordinated by the Baloch sardars, or tribalchiefs, against Bhutto's operation, which was led by GeneralTikka Khan and aided by Iran. The conflict led tounrecorded civilian casualties, as well as heavy losses for theinsurgency, until July 1977, when the Bhutto governmentwas deposed by General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq.

    The incoming martial law administrator, Lieutenant GeneralRahimuddin Khan, declared an amnesty and oversaw a

    complete military withdrawal in 1978, by which time heassumed the province's governorship. He then embarked onan ambitious series of development policies and bloodlessmilitary action that broke the insurgency, and is alsocredited to have led to the province's stabilization. Thisperiod forms a pivotal chapter in the longstandingBalochistan conflict.

    Cobra helicopters were supplied

    by Iran against the insurgency.

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    Hudood Ordinance

    Under Offenses Against Property (Enforcement of Hudood Ordinance 1979),the punishment of imprisonment or fine, or both, as provided in theexisting Pakistan Penal Code for theft, was substituted by the amputationof the right hand of the offender from the joint of the wrist by a surgeon.

    For robbery, the right hand of the offender from the wrist and his left footfrom the ankle should be amputated by a surgeon.

    Prohibition Order

    Drinking of wine (i.e. all alcoholic drinks) was not a crime at all under thePakistan Penal Code. In 1977, however, the drinking and selling of wine byMuslims was banned in Pakistan and a sentence of imprisonment of six

    months or a fine of Rs. 5000/-, or both, was provided in that law. Under theProhibition Order, these provisions of law were replaced by the punishmentof eighty stripes, for which an ijma of the companions of Muhammad eversince the period of the Second Caliph Umar, was cited. However, the lawdoes not apply to non-Muslims, who can possess a license to drink and/ormanufacture alcoholic beverages from the government.

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    Islamization, Adultery and Blasphemey laws

    Adultery (Zina) OrdinanceUnder the Zina Ordinance the provisions relating to adultery were replaced as that the women

    and the man guilty will be flogged, each of them, with a hundred stripes, if unmarried. And ifthey are married they shall be stoned to death. It was argued that the section 497 of thePakistan Penal Code dealing with the offence of adultery provided certain safeguards to theoffender in as much as if the adultery is with the consent or connivance of the husband, no

    offence of adultery was deemed to have been committed in the eye of law. The wife, under theprevailing law, was also not to be punished as abettor. Islamic law knows no such exception.Blasphemy LawsThe Pakistan Penal Code (PPC) and the Criminal Procedure Code were amended, through

    ordinances in 1980, 1982 and 1986 to declare anything implying disrespect to Muhammad,Ahle Bait(family of the prophet), Sahaba(companions of the prophet) and Sha'ar-i-Islam

    (Islamic symbols), a cognizable offence. Blaspheming Muhammaad is punishable with "death,or imprisonment for life, and shall also be liable to fine." (Act III of 1986, Criminal Law(Amendment) Act, Section 2) while disrespecting the Quran is punishable by lifeimprisonment, and disrespecting the family of the Prophet or the Companions of the Prophetis punishable by prison up to three years, or a fine, or both.

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    Islamization of EconomyZakat and Ushr OrdinanceThe Zakat and Ushr Ordinance was promulgated on June 20, 1980 to empower the government to

    deduct 2.5% Zakat annually from mainly interest-bearing savings and shares held in theNational Investment Trust, the Investment Corporation of Pakistan and other companies ofwhich the majority of shares are owned by the Muslims. Foreign Exchange Bearer Certificatescheme that offered fixed interest was exempted from the compulsory Zakat deduction. Thisordinance drew sharp criticism from the Shia sect which was later exempted from thecompulsory deduction of Zakat. Even Sunnis were critical of the compulsory deduction and theway Zakat was distributed.Riba

    Interest on loans or riba in Western-style banks was banned under Islamization. Zia enforced ablanket ban on interest based financial systems and the military under its own specialinvestigative division conducted research and checks on business individuals suspected ofindulging in interest/usury. Heavy punishments were often implemented upon offenders, withmassive jail terms totalling years being standard practise.

    Qisas and Diyat Ordinance 1990With the passing of the Qisas and Diyat Ordinance in 1990, the victim (or heirs of the victim) of a crime now have the

    right to inflict injuries on the offender identical to the ones sustained by the victim. The law also allows offenders toabsolve themselves of the crime by paying compensation to the victim or their heirs if, and only if, the family of thevictim is willing to accept it.

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    The Afghan

    Miracle!!!!!The Soviet war in Afghanistan was a nine-year conflict involving the

    Soviet Union, supporting the Marxist-Leninist government of theDemocratic Republic of Afghanistan against the AfghanMujahideen and foreign "ArabAfghan" volunteers. Themujahideen received unofficial military and/or financial supportfrom a variety of countries including the United States, Saudi

    Arabia, the United Kingdom, Pakistan, Taiwan, Indonesia andChina.

    The initial Soviet deployment of the 40th Army in Afghanistan beganon December 24, 1979 under Soviet premier Leonid Brezhnev. Thefinal troop withdrawal started on May 15, 1988, and ended onFebruary 15, 1989 under the last Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev.Due to the interminable nature of the war, the conflict in

    Afghanistan has sometimes been referred to as the "SovietUnion's Vietnam War.

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    Western leaders were unhappy that Democracy wasreplaced with military dictatorship in Pakistan butthe Soviet invasion in Afghanistan prooved to be awindfall for Zia Ul Haq. Suddenly Pakistan wasthe frontline state in halting Soviet agression andthe spread of communism.

    Soviet invasion established Pakistan as a leadingcountry in world politics. It also led to huge sums ofmoney being poured into Pakistan to pay for therehabilitation of refugees and to develop Pakistanimilitary by buying new military equipment such asLockheed Martin F-16 fighting falcon. Zia was

    able to increase the defence budget and build up suchan effective military force that he was able to sellmilitary assisstance to other countries. Pakistanbecame the second largest supplier of militarymanpower in the developing world.

    Advantages for Pakistan

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    Refugee Problems and

    Excessive Ammunition in the


    The soviet Invasion in Afghanistan led to more than 30,0000 refugees fleeing fromthe fighting into Pakistan. Such a massive and unplanned influx caused manyproblems. Tensions between refugees and Pakistanis sometimes led to voilence.There was resentment at the large sums of money being spent on helping theAfghans.

    The Afghan miracle had brought economic support to Pakistan, but at a cost. Thewest freely supplied eguns to help the Afghanis, but those guns now became onthe streets of Pakistan (through smuggling), with a subsequent threat to law andorder. Drug use and Drug trafficking also grew at alarming rates. Killing andviolence became common on the streets of Karachi. Also the corruption wasincreasing inevitibly

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    On 12th August 1983, Zia announced that elections, national and provincial would finally be helid in March 1985. Itwas clear that Zia did not intend that the elections should be fought by political parties. The intention was thathe should continue as president after the elections. Several parties formed MRD [ Movement for theRestoration of Democracy ]. soon gained popularity in Pakistan's smaller, poorer provinces, especially inBhutto's home province, Sindh. Indira Gandhi, Indian PM raised concerns over this brutality and violation ofhuman rights at the hands of Pakistan's military dictatorship. Zia eventually decided to hold elections in thecountry. But before handing over the power to the public representatives, he decided to secure his position asthe head of state. A referendum was held on December 19, 1984 and the option was to elect or reject theGeneral as the future President. The question asked in the referendum was whether the people of Pakistanwanted Islamic Sharia law enforced in the country . According to the official result, more than 95% of the voteswere cast in favour of Zia, thus he was elected as President for the next five years. However, they were marredby allegations of widespread irregularities and technical violations of the laws and ethics of democraticelections[. Also, despite pressure from the government to vote, only 10% of those eligible to vote did so. Zia hadthe overwhelming majority of the votes cast, but in reality the referendum was an embarrassing failure

    The Eighth Amendment and elections of 1985After being elected President, Zia decided to hold elections in the country in February 1985 on a non-party basis.

    Most of the opposing political parties decided to boycott the elections but election results showed that manyvictors belonged to one party or the other. To make things easier for himself, the General nominated the Prime

    Minister from amongst the Members of the Assembly. To many, his nomination of Muhammad Khan Junejo asthe Prime Minister was because he wanted a simple person at the post who would act as a puppet in his hands.Before handing over the power to the new Government and lifting martial law, Zia got the new legislature toretroactively accept all of Zia's actions of the past eight years, including his coup of 1977. He also managed toget several amendments passed, most notably the Eighth Amendment, which granted "reserve powers" to thepresident to dissolve the National Assembly. However, this amendment considerably reduced the power he'dpreviously granted himself to dissolve the legislature, at least on paper. The text of the amendment permittedZia to dissolve the Assembly only if the Cabinet had been toppled by a vote of no confidence and it was obviousthat no one could form a government or the government could not function in a constitutional manner.

    O C

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    Ojhri Camp is located in Rawalpindi. It wasused as an ammunition depot for Afghan

    Mujahideen fighting against Soviet forcesfrom Afghanistan. The camp exploded onApril 10, 1988, killing more than 1,000people in Rawalpindi and Islamabad as aresult of rockets and other munitionsexpelled by the

    US officials blamed sabotage for theexplosion.There was speculation that theexplosion was done by Pakistani agents tocover up a pilferage of the weapons stocks,including Stinger missiles.The true causeof the explosion remains a mystery.

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    Tensions between Zia AndJunejo

    The blast happened during tension between Pakistani President Mohammad Zia ul-Haq and Prime MinisterMuhammad Khan Junejo. Zia had chosen Junejo as Prime Minister for his weak political personality, but deftly

    as head of an elected government over such issues as top military appointments and Afghanistan.First, they clashed over Zia's refusal to sign the Geneva Accords. Junejo had also organized a round table conference

    of opposition leaders to get his way. Secondly, Junejo challenged the appointment of two generals and alsodemanded that General Zia should quit as the army chief of staff, a position he held since 1976.

    General Akhtar Abdur Rahman had urged the Junejo government to relocate the Ojhri ammunition depot outside thecity but Junejo refused to provide the money for the transfer. General Akhtar Abdur Rahman was the front-man

    in conducting the war in Afghanistan against the Soviet Union and was the second most powerful man in

    Pakistan at that time.

    To subvert the blame, Junejo demanded punishment for the army generals who he deemed responsible for thecatastrophe while General Zia - who kept the portfolio of the Army Commander-in-Chief even after the lifting ofmartial law by extending his own term of office - could not afford to antagonize his constituency. Junejo blamed

    General Akhtar Abdur Rahman, and rumors were spread that the dump, which served as a store for US suppliedarms for the Afghan "mujahedeen", had been blown up deliberately just before the arrival of a US defense audit

    team, to cover up the fact that some Stinger missiles had been sold off to other countries.The final showdown took place on May 29, 1988.[President General Zia, under article 58(2B) of the amended

    constitution, dismissed Prime Minister Junejo's government and dissolved the national and provincial

    assemblies. In sacking Prime Minister Muhammad Khan Junejo, who had just returned from Manila after aforeign tour. General Zia made the following allegations against the Junejo government:1. Law and order in the country had broken down to an alarming extent resulting in tragic loss of human lives.2. Life, property, honor and security of the citizens was rendered totally unsafe.3. The integrity and ideology of Pakistan have been seriously endangered and doubts generated in this

    regard.4. The president's conscience always pricked that he had not fulfilled his promises regarding the enforcement

    of Islam made to the people in the referendum of 1984.5. Public morality had deteriorated to an unprecedented level.
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    Zia diesZia died in a plane crash on 17 August 1988. After

    witnessing a US M1 Abrams tank demonstration inBahawalpur, Zia had left the small town in thePunjab province by C-130 Hercules aircraft. Shortlyafter smooth takeoff, the control tower lost contactwith the aircraft. Witnesses who saw the plane in theair afterward claim it was flying erratically, thennosedived and exploded on impact. In addition toZia, 31 others died in the plane crash, includingChairman Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee General

    Akhtar Abdur Rahman, close associate of Zia,Brigadier Siddique Salik, the American Ambassadorto Pakistan Arnold Lewis Raphel and GeneralHerbert M. Wassom, the head of the U.S. Militaryaid mission to Pakistan.[ Ghulam Ishaq Khan, theSenate Chairman announced Zia's death on radioand TV. The manner of his death has given rise tomany conspiracy theories.There is speculation thatAmerica, India, the Soviet Union (as retaliation for

    US-Pakistani supported attacks in Afghanistan) oran alliance of them and internal groups within Zia'smilitary were behind the attack.

    A board of inquiry was set up to investigate the crash. Itconcluded the most probable cause of the crash wasa criminal act of sabotage perpetrated in theaircraft. It also suggested that poisonous gases werereleased which incapacitated the passengers andcrew, which would explain why noMayday signalwas given.
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    Development, Research, Editing and above all, Presented to you by :

    Muhammad Mubashir

    Other Group Members : Faizan Qadir, Aurengzeb Malik, TalhaAhmedClass:10th C RoseBeaconhouse School System Wah Cantt

    Hoping that you will like it.