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Gender in Worry

Apr 03, 2018

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    Examination of the Relationship between Intolerance of Uncertainty and Worry

    Kristin E. M. Buhr

    A ThesisIn

    The DepartmentOf

    Psychology

    Presented in Partial FuifilIrnent of the RequirementsFor the Degree of Masters of Arts atConcordia UniversityMontreal, Quebec, Canada

    O Kristin E.M. Buhr, 2001

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    NationalLi'braiy BibliohquenationaleduCanadauisitiansand9 Acquisitions etBib iographicServiees services bibliographiques

    The author has granted anon- L'auteur a accord une licence nonexclusive licence alowing the excIusivepermettant laNational L i i fCanaa to Bibliothque nationale duCanada dereprod~ce~oan, distniute or seJi reproduire, prter, distniuer oucopies of this thesis in microform, vendre des copies de cette thse souspaper or electronic fomats. Ia forme de microfiche/fk,dereproduction sur papier ou sur formatIecronique.The auhor retains ownersiup of the L'auteur conserve lapropriet ducopyright inthis thesis. Neither the droit d'auteur quiprotge cette th&.thesisnor substantialextracts h m t Nik hse ni des extraits substantielsmay be prhted or otherwise de celle-cine doivent tre imprimsreproducedwithout the author's ouautrement reproduits sanssonpermission. autorisation.

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    AbsractExamination of the Relationship between htolerance of Uncertainty and Worry

    Kristin E. M. BuhrThe present paper consists of two studies intended to further the understanding ofintolerance of uncertainty and its relationship to worry. The fmt study examineci thepsychornetric properties of the English version of the intolerance of Uncertainty ScaIe(WS),hich hasalready been vdidated in French. Factor analysis indicated that the IUShas a Cfac tor structure tha represents the idea that uncertainty is stressful and upsetting,uncertainty Ieads to the inability to act, uncertain events are negative and should beavoided, and king uncertain is not fair. The IUS has excellent interna1 consistency, goodtest-retest reliability, and convergent and divergent validity when assessed with symptommeasures of worry, depression, and anxiety. The second study attempted to assess theunique relationship ktween intoleranceof uncertainty and worry, beyond constructsalready associated with worry such as perfectionism and control. Fwthermore, the studyassessed the distinction between intolerance of uncertainty and intolerance of ambiguity.The resuIts suggest that worry has a stronger relationship with intolerance of uncertaintythan perfectionism, controI, and intolerance of ambiguity. Moreover, the resuits indicatethat ntolerance of uncertainty and intolerance of ambiguity are distinct co ns m cs .Overall, this study suggests that the iS is a sound measure of intolerance of uncertaintyand supports the idea that intolerance of uncertainty is an important co ns mct involved inworry.

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    Ac know ledgments1would k e o thankmy supervisor,Dr. Michel Dugas, for his direction, support,

    and encouragement. 1would also ke to thank my committeemembers AlexSchwartzman and NataIie Phillips. 1would like to extend my appreciation to themembers of the Dugas Lab for their support on rnany different Ievels. Thanks to MelisaRobichaud, Nina Laugesen, Naomi Koerner, Kylie Francis,Mary Hedayati, and AngieKaravidas. Thanks to my classrnatesand friends, for providing me with encouragementdong the way. And a special thanks to Sarah Auchterlonie for ail her help.

    1am also extremely grateful to my parents, Ken and Lou-Anne Buhr, for theirlove and support. 1have accomptished this because of you. 1would also like to thankDan Gendreau and Zo or their endless support and for making this journey with me.

    This research was fundedby a grant from the Centre for Research in HumanDevelopment(CRDH).

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    Table of Contents

    ................................................................................ist of Tables viList of Appendices ..................................................................... vii

    ........................................................................enerai Introduction 1Smdy One ............................................................................... 10

    Method ........................................................................ 13Results ...................................................................... 16Discussion ........................................................................ 27

    Smdy Two .................................................................................30Method ........................................................................ 31Results ................................................................... 34Discussion .......................................................................40

    General Discussion ........................................................................ 48References ................................................................................. 52

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    viList of Tables

    ......................able 1:Means andStandard Deviations for aU Study Measures 19.......able 2: Means. StandardDeviations. and Item-Total Correlations of the IS 20

    Table 3: Ebmax-Rotated Iterated-Principal-Factor Standardized Regression................oefficients and Final Cornmunality Estimates (hz) f theIS 22

    .......................................able 4: Correlations between Factors on the IIJS 24.......................able 5: Correlations among Study Measures. Gender. and Age 25

    Table 6: Summary of Hierarchicai Multiple Regression Analysis for Variables.............................................redicting Scores on the PSWQ 2 6..........................able 7: Means and Standard Deviations for Study Measures 37

    .......................able 8: Correlations among Study Measures. Gender. and Age 38Table 9: Summary of Hieratchical Multiple Regression Analysis for Variables

    ....................................................redicting Scores on the PSWQ 39

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    List of Appendices...................................................ppendix A: ConsentForm Study One 62...................................................ppendix B: Consent Form Study Two 64.................................................ppendix C: Test Re-Test ConsentForm 66...................................................ppendix D: General InformationForm 68

    ............................................ppendix E: holerance of Uncertainty Scale 70

    ............................................ppendix F:Penn State Worry Questionnaire 73..........................................ppendix G: Worry and Anxiety Questionnaire 75

    ..............................................ppendUrH-Beck-Depression Inventory-II 78.......................................................ppendix 1; Beck Anxiety Inventory 82.....................................ppendix J: Multidimensional Perfectionism ScaIe 84

    .......................................................ppendix K: Sense of Control Scde 88.............................ppendix L:Scale of Toleranca-Intoleranceof Arnbiguity 90

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    Examination of the Relationship between Intoletance of Uncertainty and WorryInterest in the area of worry is rising and this h a ken reflected in the increase in

    research examining bothworry and worry reIaied phenomena (e.g., Freeston, Rhaume,Letarte, Dugas, & Ladouceur, 1994;Mathews, 1993;Tallis& Eysenck, 1994). Worrycan be defined as concern about future events in which there is uncertainty about theoutcome and where the individual experiences feelings of anxiety (see MacLeod,Williams,& Bekerian, 1991). Worry is comrnon in both clinicai and nonclinicalpopulations and research has suggested that as high as 38% of individuais in the generaipopulation worry at Ieast once a day (Tallis, Davey, & Capuzzo, 1994). Further,excessive and uncontrollable worry is the central feature of generaiized anxiety disorderorGAD (DSM-IV; Arnerican Psychiatrie Association, 1994). Given the level of worry inthe general population and the role of excessive worry in the clinical disorder,GAD, t isimportant to identify key constructs related to worry in order to begin to establish howexcessive worry develops and what factors are responsible for maintaining it.

    Research into the area of wony has generally focused on worry themes and howmuch time is spent worrying (e-g., Davey, 1993;Dugas, Freeston, Doucet, Lachance, &Ladouceur, 1995). However, attention has shified towards the examination of specificconstnicts related to w o q (e-g., Freeston et al., 1994; Russell& Davey, 1993). Forinstance. researchers have begun to identifyconstructs that may be involved in thedevetopment and maintenance of worry mgas, Gagnon, Ladouceur,& Freeston, 1998;Wells&Carter, 1999). Research has demonstrated tbat the tendency to worry is relatedto positive beliefs about the function of worry, the tendency to avoid upsetting mentalimagery, negative problem orientation, and intolerance of uncertainty (Dugas et ai.,

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    3more dffculties when faced with uncertain situations given that they tend to interprethem in a negative way. Overall, the findings indicate that wocriers have difficultytolerating uncertainty, which provides the initial evidence for a specific consuct relatedto worry: intolerance of uncertainty.

    Recently, a number of studies have specifically Iinked intolerance of uncertaintyto worry and have suggested that it

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