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Geet Kalra Term Paper

Mar 11, 2015



The MYT EngineWell Aint this mighty enough..?..Eh?

Sir Hiram Maxim

MEL345: IC Engines Term Paper by: Geet Kalra 2008ME10505

AcknowledgementI, Geet Kalra, am submitting this term paper horribly late. And if it is being read by you sir, then I dont have words to express my gratitude. IC Engines has been a very good course and has helped me change my attitude towards studying. One might say that most of my submissions have been late this semester, so maybe thats not a good change, but I disagree. Even though I have been late, I have been original. I have risked losing marks (though that might have demoralized me) but tried to do my work as best as I could. Its very easy to be complacent, but very difficult to get out of the web of complacency. Hard work never killed anyone, but why take the risk if there always is an easy way out. Then I saw something:"The highest reward for man's dedication to excellence is not what he gets from it, but what he becomes through it."

And now I know it.

Thank You



The MYT (Massive Yet Tiny) Engine is an internal combustion engine of new design that features multiple firings in one cycle, producing enormous torque in a small area. A 14-inch, 150-pound MYT with 850 cubic inches of displacement, would have the same power as a 32 cylinder diesel engine, putting out 858 horsepower. With four pistons on each rotor and a 4:1 ratio between the sun and crankshaft gears, eight chambers are formed between the pistons, and there are two power strokes in each of those chambers for each revolution of the output shaft. In two shaft revolutions, there are 32 power strokes, which is equivalent to having 32 cylinders in a conventional 4-stroke engine.


Introduction"One day I was approached by three gentlemen who were interested in the Maxim gun, and they asked me if it would be possible for me to build a flying machine, how long it would take, and how much it would cost. My reply was that it would take five years and would cost L50,000. The first three years would be devoted to developing a light internal-combustion engine, and the remaining two years to making a flying machine. " - Sir Hiram Maxim, 1894 This was the case then and this has been the case since. IC Engines have played a crucial role in the development of the world as it is, having an application in almost ever known field. You close your eyes, take a world map, place your finger anywhere on it, open your eyes, and even if there isnt any other technology in that place, youll find IC Engines. - PMV Subbarao, Professor IIT Delhi, 2010 This very statement tells the importance of internal combustion engines today. People have been working on improving the existing technologies as well as coming up with new solutions and engine designs every day. The MYT engine is one such design aiming to revolutionize the IC engine industry. It has the potential to replace all the existing internal combustion engines and jet engines. The possibility of developing energy outputs exceeding 4 horsepower per pound may be plausible. With 40 times higher power to weight ratio, low parts count, low maintenance, high mechanical efficiency, and low pollution, the MYT Engine will benefit airplanes, big ships, 18 wheelers, SUVs, passenger cars, even down to carry on power generator applications. The MYT Engine as a pump/compressor also exceeds existing pumps/compressors in providing massive pressure, volume, and flow, all in one unit.


INDEX A. Mechanism and working B. Facts 1. Displacement 2. Fuel 2.1 Requirement 2.2 Efficiency 3. Engine Specifications - 14" Model 4. Testing Data and Comparisons 5. Applications 5.1 Internal Combustion Engine 5.2 Other Applications 6. Difference between MYT and Wankel 7. Engine Cooling and Lubrication 8. Dynamic Stability C. Future References 6 9 9 9 9 9 10 10 11 11 11 12 12 12 13 14


A. Mechanism and workingThe engine has a pair of rotors with pistons which are spaced circumferentially on the rotors and disposed within a toroidal chamber or cylinder. The pistons on the two rotors are interposed between each other around the cylinder, with chambers being formed between successive pistons on the two rotors. The two rotors turn alternately and in stepwise fashion, with the pistons on one rotor remaining substantially stationary while the pistons on the other advance. Chambers vary in volume as the pistons advance, with the chambers on the back sides of the moving pistons increasing in volume and the chambers on the front sides decreasing. With the alternating movement of the rotors, chambers which increase in volume during one step will decrease during the next.[1.] Fuel is drawn into a chamber as one of the pistons defining the chamber moves away from the other, and then compressed as the second piston moves toward the first. Combustion of the fuel drives the first piston away from the second, and the spent gases are then expelled from the chamber by the second piston moving again toward the first. The ports are arranged in pairs around the cylinder, with two pairs of ports being positioned directly opposite each other. The ports communicate openly and directly with the cylinder. [1.] The rotors are connected to an output shaft in such manner that the shaft rotates continuously as the pistons and rotors turn in their stepwise fashion to provide smooth, continuous power .A carrier or carriage is affixed to the output shaft by a splined connection, and a pair of crankshafts are mounted on a carrier affixed to the shaft, and rotated continuously about their axes by connecting rods connected to cranks which turn with the rotors. Planet Gears on the crankshafts transfer this continuous rotation to carrier and shaft as they travel about a sun gear disposed coaxially of the shaft. (Please refer to the attached excel animation.[4.] The process is more clearly explained in the 3-d animation below.)

The ratio of the sun and planet gears is preferably the same as the number of pistons on each of the rotors, i.e. n: 1, where n is the number of pistons on each rotor. In the figure, there are four pistons on each rotor, and the gear ratio is 4:1. With that ratio, the steps which the pistons make are approximately 90 degrees each, and each of the pistons makes four such steps for each revolution of the output shaft. With more 6

pistons and a higher ratio, the piston steps decrease in size and increase in number, and with fewer pistons and a lower gear ratio, the steps increase in size and decrease in number. Thus, for example, with eight pistons per rotor and a gear ratio of 8:1, each piston would make eight steps of 45 degrees each for each rotation of the output shaft. With two pistons per rotor and a ratio of 2:1, the pistons would make only two steps of 180 degrees each. Stated otherwise, a gear ratio of n: 1 provides n steps per rotation, with n steps of(360 degree. /n) each [1.].

The figures illustrate the splining of the various components and their relationship to the rotary motion of the main drive shaft.

Because of this alternating motion of the rotors, each one of them completes two expansion/contraction cycles in one half a revolution of the main shaft. Hence, each rotor can produce two power strokes per revolution of the engine. Consequently there are 16 combustion events per revolution. In a conventional four stroke reciprocating engine, each cylinder takes two revolutions to complete one cycle. Therefore, to match the number of power events per revolution that occur in the MYT Engine, a conventional four stroke reciprocating engine would have to be equipped with 32 cylinders.[4.]



The prototype of a 14 MYT Engine.


B. Facts

2.1 DisplacementFor a first order approximation, the amount of power an internal combustion engine can develop is proportional to the quantity of air that it can ingest. The prototype of the MYT Engine has a diameter of 3.00" in the torus cross section and the traverse distance (stroke) between the leading and trailing pistons is 3.75". With eight segments inhaling twice per revolution, the ingested air volume is 424 cubic inches per revolution. That engine displacement is achieved in a package size that is approximating a fourteen (14) inch cube. To match this air ingestion rate, a conventional four stroke reciprocating engine would need a designed displacement of 848 cubic inches since each cylinder only inhales once on every other revolution.[4.]

2.2 Fuel 2.2.1 RequirementThough diesel or biodiesel is the fuel of choice for this engine because of its compression ignition design, the engine could also (with appropriate modifications) run on most any other fuel as well, including hydrogen, natural gas, ethanol, or gasoline. An advantage of burning diesel in the engine is that it provides its own lubrication, so no engine oil would need to be used. Also, the present infrastructure is already set up for diesel distribution.[4.]

2.2.2 Efficiency The engine has no cylinder heads and contains none of the parts commonly defined as the valve train (camshaft, valves, springs, tappets, push rods, rocker arms, etc). Like a two stroke engine, ports in the cylinder wall provide the only gas passage ways that are needed for aspiration. This besides reducing the manufacturing costs reduces the mechanical friction as well thus a higher mechanical efficiency.[4.,5.] The MYT design permits the piston dwell at TDC to be adjustable. There is a "long dwell time at top dead center." This means that there is a much higher chance that all of the fuel is ignited, resulting in achieving very close to 100% theoretical efficiency. [4.] It will contribute to a significant reduction in the vehicle overall weight. An automotive production version of the engine will likely weigh well less than half as much as a conventional engine and the low speed torque qualities may make reductions in transmission weight and complexity feasible.[4.]


3. Engine Specifications - 14" ModelEquiv. To 32 Cylinder, 4stroke-cycle Diesel Bore--mm(in) Stroke--mm(in) Displacement-- Cu in(L) Aspiration Compression Ratio 76.2(3) 95.25(3.75) 848 (13.8) Normally 25:1

Rotation (from Fly Wheel end) CCW/CW Cooling System Lub Oil SystemQuart Weight, Net Dry Advertised hp (KW) Oil Cooling dry sump, 5 (Approx.) Kg (lb) including flywheel, 68 (150) 850(634) NA 3,000 (2,238) SC/TC.

4. Testing Data and ComparisonThe standard dyno test results have been attached along this file. It can be clearly seen that the engine produces a torque of around 800 lb-ft at an rpm of around 850. The normal idle speed (not fit for any useful work) for a passenger car ranges from 600 to 1000 rpm.[4.] The K20A3 engine found in the Honda Civic produces a torque of 140 lb-ft at 5000 rpm.[7.] The Ferrari 458 Italia is powered by a 4.5L V8 that puts out 398 lb-ft. of maximum torque.


Power to Weight Ratio Parts Count manufacturing cost #pulses (equivalent cylinders) Fuel for efficient operation Maintenance as a Pump(liquid, gas) Mechanical stresses Fuel Efficiency Size pollution

The Mighty Engine 20:1(3,000hp/150lbs) 50 very low(less parts to manufacture) 32=>high torque @ low rpm fossil, and renewable (bio fuel) very low high flow rate, high volume low(no reciprocation) very high(less friction, etc.) 14inchdia x14inches long very low(more complete combustion)

Conventional Engine 1:1(350hp/350lbs) >3,000 high 8=>low torque @ low rpm mostly fossil only high low flow rate, low volume high(reciprocating pistons) low 5ftx4ftx2ft high

5. Applications 5.1 Internal Combustion Engine As a compression ignition engine when it runs on diesel. As a Spark Ignition engine when it runs on gasoline. As a spark Ignition engine when it runs on alternate fuels.[4.]

5.2 Other Applications The MYT Engine as a pump/compressor also purportedly exceeds existingpumps/compressors in providing massive pressure, volume, and flow, all in one unit. This attribute makes it ideal for geothermal energy harnessing as well as for wind power storage and retrieval via compressed air.[4.]


6. Difference between MYT and WankelThe MYT Engine fires 16 times in one revolution vs. single rotor Wankel 1.5 firings. The MYT Engine is a positive displacement engine without sealing problems because the MYT Engine uses round piston and round cylinder same as conventional engines. The MYT Engine does not have to rotate at very high rpm to achieve torque. The Wankel Rotary engine pistons and cylinders are of triangular and squarish on the corners design. Furthermore, the piston assembly turns away from the center line of the shaft. The MYT Engine design leads to an enormous displacement leading to 850 CID (cubic inch displacement) at 150 lbs. The Rotary Engine with 200lbs is only 80 CID.[4.]

The arangement of the pistons within the toroid.

7. Engine Cooling and LubricationThe Engine uses a dry sump system for lubrication (which allows it to run in any orientation, even upside down). The Engine is built to cool with air outside and inside, while further cooling is achieved by oil and fuel circulating throughout entire system including the pistons. An in-line oil-cooling radiator is hooked up to the dry sump system if necessary.[4.]

8. Dynamic StabilityAnother attribute of the MYT Engine will be the near absence of any vibration. Lacking reciprocating components, it will not produce the first and second order harmonic shaking forces, nor the rotating couples encountered in many conventional reciprocating engine configurations. Additionally, the magnitude of the peak-to-peak fluctuations in instantaneous output torque will approximate that of a


conventional V8 engine. This is advantageous from the perspective of torsional vibration stresses transmitted to the power absorber.[4.]

C. FutureThe MYT Engine won the First-Prize in the 2005 Emhart-NASA Tech Briefs "Create the Future" Design Contest. The contest attracted more than 1,000 entries from engineering professionals, students, and the general public from 31 countries around the globe. The Engine has been displayed at various auto shows like the LA auto show in 2006. The creators already have a lot of offers from around the world to collaborate.[4.] The Inventor is in process of building that first 6" engine. The 6" motor could be installed in a variety of applications, from a small vehicle such as a Ford Fiesta, or an ultra light aircraft, or possibly even an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). [3.] With all this and more, the MYT engine is here to stay and change the way we live. After all, its the Internal Combustion, reinvented.



[1.] Ralph Gordon Morgado; 2004 May. 25. Internal Combustion Engine and Method. United Statespatent US 6,739,307 B2. Louis J. Faix (March 21, 2003), Lou Faix Report. Retrieved November 25,2010 from , .


[3.] Sterling D.Allen (April 8, 2010), MYT Engine 6-inch version could go into productionsoon. Retrieved November 26,2010 from ,

[4.] . [5.] [6.] [7.]Honda K Engine. Retrieved November 26,2010 from,


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