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Gas Hydrate An Emerging Resource for Americas Energy Future Art Johnson Hydrate Energy International

Mar 31, 2015

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Gas Hydrate An Emerging Resource for Americas Energy Future Art Johnson Hydrate Energy International Slide 2 Natural Gas is a Critical Component of U.S. Energy Supply Total 2008 U.S. Gas Demand: 23.9 TCF Slide 3 From: Dept. of Energy Statistics US Natural Gas Consumption Forecast to 2030 Slide 4 What is Gas Hydrate? Gas Hydrate is a crystalline solid composed of water and gas. Methane is the most common hydrate-forming gas, but gas hydrates can form from ethane, CO 2, propane, and other gases. One volume hydrate typically contains about 160 volumes methane gas. Stable at low Temperature and high Pressure Occurs abundantly in nature In continental margin sediments and Arctic permafrost Slide 5 Slide 6 Slide 7 Global Carbon Distribution ? ? ? ? Total amount is not known with certainty, but is enormous Slide 8 Arctic sandstones with infrastructure (~10s of Tcf) Arctic sandstones away from infrastructure (100s of Tcf) Deepwater sandstones (1000s of Tcf) Deepwater permeable, non-sandstone (unknown) Seafloor mounds, etc. (unknown) Deepwater, low permeability (100,000s of Tcf) Reserves (200 Tcf) Res. growth & undiscovered (1,500 Tcf) Remaining unrecoverable (unknown) U.S. Gas Resource Base Only a fraction of gas hydrate deposits have commercial potential but the resource base is still huge Gas HydrateOther Gas Resources Slide 9 Challenges to Commercial Development Identifying deposits where hydrate is concentrated and has resource potential Establishing commercial viability Establishing environmental impact assessment protocol Slide 10 Production Scenarios Gas Hydrate is a stable solid at low temperatures and high pressures. The primary methods for producing natural gas from hydrate are: Depressurization Heating Chemical Exchange (with CO 2 ) These methods involve technological and economic challenges Slide 11 Highlights of U.S. Hydrate Program North Slope of Alaska Joint industry, university, government program led by BP. 2007 drilling program confirmed exploration model. Confirmed producibility. Long-term production test planned for 2010. CO2 sequestration test planned for 2010. Slide 12 Slide 13 MethaneCO 2 Slide 14 Highlights of U.S. Hydrate Program Gulf of Mexico 2008 MMS Assessment: Mean estimate of 6,717 TCF in sandstone reservoirs April, 2009 Drilling program led by Chevron logged hydrate-bearing sands. Slide 15 Results of Recent International Programs Canada Successful 2008 Arctic production test at limited scale. Japan Extensive drilling programs. Moving forward with plans for production test by 2011. India Extensive 2006 drilling program. China Initiated drilling program in 2007 S. Korea Initiated drilling program in 2007 Significant U.S. Collaboration Slide 16 Conclusion With adequate funding, by 2015 the United States will be able to determine: 1. The scale and production methods for economically- recoverable Arctic gas hydrate 2. The scale of the technically-recoverable resource from marine gas hydrate 3. The environmental impact of hydrate gas production and hydrate's role in the environment This is an important step to ensure Americas energy security a transition to renewables