Top Banner

Click here to load reader

of 140

Fundamental of computer

May 26, 2015

ReportDownload

Education

Fundamental of computer

  • 1. FUNDAMENTALS OFCOMPUTERSBy - Aadarsh SrivastavaContact - 08826830666

2. WHAT IS COMPUTER? DERIVED FROM WORD COMPUTE. A COMPUTER IS AN ELECTRONIC DEVICE THAT TAKES DATAAND INSTRUCTIONS AS INPUT, PROCESSES THE DATA ANDPRODUCES USEFUL INFORMATION AS OUTPUT.DATAProcessInputOutputInformationInstructions SO THE ELECTRONIC DEVICE IS KNOWN AS HARDWARE ANDTHE SET OF INSTRUCTIONS IS KNOWN AS SOFTWARE. 3. CHARACTERISTICS OF COMPUTER SPEED ACCURACY DILIGENCE VERSATILE POWER OF REMEMBERING NO IQ NO FEELING 4. HISTORY OF COMPUTERS FIRST CALCULATING MACHINE: ABACUS MEANSCALCULATING BOARD. MECHANICAL DEVICE NAPIER BONES FOR THE PURPOSE OFMULTIPLICATION. SLIDE RULE FOR ADDITION, SUBTRACTION, MULTIPLICATIONAND DIVISION. PASCALS ADDING AND SUBTRACTORY MACHINE. LEIBNIZS MULTIPLICATION AND DIVIDING MACHINE. CHARLES BABBAGES ANALYTICAL ENGINE. MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL CALCULATOR TO PERFORMALL TYPE OF CALCULATION. MODERN ELECTRONIC CALCULATOR. 5. GENERATIONS OF COMPUTER EACH GENERATION IS DISTINGUISHED FROM OTHERS ON THE BASIS OF THETYPE OF SWITCHING CIRCUITS USED. COMPUTERS CAN BE CATEGORIZED INTO 5 GENERATIONS: FIRST GENERATION (1940-1956) VACUUM TUBES USED TO BUILD CIRCUITRY FOR COMPUTER USED TO PERFORM CALCULATION IN MILLISECONDS. VERY LARGE IN SIZE. USED MACHINE LANGUAGE TO PERFORM OPERATIONS. USED TO TAKE INPUTS FROM PUNCH CARDS AND OUTPUT ON PAPER. COMPUTERS OF FIRST GENERATION WERE: ENIAC, EDVACAND UNIVAC-1. ENIAC IS THE FIRST ELECTRONIC COMPUTER. 6. CONTD.. SECOND GENERATION (1956-1963)TRANSISTORS USED TO BUILD CIRCUITRY FOR COMPUTERS.SMALLER IN SIZE AND FASTER THAN THE FIRST GENERATIONCOMPUTERS.CONCEPT OF CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT (CPU), MEMORY,PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE AND INPUT AND OUTPUT UNITSCAME INTO PICTURE.USED ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE TO GIVE INSTRUCTIONS.PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES SUCH AS COBOL, FORTRAN WEREDEVELOPED DURING THIS PERIOD.COMPUTERS OF SECOND GENERATION WERE: IBM 1620, CDC1604,PDP8 ETC. 7. CONTD.. THIRD GENERATION (1964-1971) THEY USED INTEGRATED CIRCUITS (IC). IC IS A SILICON CHIP THATEMBEDS AN ELECTRONIC CIRCUIT. SIZE REDUCED AND SPEED INCREASED. BASIC (BEGINNERS ALL PURPOSE SYMBOLIC INSTRUCTION CODE)WAS DEVELOPED DURING THIS PERIOD. USED KEYBOARD AS INPUT DEVICE AND MONITOR FOR OUTPUT. THIRD GENERATION COMPUTER INCLUDES IBM 370, PDP11 ANDCDC 7600. 8. CONTD.. FOURTH GENERATION (1971-TILL DATE): USED LARGE SCALE INTEGRATED CIRCUIT. THE CONCEPT OF MICROPROCESSOR CAME. TECHNIQUES TO CONNECT THE COMPUTERS ESTABLISHED I.E. LAN,WAN. OPERATING SYSTEMS CAME INTO EXISTENCE SUCH AS: DOS, WINDOWS. HIGH LEVEL PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES WERE INTRODUCED. GRAPHICAL USER INTERFACE BASED APPLICATION. HIGH STORAGE CAPABILITYAND CHEAPER. EXAMPLE OF FOURTH GENERATION COMPUTER IS PERSONAL COMPUTER. 9. CONTD.. FIFTH GENERATION (1980- FUTURE)USE OF ULTRA LARGE SCALE INTEGRATION TECHNOLOGY.HIGH SPEED.PARALLEL PROCESSING.PORTABLE MASS STORAGE MEDIUM E.G. CD-ROM.NO REQUIREMENT OF ASSEMBLING THE DIFFERENTCOMPONENTS OF COMPUTER.PORTABLE COMPUTERS.BASED ON ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE SUCH AS VOICERECOGNITION SYSTEM. 10. CLASSIFICATION OF COMPUTERS COMPUTERS CAN BE CLASSIFIED IN FOLLOWINGCATEGORIES BASED ON THEIR COMPUTINGCAPABILITY, SIZE, NUMBER OF USERS AND SPEED:1. MICROCOMPUTERS2. MINICOMPUTERS3. MAINFRAME COMPUTERS4. SUPERCOMPUTERS 11. MICROCOMPUTERS IT HAS MICROPROCESSOR AS ITS CPU. IT PERFORMS THE FOLLOWING OPERATIONS:1. INPUTTING2. STORING3. PROCESSING4. OUTPUTTING5. CONTROLLING EXAMPLES OF MICROCOMPUTERS IS IBM-PC. 12. MINICOMPUTERS MEDIUM SIZED COMPUTERS. DESIGNED TO BE SERVE MULTIPLE USERSSIMULTANEOUSLY. USED AS SERVERS IN LAN. IT HAS LARGE STORAGE CAPACITY ANDOPERATES AT HIGHER SPEED. 13. MAINFRAME COMPUTERS VERY HIGH SPEED AND STORAGE CAPACITY. THEY ARE PLACED IN CENTRAL LOCATION AND ARECONNECTED TO SEVERAL USER TERMINALS. LARGER AND EXPENSIVE. GENERALLY USED IN CENTRALIZED DATABASES. CAN ALSO BE USED AS CONTROLLING NODE INWAN. EXAMPLE OF MAINFRAME COMPUTER IS: IBM 3000SERIES. 14. SUPERCOMPUTER FASTEST AND MOST EXPENSIVE MACHINES. IT IS BUILT BY INTERCONNECTING HUNDREDS OFMICROPROCESSORS. IT SUPPORTS MULTIPROCESSING AND PARALLELPROCESSING. MAINLY USED FOR WEATHER FORECASTING,BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH, AIRCRAFT DESIGN ETC. EXAMPLE OF SUPER COMPUTER IS: CRAY XMP. 15. BASIC TERMS OF COMPUTERSYSTEM COMPUTER SYSTEM IS BASICALLY DIVIDED INTO 2 PARTS:1. HARDWARE2. SOFTWARE HARDWARE REFERS TO PHYSICAL PARTS OF COMPUTERSYSTEM AND SOFTWARE REFERS TO SET OFINSTRUCTIONS FOR COMPUTER TO PERFORM SOME TASK. 16. COMPUTER ORGANIZATION 4 LOGICAL UNITS IN EVERY COMPUTER: INPUT UNIT OBTAINS INFORMATION FROM INPUT DEVICES (KEYBOARD, MOUSE) OUTPUT UNIT OUTPUTS INFORMATION (TO SCREEN, TO PRINTER, TO CONTROL OTHERDEVICES) MEMORY UNIT RAPID ACCESS, LOW CAPACITY, STORES INPUT INFORMATION CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT (CPU) SUPERVISES AND COORDINATES THE VARIOUS COMPONENTS OF THECOMPUTER PERFORMS ARITHMETIC CALCULATIONS AND LOGIC DECISIONS 17. ANATOMY OF COMPUTER SYSTEM KEYBOARD MOUSEInput devices SCANNER MONITOR PRINTEROutput Devices SPEAKER PRIMARY MEMORY SECONDARY MEMORY CONTROL UNIT ARITHMETIC LOGICAL UNIT MOTHERBOARDMemory ManagementProcessing units 18. KEYBOARD KEYPAD CONTAINS:Alphanumeric keys ALPHABETS NUMBERS SPECIAL SYMBOLS S.A. PAGE UP, PAGE DOWN, HOME,END ETC. FUNCTION KEYS S.A. F1, F2 ETC. PERFORMS A SPECIFICTASK. MODIFIER KEYS S.A. CTRL, SHIFT. SPACE BAR AND ESCAPE KEY NUMERIC KEYPAD QWERT KEYBOARD (TYPEWRITER KEYBOARD). ON KEY PRESS IT SENDS A CODE (ASCII CODE) TO THECPU. 19. MOUSE KNOWN AS POINTING & CLICK DEVICE. TWO / THREE BUTTONS WHEEL / OPTICAL MOUSE NORMALLY LEFT CLICK SELECT/ RUNRIGHT CLICK POPUP MENU 20. SCANNER INPUT DEVICE, CONVERTS A HARD COPY INTO A COMPUTER FILE (DIGITIZEDIMAGE). USED TO SCAN SIGNATURES, PHOTOGRAPHS, DOCUMENTS ETC. DIGITIZED IMAGE CAN BE BLACK & WHITE OR COLORED. FOR COLORED IMAGES EACH IMAGE IS CONSIDERED AS COLLECTION OF DOTSWITH EACH DOT REPRESENTING THE COMBINATION OF RED, GREEN, BLUE INDIFFERENT PROPORTION. NOWADAYS SCANNERS WITH OCR PRODUCES EDITABLE DOCUMENTS. 21. MONITOR OUTPUT DEVICE IT PRODUCES VISUAL DISPLAYS GENERATED BY THE COMPUTER. IT IS CONNECTED TO SOME PART OF THE CPU THROUGH CABLES. THE MONITOR CAN BE CLASSIFIED AS CRT (CATHODE RAY TUBE) AND LCD(LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY). AMONITOR IS CHARACTERIZED BY ITS MONITOR SIZE AND RESOLUTION. 22. PRINTER OUTPUT DEVICE PRODUCES HARD COPY OF THE ELECTRONIC TEXT. TYPES: DOT MATRIX: USED IN LOW QUALITY AND HIGHVOLUME APPLICATIONS. INKJET: SLOWER THAN DOT MATRIX BUT PRODUCESHIGH QUALITY PRINTOUTS. LASER: CONSISTS OF MICROPROCESSOR, ROM ANDRAM THAT CAN STORE THE TEXTUAL INFORMATION. PRINTER AND COMPUTER IS CONNECTED USING CABLE,THE COMPUTER CONVERTS THE DOCUMENT THAT ISUNDERSTANDABLE BY THE PRINTER USING PRINTDRIVER SOFTWARE. 23. SPEAKER OUTPUT DEVICE. IT CONVERTSAN ELECTRICAL SIGNAL INTO SOUND. AUDIO DRIVERS NEED TO BE INSTALLED TO PRODUCE THE AUDIOOUTPUT. SPEAKERS ARE EITHER IN-BUILT IN THE COMPUTER OR ATTACHEDEXTERNALLYTO THE COMPUTER. 24. PRIMARY MEMORY PRIMARY MEMORY IS THE BUILT IN UNIT OF THE COMPUTER. THE DATA IS STORED IN MACHINE UNDERSTANDABLE BINARYFORMAT IN THE MEMORY. THE TYPES OF PRIMARY MEMORY ARE:ROM--PERMANENT MEMORY--NON-VOLATILE.--A CHIP INSERTED IN MOTHERBOARD.--STORES THE BIOS WHICH PERFORMS POST(POWER ON SELFTEST).RAM--IT IS READ/WRITE MEMORY.--VOLATILE. 25. CONTD..CACHE MEMORY-- IT STORES THE DATA AND APPLICATION THATWAS LAST PROCESSED BY THE CPU.--WHEN CPU PERFORMS PROCESSING, IT FIRSTSEARCHES THE CACHE AND THEN RAM. 26. ROM TYPES THERE ARE 3 TYPES OF ROM: PROM: PROGRAMMABLE ROM I.E. A MEMORY CHIP ON WHICH DATA CAN BEWRITTEN ONLY ONCE. IT IS MANUFACTURED AS BLANK MEMORY. EPROM: ERASABLE PROM I.E. A SPECIAL TYPE OF PROM THAT CAN BE ERASEDBY EXPOSING IT TO UV LIGHT. EEPROM: ELECTRIC ERASABLE PROM I.E. SIMILAR TO PROM BUT REQUIRESELECTRICITY TO BE ERASED. 27. RAM TYPES SRAM: IT IS STATIC RAM. IT IS FASTER, EXPENSIVEAND CONSUMES LESS POWER. SRAM IS USED INCACHE MEMORY. DRAM: IT IS DYNAMIC RAM. IT IS SLOWER,CHEAPER AND CONSUMES LESS POWER. DRAM ISWIDELY USED IN MAIN MEMORY. 28. SECONDARY MEMORY THEY REPRESENT THE EXTERNAL STORAGE DEVICESCONNECTED TO THE COMPUTER. NON-VOLATILE MEMORY. STORES INFORMATION THAT IS NOT IN USE CURRENTLY. CLASSIFICATION OF SECONDARY STORAGE:--MAGNETIC STORAGE DEVICE INCLUDES FLOPPY DISK,HARD DISK ETC.--OPTICAL STORAGE DEVICE INCLUDES CD-ROM, CD-RW,DVD-ROM ETC.--MAGNETO-OPTICAL STORAGE DEVICE INCLUDES 29. HARD DISK NON-REMOVABLE STORAGE DEVICE. SEVERAL CIRCULAR MAGNETIC DISKS AREHOUSED IN A SINGLE CASE. DATA IS STORED AS 1S & 0S. TYPICAL CAPACITY IS 20 GB -80 GB 30. FLOPPY DISK MAGNETIC MEMORY DEVICE. REMOVABLE STORAGE. A SINGLE CIRCULAR MYLAR PLASTIC DISK,COATED WITH MAGNETIC MATERIAL IS PACKEDIN A PROTECTIVE PLASTIC CASING. TYPICAL SIZE IS 3.5 & CAPACITY IS 1.44MB 31. CD-ROM OPTICAL DEVICE. REMOVABLE STORAGE. READ ONLY MEMORY. TYPICAL CAPACITY IS 550 MB 800MB 32. PROCESSING IN A COMPUTER(COMPUTER ARCHITECTURE) 33. CPU A CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT (CPU) CONSISTS OF AN ARITHMETIC/LOGIC UNIT (ALU) WHERE MATH ANDLOGIC OPERATIONS ARE PERFORMED, A CONTROL UNIT WHICH DIRECTS MOST OPERATIONS BYPROVIDING TIMING AND CONTROL SIGNALS, AND REGISTERS THAT PROVIDE SHORT-TERM DATASTORAGE AND MANAGEMENT FACILITIES. 34. ALU A : THE TYPE OF OPERATION THAT THE ALU NEEDS TOPERFORM IS DETERMINED BY SIGNALS FROM THE CONTROLUNIT . B: THE DATA CAN COME EITHER FROM THE INPUT UNIT, OR C: FROM THE MEMORY UNIT. D: RESULTS OF THE OPERATION CAN EITHER BETRANSFERRED BACK TO THE MEMORY UNIT OR E: DIRECTLY TO THE OUTPUT UNIT . 35. ROLE OF RAM IN PROCESSING STORES INSTRUCTIONS AND/OR DATA. MEMORY IS DIVIDED INTO AN ARRAY OF "BOXES" EACHCONTAININGA BYTE OF INFORMATION. A BYTE CONSISTS OF 8 BITS. A BIT (BINARY DIGIT) IS EITHER 0 (OFF) OR 1 (ON). THE MEMORY UNIT ALSO SERVES AS A STORAGE FORINTERMEDIATE AND FINAL RESULTS OF ARITHMETICOPERATIONS. F : CONTROL SIGNAL (A READ OR AWRITE OPERATION). G : A LOCATION IN MEMORY H : INPUT TO MEM

Welcome message from author
This document is posted to help you gain knowledge. Please leave a comment to let me know what you think about it! Share it to your friends and learn new things together.