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Frank Visco - Biology

Jan 06, 2016




1. Frank Visco - Biology Email: [email protected] (preferred over phone messages) Phone: 714-432-0202 ext. 22740 Office hours: by appointment only Web site: or through OCC web site – - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Frank Visco - BiologyEmail: [email protected] (preferred over phone messages)Phone: 714-432-0202 ext. 22740Office hours: by appointment onlyWeb site: or through OCC web site Includes all images used in lecture~ PowerPoint (PPT) Version ~ & pdf. Version (no movement)Includes all reviews for examsCopy this page1

  • Attendance really does count for borderline grades2This signifies item important for test purposes

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    InstructorFrank ViscoN.S. 100Fall 2008Tues.ThursTuesThursTuesThursTueThursTuesLAST NAMEFIRST NAMEOct. 7Oct. 9Oct. 14Oct. 16Oct. 21Oct. 23Oct. 28Oct. 30Nov. 4AcevesSalvadorAlonzoSarahAnariShivaAtkinsCelesteAytekinSelcukBarnesChaseBellTiffanyBenjaminRoyaleBowlinBradleyBrittellElizabethBurgosGabrielChadwickKayleeConroyBrianDavisJulianDillyMatthew

    Tues.LAST NAMEFIRST NAMEOct. 7AcevesSalvadorSAAlonzoSarahSAAnariShivaSAAtkinsCelesteAytekinSelcukSA

  • In this section (biology):Characteristics of Life Cell Theory Chemistry of Life Midterm 3 (30 points; each question worth points) Cell structure and function DNA structure and function Viruses Biotechnology Bioenergetics Midterm 4 (30 points; each question worth points) Cell Division Gametogenesis Mendelian Genetics Evolution Origin of Life Kingdoms of Life Ecological Concepts and concerns (tested on course Final) Midterm 5 (30 points; each question worth points - including Final) 3

  • Life A complex physical state and complex series of chemical reactions with these characteristicsAcquisition and use of energyReproductionGrowth and developmentResponse to stimuliAdapt to changing environmentHighly organizedhomeostasis

  • Acquisition and use of energyReproductionGrowth and developmentAbility to respond to stimuliAdapt to changing environmentHigh degree of organizationhomeostasisMorphogenesis of the caterpillar into a pupa and then into the butterfly is an example of growth and development. Acquisition and use of energyReproductionGrowth and developmentAbility to respond to stimuliAdapt to changing environmentHigh degree of organizationhomeostasisCaterpillar PupaButterfly5

  • BrainKidneyLiverHeartLungStem cell can become any of 220 cell typesStem cells - building blocks of all tissues8

  • Acquisition and use of energyReproductionGrowth and developmentAbility to respond to stimuliAdapt to changing environmentHigh degree of organizationhomeostasis7Brain Neurons can be derived from human embryonic stem cells.Embryonic Stem Cells are an example of growth and development

  • Cell Theory - 4 components:1.Cell is smallest unit of life2.All cells derived from previously existing cells 3.All cells show basic similarities in their chemical make-up and metabolic activities4.An organism (like a rabbit) is sum of all of the individual cells composing organism8

  • 91. Red Blood cells are an example of the smallest unit of life

  • 2.All cells are derived from previously existing cells that is cells do not arise spontaneously from non-cells, instead cells come only from other cells by cell division.10No

  • Experiments to create life (cells) from non-life have not been successful11

  • Blue Print #1 Blue Print #2 3. All cells have same basic chemical structure and chemical reactions.12

  • Nutrients same for all lifeHuman DNAHuman DNA make human products Dog DNA make dog products Dog DNA13

  • Nutrients or Raw MaterialsBlueprint Blueprint 14

  • 4.Activity of an organism (such as a human) is the sum of each cells individual activities15

  • Brain activityCell structure and functionCell movementsHeartbeatSmell, tasteSperm and egg Why is chemistry so important to LIFE?photosynthesisThe human body has thousands of chemical reactions making thousands of chemical products16

  • Some chemicals of LIFEOxygen carryingPhotosynthesisEnergywaterneurotransmittersHumans make about 35,000 different chemical productsInsects make about 10,000 chemical productsBacteria make about 1000 chemical products Viruses make about 10 chemical products17

  • Matter and energy compose everything in NATUREMatter anything that takes up space and has mass (weight) Energy capacity to bring about movement against an opposing force18

  • Three states of matter (for water)Gas (Fog)Solid (Ice) Liquid19

  • Chemical Elements are pure forms of matterExamples include:Elemental goldElemental bromineElemental mercuryElemental silverElemental iron20

  • Periodic Table of Elements; Includes all natural elements and experimentally made elements.21

  • Everything in nature is made of the elements on the periodic table.22

  • The Periodic Table of Chemical ElementsHydrogen (H) is simplest element23

  • Each element is composed of specific atoms:

    Atoms are usually composed of 3 subcomponents:Protons positive (+) charge (red)Electrons negative (-) chargeNeutrons no charge or neutral (+/-) charge (white)24

  • Electron shell (or energy level) has only 1 electron (-)Nucleus of Atom has only 1 proton (+) +Hydrogen Atom25

  • 0.00000000005 meters = distance between the nucleus (+) and the electron orbital (-)or5/10,000,000,000 of a meteror 5 ten billionths of a meter26

  • Two electrons (-) are in an shell around the nucleus; nucleus has two protons (+) and two neutrons (+/-)Helium Atom27

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  • Protium There are three forms of Hydrogen.- one proton, one electron

    - one proton, one electron, one neutron

    - one proton, one electron, two neutronsIsotopes - alternate forms of same element; different numbers of neutrons.DeuteriumTritium129

  • Radioactive isotope greater number of neutrons than protonsRadioactive Tritium is unstable and becomes more stable by giving off energy or radiation = radioactivityProtium DeuteriumTritium30

  • From water and soil under housesMay cause up to 50% lung cancer if inhaledProduces alpha radiation31

  • Radon radiation tracks in lung tissueCells hit by tracks can become cancer cells 132

  • =5 kilograms (11 pounds) of weapons grade plutonium (or uranium) Nuclear WeaponsAugust 9, 1945 - Nagasaki100,000 tons of chemical explosive, such as dynamite133

  • Atomic Weight vs. Atomic NumberAtomic Weight of an Atom = number of protons and neutrons Atomic Number of an Atom = number of protons 34

  • Hydrogen (Protium)Atomic number = 1Atomic weight = 1

    DeuteriumAtomic number = 1Atomic weight = 235

  • Carbon AtomAtomic number = 6 (protons)Atomic weight = 12 (6 protons and 6 neutrons)136

  • Atomic number = ??Atomic weight = ??Protons neutrons electrons

    (8) (8) (8)816+37

  • A human body contains 6.27 x 1027 atoms, or6,270,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 atomsHydrogen atoms = 4.22 x 1027 Oxygen atoms = 1.61 x 1027Carbon atoms = 8.03 x 1026


  • See page 1-7BCalculation of the total number of each atom found in the human body Oxygen 1.61 x 1027 atomsGold 2 x 1019 atoms39

  • Holds 8 electronsHas 1Has 2Has 4Has 8Has 1Has 8Holds 2 electronsHolds 8 electrons40

  • Hydrogen has room for 2 electrons in the first shell, but only has 1 electron.Carbon has 2 electrons in the first shell and only 4 electrons in the second shell, but Carbon can hold 8 electrons in the second shell, HCso Carbon can pick up 4 more electrons in the second shell.41

  • 4 hydrogen (H) share their electrons with the 4 electrons in the outer shell of one Carbon (C) HHHHCSharing of electrons is called a covalent bondCH4 = molecule42

  • Each H atom shares an electron with the other HChemical bondCovalent bond sharing electrons143

  • Covalent bond sharing electronsEach H needs 2 electronsO needs 8 electrons144

  • Holds 2 electronsHolds 8 electronsHolds 8 electronsHas 1Has 2Has 4Has 8Has 1Has 845

  • Polar molecule (+) and (-)Non polar molecule (+) or (-)(+)(+)(+)(+

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