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Francesco Algarotti on Nader Shah Afshar

Apr 09, 2018

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    Francesco Algarotti

    Sopra l'ordine di battaglia di Koulicano (1)

    contro ad Afrasso capo degli Aguania Leilam contro a Topal Osmano

    (1) Thamas Kuli Khan poi Nadir Shah Afshar (1688/98-1747)

    Discorsi VI e VII dei XX Discorsi MilitariinOpere del Conte Algarotti, Cavaliere dellOrdine del Merito e Ciamberlano di S. M. il Re di

    Prussia, Tomo IIII, Livorno, MDCCLXIV, presso Marco Coltellini = Vol. V dell'Edizione 1779

    . A Western view of Nader in his later years from a book by Jonas Hanway (1753).

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    Nader Shah's dagger with a small portion of his jewelry. Now part of the Iranian Crown Jewels.

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    Nader Shah

    Nader Shah coin from 1151 AH (Islamic Calendar), 1738 ADFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    Reign 17361747

    Born August 6, 1698

    Died June 19, 1747 (aged 48)

    Predecessor Abbas III

    Successor Adil Shah

    Nder Shh Afshr (Persian: ; also known as Nder Qoli Beg- orTahmsp Qoli Khn - )(November, 1688 [1] or August 6, 1698[2] June 19, 1747) ruled as Shah of Iran (173647) and was the founder of the Afsharid

    dynasty. Because of his military genius, some historians have described him as theNapoleon of Persia[3]

    or the SecondAlexander.

    [4]

    Nader Shah was a member of the TurkicAfshar tribe of northern Persia,[5] which had supplied military power to the Safavid statesince the time ofShah Ismail I.[6]Nader rose to power during a period of anarchy in Iran after a rebellion by the HotakiAfghans hadoverthrown the weak Persian Shah Soltan Hosein, and both the Ottomans and the Russians had seized Persian territory forthemselves. Nader reunited the Persian realm and removed the invaders. He became so powerful that he decided to depose the lastmembers of the Safavid dynasty, which had ruled Iran for over 200 years, and become shah himself in 1736. His campaigns created agreat empire that briefly encompassed what is now Iran, Iraq, Afghanistan, Pakistan, parts of the Caucasus region, parts ofCentralAsia, and Oman but his military spending had a ruinous effect on the Persian economy. [1]Nader idolized Genghis Khan and Timur,the previous conquerors from Central Asia. He imitated their military prowess andespecially later in his reigntheir cruelty. Hisvictories briefly made him the Middle East's most powerful sovereign, but his empire quickly disintegrated after he was assassinatedin 1747. Nader Shah has been described as "the last great Asian military conqueror". [7] He is credited for restoring Iranian power asan eminence between the Ottomans and the Mughals. [8][9][10][11]Early lifeNader Shah was born in Dastgerd[12] into the Qereqlu clan of the Afshars, a semi-nomadic Qizilbash tribe in Khorasan, aprovince in the north-east of the Persian Empire[13] . His father Emamqoli, a poor shepherd [1] or Coat-maker (poostinduz in Persianlanguage )[14], died while Nader was still a child. According to legends, Nader and his mother were carried off as slaves by

    marauding Uzbekor Turkmen tribesmen, but Nader managed to escape. He joined a band of brigands while still a boy and eventuallybecame their leader. Under the patronage of Afsharchieftains, he rose through the ranks to become a powerful military figure. Nadermarried the two daughters of Baba Ali Beg, a local chief.[1]Fall of the Safavid dynastyNader grew up during the final years of the Safavid dynasty which had ruled Persia since 1502. At itspeak, under such figures as Abbas the Great, Safavid Persia had been a powerful empire, but by the early 18th century the state wasin serious decline and the reigning shah, Soltan Hosein, was a weak ruler. When Soltan Hussein attempted to quell a rebellion by theGhilzai Afghans in Kandahar, the governor he sent was killed. Under their leader Mahmud Hotaki, the rebellious Afghans movedwestwards against the shah himself and in 1722 they defeated a vastly superior force at the Battle of Gulnabad and then besieged thecapital, Isfahan.[15] After the shah failed to escape to rally a relief force elsewhere, the city was starved into submission and SoltanHussein abdicated, handing power to Mahmud. In Khorasan, Nader at first submitted to the local Afghan governor of Mashhad,Malek Mahmud, but then rebelled and built up his own small army. Soltan Hossein's son had declared himselfShah Tahmasp II, butfound little support and fled to the Qajar tribe, who offered to back him. Meanwhile, Persia's imperial rivals, the Ottomans and theRussians, took advantage of the chaos in the country to seize territory for themselves.[16]Fall of the Hotaki dynasty Tahmasp and the Qajar leader Fath Ali Khan (the ancestor of Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar) contacted

    Nader and asked him to join their cause and drive the Ghilzai Afghans out of Khorasan. He agreed and thus became a figure ofnational importance. When Nader discovered that Fath Ali Khan was in treacherous correspondence with Malek Mahmud andrevealed this to the shah, Tahmasp executed him and made Nader the chief of his army instead. Nader subsequently took on the titleTahmasp Qoli (Servant of Tahmasp). In late 1726, Nader recaptured Mashhad.[17]Nader chose not to march directly on Isfahan. First,in May 1729, he defeated the Abdali Afghans nearHerat. Many of the Abdali Afghans subsequently joined his army. The new shahof the Ghilzai Afghans, Ashraf, decided to move against Nader but in September 1729, Nader defeated him at the Battle of Damghanand again, decisively, in November at Murchakhort. Ashraf fled and Nader finally entered Isfahan, handing it over to Tahmasp inDecember. The citizens' rejoicing was cut short when Nader plundered them to pay his army. Tahmasp made Nader governor overmany eastern provinces, including his native Khorasan, and married him to his sister. Nader pursued and defeated Ashraf, who wasmurdered by his own followers.[18] In 1738 Nader Shahbesieged and destroyed the last Hotaki seat of power at Kandahar. He built anew city near Kandahar, which he named "Naderabad".[1]Ottoman campaign In the spring of 1730, Nader attacked the Ottomans and regained most of the territory lost during the recentchaos. At the same time, the Abdali Afghans rebelled and besieged Mashhad, forcing Nader to suspend his campaign and save hisbrother, Ebrahim. It took Nader fourteen months to defeat the Abdali Afghans. Relations between Nader and the Shah had declinedas the latter grew jealous of his general's military successes. While Nader was absent in the east, Tahmasp tried to assert himself bylaunching a foolhardy campaign to recapture Yerevan. He ended up losing all of Nader's recent gains to the Ottomans, and signed atreaty ceding Georgia and Armenia in exchange forTabriz. Nader saw that the moment had come to ease Tahmasp from power. Hedenounced the treaty, seeking popular support for a war against the Ottomans. In Isfahan, Nader got Tahmasp drunk then showedhim to the courtiers asking if a man in such a state was fit to rule. In 1732 he forced Tahmasp to abdicate in favor of the Shah's baby

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    son, Abbas III, to whom Nader became regent. Nader decided h

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