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Four Amino Acids Are Converted to Succinyl- CoA 1 Dr. Nikhat Siddiqi
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  • Four Amino Acids Are Converted to Succinyl-CoA 1Dr. Nikhat Siddiqi
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  • The carbon skeletons of methionine, isoleucine, threonine, and valine are degraded by pathways that yield succinyl- CoA, an intermediate of the citric acid cycle. 2Dr. Nikhat Siddiqi
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  • Methionine is one of four amino acids that form succinyl CoA. This sulfur-containing amino acid deserves special attention because it is converted to S- adenosylmethionine (SAM), the major methyl- group donor in one-carbon metabolism. Methionine is also the source of homocysteinea metabolite associated with atherosclerotic vascular disease. 4Dr. Nikhat Siddiqi
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  • Degradation and resynthesis of methionine Synthesis of SAM: Methionine condenses with adenosine triphosphate (ATP), forming SAMa high- energy compound that is unusual in that it contains no phosphate. The formation of SAM is driven, in effect, by hydrolysis of all three phosphate bonds in ATP 5Dr. Nikhat Siddiqi
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  • Degradation and resynthesis of methionine Activated methyl group: The methyl group attached to the tertiary sulfur in SAM is activated, and can be transferred to a variety of acceptor molecules, such as norepinephrine in the synthesis of epinephrine. The methyl group is usually transferred to oxygen or nitrogen atoms, but sometimes to carbon atoms. The reaction product, S- adenosylhomocysteine, is a simple thioether, analogous to methionine. The resulting loss of free energy accompanying the reaction makes methyl transfer essentially irreversible. 6Dr. Nikhat Siddiqi
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  • Degradation and resynthesis of methionine Hydrolysis of SAM: After donation of the methyl group, S-adenosylhomocysteine is hydrolyzed to homocysteine and adenosine. Homocysteine has two fates. If there is a deficiency of methionine, homocysteine may be remethylated to methionine. If methionine stores are adequate, homocysteine may enter the transsulfuration pathway, where it is converted to cysteine. 7Dr. Nikhat Siddiqi
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  • Degradation and resynthesis of methionine Resynthesis of methionine: Homocysteine accepts a methyl group from N 5 - methyltetrahydrofolate (N 5 - methyl-THF) in a reaction requiring methylcobalamin, a coenzyme derived from vitamin B l2. The methyl group is transferred from the B 12 derivative to homocysteine, and cobalamin is recharged from N 5 -methyl-THF. 8Dr. Nikhat Siddiqi
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  • Degradation and resynthesis of methionine Synthesis of cysteine: Homocysteine condenses with serine, forming cystathionine, which is hydrolyzed to -ketobutyrate and cysteine. This vitamin B 6 requiring sequence has the net effect of converting serine to cysteine, and homocysteine to - ketobutyrate, which is oxidatively decarboxylated to form propionyl CoA. Propionyl CoA is converted to succinyl CoA. Because homocysteine is synthesized from the essential amino acid methionine, cysteine is not an essential amino acid as long as sufficient methionine is available. 9Dr. Nikhat Siddiqi
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  • Relationship of homocysteine to vascular disease Elevations in plasma homocysteine levels promote oxidative damage, inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction, and are an independent risk factor for occlusive vascular disease. 10Dr. Nikhat Siddiqi
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  • Other amino acids that form succinyl CoA Degradation of valine, isoleucine, and threonine also results in the production of succinyl CoAa tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediate and glucogenic compound. Valine and isoleucine: These amino acids are branched-chain amino acids that generate propionyl CoA, which is converted to succinyl CoA by biotin- and vitamin B 12 requiring reactions. Threonine: This amino acid is dehydrated to - ketobutyrate, which is converted to propionyl CoA and then to succinyl CoA. 11Dr. Nikhat Siddiqi
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  • Isoleucine Isoleucine undergoes transamination, followed by oxidative decarboxylation of the resulting - keto acid. The remaining five-carbon skeleton is further oxidized to acetyl-CoA and propionyl-CoA. 12Dr. Nikhat Siddiqi
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  • Valine Valine undergoes transamination and decarboxylation, then a series of oxidation reactions that convert the remaining four carbons to propionyl-CoA. 13Dr. Nikhat Siddiqi
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  • Threonine In human tissues, threonine is also converted in two steps to propionyl- CoA. This is the primary pathway for threonine degradation in humans. The propionyl-CoA derived from these three amino acids is converted to succinyl-CoA. 14Dr. Nikhat Siddiqi
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  • Oxidation of propionyl-CoA to Succinyl CoA 15Dr. Nikhat Siddiqi
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  • In the rare genetic disease known as methylmalonic acidemia, methylmalonyl-CoA mutase is lackingwith serious metabolic consequences. 16Dr. Nikhat Siddiqi
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  • Amino acids that form acetyl CoA or acetoacetyl CoA Leucine, isoleucine, lysine, and tryptophan form acetyl CoA or acetoacetyl CoA directly, without pyruvate serving as an intermediate. As mentioned previously, phenylalanine and tyrosine also give rise to acetoacetate during their catabolism. Therefore, there are a total of six ketogenic amino acids. 17Dr. Nikhat Siddiqi
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  • Leucine This amino acid is exclusively ketogenic in its catabolism, forming acetyl CoA and acetoacetate. 18Dr. Nikhat Siddiqi
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  • Isoleucine This amino acid is both ketogenic and glucogenic, because its metabolism yields acetyl CoA and propionyl CoA. 19Dr. Nikhat Siddiqi
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  • Lysine: An exclusively ketogenic amino acid, this amino acid is unusual in that neither of its amino groups undergoes transamination as the first step in catabolism. Lysine is ultimately converted to acetoacetyl CoA. 20Dr. Nikhat Siddiqi
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  • Tryptophan This amino acid is both glucogenic and ketogenic because its metabolism yields alanine and acetoacetyl CoA. 21Dr. Nikhat Siddiqi
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