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Foster + Partners :The Art of Architecture Tpe

Jul 21, 2016

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Page 1: Foster + Partners :The Art of Architecture Tpe

2015年 4月 11—24日 11—24 April 2015

Page 2: Foster + Partners :The Art of Architecture Tpe

我們如何為人類創構永續的未來?五十多年來,福斯特聯合建築師事務所(Foster + Partners) 透過無數動人的計畫探索了這一主題,從博物館到機場、工廠、國會大廈、劇院以及辦公大樓。雖然在全球擁有了非常豐富的設計執行經驗,但在所有設計方案中都實踐了同一套價值觀,無論計畫的規模與類型,每一次的設計都貫穿了一個信念,亦即相信建築創造的優質環境可以為我們的生活帶來直接的影響與改變。

‘Foster + Partners:建築藝術’圍繞著城市設計、總體規劃、基礎設施、文化、市民生活以及可持續發展等主題展開,展覽呈現了事務所完成的項目的多元性和豐富性。這次展覽囊括了一些世界最知名的建築和結構,如法國的米洛高架橋(Millau Viaduct)、柏林的德國國會大廈(Reichstag) 以及倫敦的瑞士再保險 (Swiss Re) 公司總部大樓。

展覽特別呈現讓觀眾一睹事務所辦公室的工作情景,介紹了整體規劃的步驟讓觀者了解規劃的流程,在這裡,建築師和工程師以及許多來自其他領域的專家一起攜手工作,這些專家包括室內設計師、城市規劃師、環境分析師以及幾何學專家。展覽也探討了如何使用不同的工具技術,在現今電腦已經徹底改變了設計師工作方式的時代,手繪圖稿和模型製造依舊在設計過程中扮演著重要的角色。展覽包括原始設計草圖、模型以及伴隨著從建築師與客戶的第一次會面到建築完成的驗收,在這整個過程中出現的特殊物件與展品。

建築的藝術

Page 3: Foster + Partners :The Art of Architecture Tpe

THE ART OF ARCHITECTURE

How do we design for a sustainable future? Over the past five decades, Foster + Partners has explored this theme through a wide range of projects, from museums to airports, factories, parliament buildings, opera houses and office towers. But although the international scope of the practice’s work has grown, the same set of values underpins every design, regardless of its size or type. Each is united by a common thread – a belief that the quality of our surroundings has a direct influence on the quality of our lives.

‘Foster + Partners: the Art of Architecture’ is arranged around the themes of urban design and masterplanning, infrastructure, culture and civic and sustainability. The works on display highlight the incredible diversity of the practice’s work. The exhibition includes some of the world’s most recognisable buildings and structures, such as the Millau Viaduct in France, the Reichstag in Berlin and London’s Swiss Re headquarters tower.

The exhibition also offers visitors a unique insight into the workings of the studio and the integrated design process, in which architects and engineers work together, alongside specialists from many other disciplines, such as interiors, urban designers, environmental analysts and geometry specialists. It also explores the use of different tools – while the computer has revolutionised the way designers work, drawing and model making still play an important role. The exhibition includes original sketches, models and a special exhibit, which follows the entire design process from first client meeting to analysis of the completed building.

Page 4: Foster + Partners :The Art of Architecture Tpe

公共建設

公共建設經常面臨技術和規模方面的挑戰,福斯特設計的機場、鐵路車站和橋樑證明了體現建築藝術和永續使用為一體的設計原則,無論規模大小皆貫穿於每個計劃當中。倫敦的千禧橋和法國的米洛高架橋體現了既嚴謹且優雅的人類建築如何在經濟、社會及環境方面所展現的強大影響力。

斯坦斯特德機場挑戰了傳統機場規劃的通用法則,嘗試將建築「上下顛倒」,其輕質屋頂可以輕易地達到防雨和採光功能。能源高效使用,在偏鄉之處謹慎處理環保問題並讓能源有效使用,在保持技術先進的同時帶來最簡單便利的操作使用與體驗,斯塔斯特德的設計已被全球機場規劃師和設計師們廣為採用,這一明確和移動便利性模式,在香港和北京進行了更大規模的演繹。最近約旦的阿利亞皇后機場和現在的科威特國際機場,在沙漠炎熱的氣候條件下,兩者都採用了高效的被動式模式以減少機械冷卻需求。按照此邏輯,維珍銀河太空港開發出了一種全球率先使用的建築形式,保持操作簡易和高效率的使用。該太空港位於新墨西哥沙漠腹地,其設計使能源得以高效運用,並敏感的回應周遭環境的狀況。

1 北京首都國際機場Beijing International Airport

2 美國太空港Spaceport America

3 斯坦斯特德機場 Stansted Airport

4 千禧橋 Millennium Bridge

5 米約高架橋 Millau Viaduct

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Page 5: Foster + Partners :The Art of Architecture Tpe

INFRASTRUCTURE

Often technically challenging and vast in scope, Foster + Partners’ airports, rail stations and bridges exemplify both the art of architecture and the principles of sustainability that underpin every project, regardless of its size. The Millennium Bridge in London and the Millau Viaduct in France show how a seemingly discreet, graceful intervention can have a powerful impact, economically, socially and environmentally.

Stansted Airport challenged all the accepted rules of airport design. By turning the building ‘upside down’, the lightweight roof is freed simply to keep out rain and let in light. Energy efficient, environmentally discreet within its rural setting, technologically

advanced yet incredibly simple to use and experience, Stansted’s diagram has been adopted by airport planners and designers around the world. This model of clarity and ease of movement has evolved at a greater scale in Hong Kong and Beijing, in the recent Queen Alia International Airport in Jordan and current Kuwait International Airport, which both employ efficient passive forms that reduce the need for mechanical cooling in the intense desert heat. Developing this logic for a new type of building – a world first – the Virgin Galactic Spaceport resolves similar issues of legibility and efficiency. Lying low in the New Mexico desert, its design is both highly energy efficient and sensitive to its surroundings.

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Page 6: Foster + Partners :The Art of Architecture Tpe

都市規劃

城市場域直接影響了我們日常生活的種種。公共空間有如「城市的黏合劑」將整座城市串連為一體,其所扮演的角色,較諸多獨棟建築的集體價值有其不同的意義。正當我們悠游於其間視為理所當然,卻忽略了這些公共空間都是精心規劃的結果。要實現永續使用的可能性,則必須整體考慮交通系統、能源耗損、基礎設施及建築樣式,這是非常重要的,因為建築以及彼此之間的移動幾乎佔了我們耗能的三分之二。

福斯特聯合建築事務所在全球各地完成了各種城市公共空間規劃案,小從香港匯豐銀行大樓的公共廣場,大到阿布達比之馬斯達爾的城市總體規劃,其旨在完成全球首座碳平衡沙漠社區。建築本身的設計與其如何與城市土地銜接同等的重要。一系列的計畫嘗試「城市房間」的概念,在文化建築或摩天大樓中規劃一些彈性空間,透過這些空間巧妙地與外部世界產生連結。公共空間是表現城市精神最有力的象徵,本次展覽所選列的計畫,顯示了都市規劃必須兼顧感覺與實際空間的體驗。此外,也需考量公共空間如何兼顧特殊慶典與日常生活裡的使用,以及在運輸交通和行人步行需求之間小心尋求平衡,如倫敦中心區的特拉法加廣場的改造設計,作為倫敦市民的公共活動空間,也是國家大型活動的展演場地。同樣在斯德哥爾摩之斯魯森城市總體規劃案,將一處重要的濱海區成功改造成公共空間。這些計畫的目標都是創建永續、持久的都會區,並充分彰顯在地的文化特色。正如香港的文化生活就透過西九文化區的城市改造而發生了改變,福斯特所完成的城市總體規劃,為這城市開發區帶來嶄新的活力,但同時保有九龍原有的城市況味,這是因其設計想法靈感來自於城市原有的DNA 。

1 特拉法加廣場Trafalgar Square

2 西九文化區 West Kowloon Cultural District

3 馬斯達爾城總體規劃 Masdar City masterplan

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Page 7: Foster + Partners :The Art of Architecture Tpe

URBAN DESIGN

The quality of the urban realm has a direct influence on the quality of our daily lives. As the ‘urban glue’ that binds a city together, public space is arguably more significant than the collective merits of individual buildings. But while we tend to take these spaces for granted, they are the outcome of many acts of design. For their design to be sustainable, the approach must be holistic, looking at systems of transport, energy, infrastructure and architecture together – this is particularly vital, as buildings and the travel between them together account for almost two-thirds of the energy we consume. Foster + Partners has created a wide variety of civic spaces, from the plaza at the foot of the Hongkong and Shanghai Bank to a city-wide masterplan for Masdar in Abu Dhabi, which aims to be the world’s first carbon neutral desert community. The way in which a building ‘touches’ the ground is equally important, and a number of projects have explored the idea of an ‘urban room’ –

a flexible space within cultural or high-rise buildings, which establishes genuine connections to the outside world. Civic space can be a powerful symbol of a city – the projects on display show how urban design must address both perception and experience.

Following a careful balancing act between the Ceremonial and the everyday, and the needs of traffic and pedestrians, the practice’s design reclaimed Trafalgar Square in Central London as a civic space for London and a national venue for public events. Similarly in Stockholm, the Slussen masterplan restores an important waterfront site as a truly public space. The aim is always the creation of sustainable, enduring urban quarters that reflect a sense of place – as Hong Kong’s cultural life is transformed by the West Kowloon Cultural District, Foster + Partners’ masterplan ensures that this developing urban quarter is a new, yet familiar piece of Kowloon, generated by the same urban DNA.

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HIGH-RISE

There is a crucial relationship in urban terms between energy consumption and density. The lowest density cities, those that sprawl, are huge per capita energy consumers. At the other end of the scale, very high density cities have relatively low levels of energy consumption. Responding to rapid urbanisation and population growth, the practice’s 1989 proposal for the Millennium Tower in the waters of Tokyo presented a timely solution to the social and environmental challenges of urban expansion and acute land shortages.

Since the design of the Hongkong and Shanghai Bank in the 1980s, Foster + Partners has continued to redefine the

摩天大樓

在都會區中,能源消耗和人口密度之間的關係是至為重要的。最低密度的城市,毫無計劃地擴張,將導致巨大的人口平均能源消耗。而天平的另一端,非常高密度的城市,卻擁有相對較低的能耗水平。作為應對快速的城市化和人口增長,1989年我們為東京海上的千禧塔而提出的方案,是一個應對城市擴張和嚴重陸地資源短缺帶來社會和環境挑戰的適時解決方案。

自上世紀80年代香港上海匯豐銀行大樓設計開始,福斯特就一直致力於重新界定高樓的本質,並探討如何透過這些大樓建築回應城市的文本與精神,同樣重要的是生態節能的規劃,其核心要務是依靠自然採光和通風系統,包括德意志商業銀行大樓,還有位於倫敦暱稱「小黃瓜」的瑞士再保險公司大樓及位於紐約的赫斯特公司總部,成為首批環保節能大樓的典範。這些方案實踐了早在1971 年由富勒博士所提出的「氣候辦公室」理念,其主張自然環境和工作空間的融合,這也說明了事務所致力將永續理念與建築方案結合的努力已經超過40 年。

nature of the tower and to explore how it can respond to the context and the spirit of the city in which it stands. Equally important is the ecological programme. Central to this concern is the reliance on natural systems of lighting and ventilation, demonstrated by Commerzbank – the world’s first ecological office tower – 30 St Mary Axe and Hearst Tower. These projects extend ideas initially raised with the Climatroffice, a theoretical project undertaken with Buckminster Fuller in 1971, which promoted the integration of nature and the workplace – they demonstrate how the concept of sustainability has remained integral to the practice’s work for more than forty years.

Page 9: Foster + Partners :The Art of Architecture Tpe

1 瑞士再保險公司總部Swiss Re Headquarters

2 香港上海匯豐銀行總部 Hongkong and Shanghai Bank Headquarters

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Page 10: Foster + Partners :The Art of Architecture Tpe

1 大英博物館中央大廳The Great Court at the British Museum

2 德國新國會大廈 Reichstag, New German Parliament

3 卡里當代藝術博物館 Carré d’Art

CULTURE AND CIVIC

Many of the practice’s cultural projects have been driven by dual imperatives – the transformation of a museum, along with the regeneration of the surrounding area. The Carré d’Art in Nîmes, France shows how a building project, backed by an enlightened political initiative, can not only encourage a dialogue between ancient and modern architectures, but can also provide a powerful catalyst for reinvigorating the social and physical fabric of a city. A new building can create opportunities for people to engage with culture in its widest sense. The Sainsbury Centre for Visual Arts brings

文化和市民

在福斯特所執行的許多文化設施方案中,皆包含兩項目標,包括博物館本身的改造以及其周圍環境的活化。法國尼姆的當代美術館改建計畫就是一個絕佳的案例。計畫緣起一項政府政策,透過改造,一座建築不僅開啟了古代和現代建築風格間的對話,還可以作為活化一個城市人文精神與實體風貌的催化劑,為人們帶來深層的文化體驗。桑斯伯里視覺藝術中心集公共和私人空間、教育和文化活動於一座輕巧,靈活的建築體內。同樣,英國的賽吉蓋茲黑德音樂廳和美國達拉斯的溫斯皮爾歌劇院的觀眾席與廳院設計既是一處享受表演的藝術殿堂,又是開放的公共市民空間。

這些計畫還包括一系列針對歷史建築的當代新增與擴建設計,如波士頓美術館的美洲藝術館和倫敦大英博物館的大廳。一連串計畫還包括位於柏林的德國新國會大廈的改造工程,其強調了實事求是與透明的價值觀,建築的玻璃穹頂成為柏林的新地標,其象徵了德國嚴謹的民主進程和這座建築所要表徵的強烈環保主張。德國國會大廈成為能源永續的建築典範,它的電力能源來自可再生生物燃料以及精煉植物油的回收熱能發電,該系統遠比消耗石油燃料來的環保,可減少94% 的二氧化碳排放。

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Page 11: Foster + Partners :The Art of Architecture Tpe

together public and private, educational and cultural activities within a single lightweight, flexible enclosure. Similarly The Sage Gateshead and the Winspear Opera House in Dallas combine state-of-the-art auditoria with accessible, welcoming public spaces.

The practice has also designed a number of contemporary additions to historic institutions, such as the Art of the Americas Wing at the Boston Museum of Fine Arts and the Great Court at the British Museum in London. This strand of the practice’s work embraces the transformation of

the Reichstag, the New German Parliament in Berlin. Emphasising values of clarity and transparency, the building’s glazed cupola is a new landmark for the city – a symbol of both the rigour of the German democratic process and the building’s radical environmental agenda. The Reichstag provides a model for sustainability by burning renewable bio-fuel – refined vegetable oil − in a cogenerator to produce electricity: a system that is far cleaner than burning fossil fuels and has resulted in a 94 per cent reduction in carbon dioxide emissions.

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Page 12: Foster + Partners :The Art of Architecture Tpe

展覽地點 VENUE

台北松山文創園區 五號倉庫Songshan Cultural and Creative ParkWarehouse 5

songshanculturalpark.org

展覽日期 EXHIBITION DATES

2015年 4月 11—24日11—24 April 2015

福斯特聯合建築師事務所

福斯特聯合建築師事務所是全球最具原創思維的建築事務所之一。從世界各地所執行的計畫,展現驚人的創意與實踐力,從城市總體規劃、公共基礎建設、機場、政府機構與文化設施、辦公大樓、工作空間、住宅寓所到產品設計。在過去的這五十年,福斯特在統合規劃與創構永續環境的設計對策上,無庸置疑立於先驅地位。福斯特的總部位於倫敦,工作室遍及全球,所完成的作品遍佈六大洲。自 1967 年創立至今,事務所獲頒的獎項超過675 多個,贏得了120 多次國家和國際大賽的桂冠。

Foster + Partners is one of the most innovative architecture and design practices in the world. Over the past five decades the practice has pioneered integrated, sustainable design solutions through a strikingly wide range of work, from urban masterplans, public infrastructure, airports, civic and cultural buildings, offices and workplaces to private houses and product design. Based in London, with studios worldwide, the practice has an international reach, with buildings on six continents. Since its inception in 1967 it has received more than 675 awards for excellence and won over 120 national and international competitions.

fosterandpartners.com

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