Foreign policy- strategies for dealing with other nations
Explain how territorial expansion brought Americans into conflict with the British and with Native Americans. Describe American relations with Britain, France, and Spain. Analyze how the political parties debates over foreign policy further divided them. Objectives
Terms and People Little Turtle Native American war chief who defeated forces sent to stop his attacks on settlers in the 1790s Battle of Fallen Timbers 1794 victory over Native Americans by General Anthony Wayne, led to the Treaty of Greenville and American control over Ohio French Revolution 1789 republican uprising in France against the monarchy that led to public executions and war with Britain
Terms and People (continued) John Jay Chief Justice who negotiated a 1794 treaty with Britain that removed British soldiers from American lands, but maintained restrictions on American shipping XYZ Affair incident in which French officials demanded bribes to stop French seizures of American shipping Alien and Sedition Acts 1798 Federalist laws to restrict public criticism and deport immigrants, most of whom supported Democratic Republicans
Terms and People (continued) Virginia and Kentucky resolutions hinted that states had the power to nullify federal laws like the Alien and Sedition Acts, which some Democratic Republicans thought were unconstitutional Aaron Burr In 1800, tied Jefferson in the electoral college but became Vice President after Hamilton urged Federalist congressmen to back Jefferson; later killed Hamilton in a duel
How did foreign policy challenges affect political debate and shape American government? The nation had to make peace with Native Americans, control its borders, and establish itself internationally. Renewed war between Britain and France threatened neutrality. Americans debated the right response to the European war and to the French Revolution.
Map 10-1 p191
The new nation faced challenges on its Northwestern frontier The British continued to man forts along the Great Lakes and supplied Indian tribes with guns. In 1790 and 1791, Chief Little Turtle defeated American forces as the Miami Indians fought American expansion in the Ohio Valley.
1790-1791 Chief Little Turtle and the Miami Confederacy (which had been armed by the British) defeat U.S. forces in one of the worst U.S. defeats in the history of the frontier 1794 Battle of Fallen Timbers Miamis defeated Treaty of Greenville (1795)- the Miami Indians surrendered their claims to much of the Old Northwest.
In 1794, General Anthony Wayne defeated Native Americans in the Battle of Fallen Timbers. The resulting Treaty of Greenville gave the United States control of Ohio.
The French Revolution 1789 1792 France declared itself a Republic 1793 King Louis XVI beheaded and Reign of Terror begins The French Revolutions spread throughout Europe and beyond helped fuel Americans debate not only about the nature of the United States domestic order but also about its proper role in the world.
French Revolution was initially supported by many Americans, especially Jefferson and the Democratic-Republicans When a world war erupted as a result, however, Americans became less supportive
In 1789, Americans were divided by the French Revolution. Federalists worried about the anarchy and public executions. Hamilton feared Democratic Republicans might want to do the same in America. Jefferson decried the violence but publicly admired the French Revolutions principles.
Neutrality Proclamation 1793 Officially declared Americas neutrality in the battle between England and France Marked the beginning of Americas isolationist tradition
Tensions w/ Britain British goods flooded the American market while American exports were blocked by British trade restrictions and tariffs Britain maintained forts in North America that they had agreed to leave under the Treaty of Paris Britain impressed American sailors and seized naval and military supplies from American ships
Americans worried about the British and French war as most of Americas imports and tariff revenue came from British goods. But Britain ignored him and began seizing American trading ships at sea. Americans were outraged but powerless to respond. President Washington issued a proclamation of neutrality in 1793.
The resulting Jay Treaty was narrowly approved by the Senate. Federalists praised it, but Democratic Republicans attacked it. Maintained peace with Britain Britain agreed to give up forts on American soil, but Americans had to repay pre-Revolutionary War debts still owed to Britain. Restrictions remained on American shipping, which angered many Americans. Washington sent John Jay to London in 1794 to negotiate.
A more popular treaty was negotiated with Spain in 1795. The Pinckney Treaty allowed Americans to use the Mississippi River and the port of New Orleans. With access to the Mississippi, removal of the British, and defeat of the Native Americans, settlers poured into the west. 400,000 Americans lived beyond the Appalachians by the 1800s.
President Washington chose to retire in 1796. He felt that voluntary retirement after two terms would set an important precedent for the peaceful transfer of the office. In his farewell address, Washington advised successors to temper political strife in favor of national unity. In foreign affairs, he suggested Americans avoid entangling alliances with European powers.
Washingtons Farewell Address 1796 Printed in the newspapers Warned against permanent alliances (Washington favored temporary alliances for extraordinary emergencies)
As first President, Washington: Established the government Opened western land for settlers Kept the nation out of war Developed foreign trade Put the nation on solid financial footing. Washington helped the young nation survive early tests.
He narrowly defeated Thomas Jefferson who became his vice president. The vote was largely along regional lines with the North favoring Adams, the South favoring Jefferson. John Adams was elected President in 1796.
Americans were angered and insulted by this XYZ Affair and sentiment against France grew. French officials identified only as X, Y, and Z demanded bribes for the right to negotiate. Like Britain, France began seizing American ships. Adams sent envoys to negotiate. Early in his presidency, Adams faced a crisis with France.
The XYZ Affair
In 1798 Congress passed the Alien and Sedition Acts making it a crime to criticize the government. Immigrants, most of whom tended to favor Democratic Republicans, could be deported. The Federalists claimed the acts were necessary to stop unhealthy criticism that was undermining trust in the government. Democratic Republicans charged the acts violated the Constitution and were aimed to silence the opposition.
They suggested that states can nullify or reject unconstitutional laws. In 1798 and 1799, Jefferson and Madison attacked the Sedition Act as unconstitutional in the Virginia and Kentucky resolutions.
Shortly before the 1800 election, President Adams sought peace with France. This angered other Federalists, including Alexander Hamilton who then worked against Adams bid for re-election. Despite a tie in the electoral college, Thomas Jefferson won the presidency.
The election of 1800 marked an important precedent as the first peaceful transfer of power from one political party to another. The election of 1800 changed the balance of power and ended the Federalist era in government.
Democratic Party platform http://www.democrats.org/democratic- national-platform http://www.democrats.org/democratic- national-platform Republican Party platform https://www.gop.com/platform/
North Atlantic Treaty, 1949 The Parties to this Treaty reaffirm their faith in the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations and their desire to live in peace with all peoples and all governments. They are determined to safeguard the freedom, common heritage and civilisation of their peoples, founded on the principles of democracy, individual liberty and the rule of law. They seek to promote stability and well-being in the North Atlantic area. The
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