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FINAL-ICT TB -X - 17.12

Apr 06, 2018

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  • 8/2/2019 FINAL-ICT TB -X - 17.12

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    hnhchn\nab kmtXnIhnZyhnhchn\nab kmtXnIhnZyhnhchn\nab kmtXnIhnZyhnhchn\nab kmtXnIhnZyhnhchn\nab kmtXnIhnZy

    mtUUv

    tIcf km

    hnZym`ymkhIpv

    XbmdmnbXv

    kwm\ hnZym`ymk KthjW ]cnioe\ kanXn (SCERT)pthn

    sF.Sn@kvIq t{]mPIvSv, tIcfw2012

    X

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    {]Xn

    Cy Fs cmPyamWv. Fm Cymmcpw FsktlmZco ktlmZcmcmWv.

    Rm Fs cmPys kvt\lnpp;kqWhpw sshhn[y]qWhpamb AXns]mccyn Rm A`nam\w sImpp.

    Rm Fs amXm]nXmsfbpw KpcpmscbpwapXnhscbpw _lpam\npw.

    Rm Fs cmPynsbpw Fs \mpImcpsSbpwtan\pw sFizcyn\pwthn {]bXv\npw.

    P\KWa\ A[n\mbI Pbtl

    `mcX mKyhn[mXm,

    ]m_knp KpPdm admTm

    {ZmhnU DXve _wKm,

    hnylnamNe bap\mKwKm,

    DePe[nXcwKm,

    Xhip`\mta PmtK,

    Xhip` Binj amtK,

    Kmtl Xh PbKmYm

    P\KWawKeZmbI, Pbtl

    `mcX mKyhn[mXmPbtl, Pbtl, Pbtl,

    Pb Pb Pb Pbtl!

    Prepared by :

    IT@School Project

    Poojappura, Thiruvananthapuram-12, Kerala

    for State Council of Educational Research and Training (SCERT)

    Poojappura, Thiruvananthapuram - 12, Kerala

    First Edition : 2012

    Webs ite : www.itschool.gov.in, www.scertkerala.gov.in

    email : contact@itschool.gov.in, scertkerala@asianetindia.com

    Phone : 0471-2529800, 0471-2341883, Fax: 0471-2529810, 0471-2341869

    Type setting : IT@School Project

    Layout : IT@School Project

    Printed at : KBPS, Kakkanad, Kochi

    Department of Education, Government of Kerala

    tZiobKm\w

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    {]nbs IpnItf,

    hnhchn\nab kmtXnIhnZybpsS klmbanm Hcp temIw Cv

    kev]nm t]mepamIn. temIw AXnthKw \psS ssIpnfntevHXpnsmncnpIbmWv. amns Cu KXnthKhpambn s]mcpstSXv

    \psS BhiyamWv. ImeLns Cu Bhiyw IdnmWv ]mwmknse

    sF.kn.Sn. ]mT]pkvXIw XbmdmnbnpXv.

    {Km^nIv Unssk\nns BZy]mTfpw \n hc Nn{Xv

    \nsfgpXnb XncYbv\pkcnv Ne\w \Imhp A\ntaj ktXhpw

    Cu ]pkvXIn DsSpnbnpv. Hm^okv tkm^vvshbdpIfpsS

    XpS]T\ambn Ummt_kv amt\Pvsa v F Bibhpw \apnhnsS

    ]cnNbsSmw.

    ss] t{]m{Kmanns hnhn[ hi Ign cp hjfmbn

    \mw ]cnNbsp hcnIbmWtm. Cu `mjbn IqSpX t{]m{KmapI

    XbmdmpXn\p ]cnioe\fpw DsSpnbncnpp. hnhn[

    tkm vvshb Bntj\pIfpw t{]m{KmanMpw ioenptm Iyq F

    b{spdnpw AXns {]h\spdnpw Adnbm kzm`mhnIambpw

    Xm]cyapmIpw. Iyqdn\Is b{`mKsfnbpw Iyq irwJeI

    XbmdmpXns\nbpap `mKfpw AXn\mbn Cu ]mT]pkvXIn

    DsSpnbnpv.

    sh_vt]PpIsfpdnpw sh_vsskpIsfpdnpw \mw a\nemnbn pv.

    C\n \psS {]nbs hnZymebn\v Hcp sh_vsskv Xbmdmnbmtem?

    sh_vsskpIfpsS DShpw cq]Iev]\bpw \ coXnbn ssIImcyw sNm

    klmbnp Nne tkm^vvshbdpI AhXcnnpIbmWv \apsmcp

    sh_vsskv F A[ymbw.

    CybpsS q]Sw \n Incnpw. tIcfnsbpw. ]t, F{Xt]

    \nfpsS ]mbns `q]Sw Inpv? {]mtZinIXenep

    hnIk\mkq{XWv imkv{Xobambn Xbmdmnb hn`h `q]S

    BhiyamWv. ka{Kamb `qhnm\ hn`h `q]S XbmdmpXn\p

    IyqPnkv F tkm vvshb Cu hjw DsSpnbnpv. knaptej

    tkm^vvshbdmb stdnbw, KWnX ]T\ tkm^vvshbdmb PntbmPn{_

    XpSnbhbpw DsSpnbncnpp.

    Cu ]mT]pkvXInse {]h\sfmw ]cnioenv hnhchn\nab

    kmtXnIcwKv \nfptSXmb kw`mh\I \Im Ignbs.

    Fmhpw hnPbw BiwknpsImv.

    s{]m^. sI. F. lmjnwUbdIvS

    Fkv.kn.C.B.Sn.

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    aplZv AkvemwPnm tImHmUnt\sF.Sn.@kvIq t{]mPIvSv, Bepg.

    jm\hmkv. sIam s{Sbn\sF.Sn.@kvIq t{]mPIvSv, ]memSv

    {]Zo]vIpam amcam s{Sbn\sF.Sn.@kvIq t{]mPIvSv, aepdw

    lssk\m aS

    am s{Sbn-\sF.Sn.@kvIq t{]mPIvSv, aepdw

    {]tamZv. sI. hnam s{Sbn-\sF.Sn.@kvIq t{]mPIvSv, tImgntmSv

    _m_p. hn. sIPnm tImUnt\sF.Sn.@kvIq t{]mPIvSv, tImgntmSv

    A_vZp lowam s{Sbn-\

    sF.Sn.@kvIq t{]mPIvSv, aepdw

    tImHmUnt\

    chni Sn. FAmZanIv Hm^ok (sF.kn.Sn)

    sF.Sn.@kvIq t{]mPIvSv,Xncph\]pcw

    AwK

    Nn{XoIcWw

    kptcjv.CImqWnv, ]nc

    tImgn-tm-Sv.

    ]mT]pkvXI cN\mkanXn

    hnhchn\nab kmtXnIhnZyX

    sNbamsI. Ah kmZv

    FIvknIyqohv UbdIvSsF.Sn.@kvIq t{]mPIvSv

    Xncph\]pcw

    iZmkv. sI.hnPnm tImUnt\sF.Sn@kvIq t{]mPIvSv, aepdw

    hmkptZh. sI. ]n

    am s{Sbn\sF.Sn.@kvIq t{]mPIvSv, Xrq

    tSmWn BWnam s{Sbn\sF.Sn.@kvIq t{]mPIvSv, tImbw

    lcnIrjvW. B. Fkv

    am s{Sbn\sF.Sn.@kvIq t{]mPIvSv, Xncph\]pcw

    i_cojv. sIam s{Sbn\ (tImHmUnt\j)sF.Sn.@kvIq t{]mPIvSv, aepdw.

    cmtPjv sI. Ham s{Sbn\ (tImHmUnt\j)sF.Sn.@kvIq t{]mPIvSv, Ip\mSv.

    aplZv A_vZp \mkam s{Sbn-\sF.Sn.@kvIq t{]mPIvSv, tImgntmSv.

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    1. angnhm Nn{XtemIw .............................................0716

    2. hnhchniIe\ns ]pXpcoXnI ........................... 1725-

    3. Fs hn`h `q]Sw ............................................... 2636

    4. Iyq `mj ........................................................ 3748

    5. Iyq F b{w ............................................... 4962

    6. hcIv Poh ]Icmw ......................................... 6373

    7. hnhc ]pshbvmw.......................................... 7483

    8. \apsmcp sh_vsskv .......................................... 8496

    9. temIw ssIpnfn ............................................97111

    DSw

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    `mcXns `cWLS\

    `mKwIV- I

    auenI Ihy

    51-I. auenI I-hy- Xmsg--d-bp-h `mc-X-nse Hmtcm ]uc-sbpw

    Ihyw BbncnpXmWv :

    (I) `cWLS\sb A\pkcnpIbpw AXns BZisfbpw m]\sfbpw

    tZiob]XmIsbbpw tZiobKm\sbpw BZcnpIbpw sNpI;

    (J) kzmX{y-n-\pthn-bp \psS tZiobkacn\v {]tNm-Z\w \Inb

    al\obmZisf ]cnt]mjnnpIbpw ]nXpScpIbpw sNpI;

    (K) `mcXns ]cam[nImchpw sFIyhpw AJ-WvUXbpw \ne\npIbpw

    kwcnpIbpw sNpI;

    (L) cmPys Imp-kq-n-p-Ibpw tZiob tkh\w A\p-jvTn-p-hm

    BhiysSptm A\pjvTnpIbpw sNpI;

    (M) aX]chpw `mjm]chpw {]mtZinIhpw hn`mKobhpamb sshhn[yXo

    Xambn `mcXnse Fm P\panSbn, kulmZhpw s]mXphmb

    kmtlm-Z-cy-at\m-`m-hhpw ]pep-I. kv{XoI-fpsS A-n\v Ipdhp hcp-

    p BNmc ]cnXyPnpI;

    (N) \psS kn{ikwkvImcns kamb ]mccys hneaXnpIbpw

    \ne\ndppIbpw sNpI;

    (O) h\fpw XSmIfpw \ZnIfpw h\yPohnIfpw DsSp {]IrXym D

    ]cnnXn kwcnpIbpw A`nhrnsSppIbpw PohnItfmSv ImcpWyw

    ImWnpIbpw sNpI;

    (P) imkv{Xobamb ImgvN-mSpw am\hn-IXbpw, At\zjW-n\pw ]cn-jvIcW-

    n\pw D at\m`mhhpw hnIkn-n-pI;

    (Q) s]mXp-kzv ]cn-c-n-p-Ibpw i]Yw sNbvXv A{Iaw Dt]-n-p-IbpwsNpI;

    (R) cmjv{Sw bXv\nsbpw ey{]m]vXnbpsSbpw DXXefntev \nccw

    Db-c---hw hyn-]-chpw Iqm-b-Xp-amb {]h-\-ns Fm

    afiefnepw DIrjvSXbvpthn A[zm\npI.

    (S) Bdn\pw ]Xn\men\pw CSbvv {]mbap Xs Ipntm cy_meIt\m,

    AXXp kwKXnt]mse, amXm]nXmtfm cmImthm hnZym`ymkn

    \p Ahkc GsSppI.

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    angnhm Nn{XtemIw

    7

    Pnv tkm^vvshb D]tbmKnv HcpsImfmjv \nan-p-Xv F-s\-sbv\n-dn-bm-atm? t]m \nam-W-n\v hfsc A\ptbmPyamb tkm vvshb

    dmWv Pnv Fpw \ndn-bmw. \nXy-Pohn-Xn \mw D]tbmKn-p hnhn[Dfn Ah D]mZn-n-p I\nbpsS temtKm BteJ\w sNbvXncnpXv \n Innt? hnhn[ m]\fnepw AhbpsS m]\ temtKm BteJ\w sNbvXncnpw. hnZym`ymk hIpn\pIognep sF.Sn. @kvIq t{]mPIvSnstemtKm Cs\n \npw UutemUvsNbvXv Pnv tkm^vvshbdneqsS Xpdv

    hepXmn t\mq. temtKmbpsS hyXIpd-bp-Xmbn \nv A\p-`-h-s-n-ptm? Fm-bn-cnmw CXn\v ImcWw?C-c-n hyX Ipd-bp-Xv \n-fpsS {]h\s tZmjIcambn _m[nn-ptm? angnhv \jvSsSmsX Nn{X\nan-m klm-bn-p kwhn-[m-\--sfpdnv \n tInnt? NphsS \Inbn-cn-p Ipdn-n-sbpw {Kqv NbpsSbpw ASn-m-\-n Hcp \nK-a-\-

    n Fn-t-cpatm.

    dmdpw shIvSdpw

    Nn{X- cp-hn-[-n Iyq--dntcJsSpmw. Ahsb dm ^bep

    I-sfpw shIvS ^b-ep-I-sfpw ]d-bmw. Nn{XaSp {]Xense Hmtcm_nphnsbpw \ndw tcJsSpnbncnp bepIfmWv dm bepI.ChnsS Nn{Xs At\Iw kaNXpcfmbn hn`Pnncnpp. DZmlcWambn]v skoao \ofhpw F v skoao hoXnbpap Hcp Nn{Xns \ofwIqSnb his 1000 `mK-fpw \ofwIpd his 800 mKfpambn hn`Pn-mw. Atm Hmtcm NXp-c-n-sbpw ]cfhv 0.1 NXpc{i anoaoBbncnpw. Hcp skoaodn 100 `mK-fp-m-hpw. Nn{X-n\v 100 Dots perCentimetrehen-apsp \apv ]d-bmw. Fm Iyqdn Cv ASnm\n IWmn hXpsImvdots per inch (dpi) F IWnemWvNn{Xns henw IWmmdpXv.\mapmp Nn{Xn\vF{XdpiDmhWsav \apv \nbnmhpXmWv.

    Hcp Nn{Xn\vdpiIqSptm AXns

    1 angnhm Nn{XtemIw

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    hnhchn\nab kmtXnIhnZy

    8

    kqvaXbpw wKnbpw h[npw. ASnptm hyXbpmhWsan DbdpiD Nn{XfmhWw.

    dm coXnbnep Nn{Xn Hcp hc hcbvptm A{Xbpw `mKs NXpc

    v \ndw \IpIbmWv hmkvXhn Iyq sNpXv. Nn{Xw hepXmhptm Cu NXpcfpw hepXmhpp. Pnn Xbmdmnb Nn{Xw hepXmptmCXv hyamIpw.

    Fm shIvS ^b-en tcJ-bpsS \ndhpw A{K-_n-p--fpsS m\hpwam{XamWv Iyq tcJsSpn hbvpXv. Nn{Xw Zriyamhptm A{K_npfpsS m\hpw \ndhpw a\nemn AhbvnSbnep apgph _npfpw Iyq hcpsImpw. Hcp shIvS Nn{Xw hepXmptm hepXmnb {]Xen]pXnb _np Isn tcJsSpsSpw. Nn{Xns henw IqSpX\pk-cnv _np--fpsS Fw h[n-p--Xn-\m Nn{X-ns hyX Ipd-bp-n.tcJI, NXpc, hr, h{ItcJI XpSnb PymanXob cq]fmbmWv

    shIvS Nn{Xsf Iyq kqnpXv.Pnv tkm^vvshb D]tbmKnv hcbvp Nn{Xsf ]nIvkepIfpsS kaqlambmWv ]cnKWnpXv. Fm CvkvtIn hcbvp hcbpw hhpw NXpchpsamw KWn-X-k-a-hm-Iy--fpsS cq]-n-emWv CvkvtIv tkm^vvshbHmphbvpXv. CXmWv shIvS CtaPpI hepXmnbmepw angnhv \jvSsSmXn\v ]nnse clkyw.

    p tkm^vvshb-dp-I-fm-Wv. Ch-bnHm Hm^okv t{Um, CvkvtIv, UbFnh Hm tkmgvkv tkm^vvvshbdp

    IfmWv.

    CvvkvtIv tkm^vvvshb-dn Nn{X- \nan -p -Xv F-s\-sbvt\mmw. Graphics sa\p -hn \nvInkscape Vector Graphic Editor Xpd-mw.

    Nn{X hepXmmw; angnhv \jvSsSmsX

    shIvS, dm Nn{XfpsS {]tXyIX-I \mw a\-n-emn Ign-p. angnhv

    \jvS-s-Sm shIvS Nn{X- \nanm\pw, FUnv sNm\pw {]tXyI tkm vvvshb BhiyamWv. Hm Hm^okv t{Um,tImd t{Um, CvkvtIv, AtUm_vCkvt{S, Ub (Dia) XpSnbhsbmwshIvS Nn{X- \nan-m D]-tbm-Kn-

    Nn{Xw 1.1

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    angnhm Nn{XtemIw

    9

    CvkvtIv PmeIw \nco-nq(Nn{Xw 1.1) apv ]cnNbs Pnv tkm^vshbdpambn Fsmw kmayfpw hyXymk-fpamWv CXn-\p--sXv Isn

    NphsS \Inb ]nI 1.1 ]qoIcnq.

    Pnn \n ]cn-N-b-s Sqfp-I-sfmw CvkvtI-n -eptm? PnnCm SqfpI Cvkv-tIn ImWmIgnbpptm? Pnnse SqfpI \n

    ap mkn ]cnNbsXmWtm. C\nCvkvtI-nse Sqfp-I]-cn-N-b-s-Smw.Aanp kqNnnncnp SqfpIfpsS apIfn aukv t]mbn Fnv AhbpsS

    t]cv Isq. Ah Hmtcmpw D]tbmKnp t\mn D]tbmKhpw ]nIsSpq.(]-nI 1.2).

    {]h\w 1

    temtKm \namWw:

    600X150 ]nIvk hen - -n\nan Hcp temtKm-bmWv Nn{Xn(Nn{Xw 1.3) ImWpXv. CXv CvkvtIvtkm^vvshb-dn \nanp t\mmw. CutemtKm \nanm Fsmw SqfpI D]tbmKnnpmhmw. kqvaambn \nconv\nfpsS Dulw NphsS Ipdnq.

    ...........................................................

    ...........................................................

    {]h-\-{Iaw

    CvkvtIv tkm^vSvshb Xpdv\nnX henn Hcp Iymhmkv\nan-p-I. CXn-\mbn File sa\p-hn-ep Document Properties np

    kmay hyXymk

    hnhn[ SqfpIfpw

    Iymhmkpapv. CvkvtIn Htc Pme

    InsbmWv SqfpIfpw Iymhmkpw.Fm Pnn ChhyXykvX PmeInemWv.

    .................................

    .................................

    .................................

    ............................................

    ............................................

    ............................................

    ]nI 1.1

    Nn{Xw 1.2

    Sq t]cv D]-tbmKw

    1. ske Sq Hcp H_vPIvSv skeIvSvsNm

    2. ............................ ............................................

    3. ............................ ............................................

    4. ............................ ............................................

    5. ............................ ............................................

    6. ............................ ............................................

    7. ............................ ............................................

    8. ............................ ............................................

    9. . .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. . . . . .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. . .. .. ..

    ]nI 1.2

    Nn{Xw 1.3

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    hnhchn\nab kmtXnIhnZy

    10

    sNpI. Xpdp hcp PmeIncustom size F mKv Bhiyambamw hcpn PmeIw ASbvpI.(Pme-I -nse Template F

    `mKp\npw hyXykvX hen--n-ep Iymhmkv XncsSpmw).

    Create Rectangle Tool D]-tbm-

    Knv Nn{Xw 1.3 ImWp hen-n aqv NXpc \nan-pI.

    NXp-c- skeIvSv sNbvXv ToolsControls Bar D Height (H), Width(W) Fo `mK--fn Hmtcm NXp-c-n\pw Bh-iy-amb Object Size\In henw {IaoIcnpI.

    NXpc XncsSpv If s]n np sNbvXp A\ptbmPyamb\nd- \IpI.

    Text Tool D]tbmKnv IT@ School

    Fv NXpcn\Iv ssSpsNpI.

    Select and Transform Object Tool

    D]tbm-Knv sSIvv skeIvSvsNbvXv NXp-c--fpsS hen--n-\-\p-kcnv henw {IaoIcnpI.

    If s]n \npw A\ptbmPyamb\ndw \In Acw `wKnbmpI.

    \nfpsS t^mUdn ^b tkhvsNpI.

    Zoom in or out Tool D]tbm-Knv

    hepXmpI

    t\cs \n tiJ-cn temtKmPnv tkm^vvshbdneqsS Xpdv Zoom inSqfp]tbmKnv hepXmnbtm e`nXpw,CvkvtIn Xbm-dmnb temtKmhepXmnbtm e`nXpw Xmc-XaywsNq. Fv hyXymkamWv ImWm IgnbpXv? \nfpsS IsepI NphsSIpdnbvpI.

    ...........................................................

    ...........................................................

    ...........................................................

    CvkvtI-n \nan tem-tKmsbAtm-p-an-tmpw \onhpt\mq.Fsnepw {]iv\w A\p`hsSpptm?H_vP-Sp-Isf Fmw Hnp Nen-n-mkm[n-p-n-, At? NphsS \InbIpdnv hniIe\w sNbvXv ]cntim[nq.

    CvkvtIn hcbvp hcbpw hhpwNXpchpsamw Hmtcm Hm_vPIvSpIfmWv.

    hIvkvs]-bn-knse Fm H_vP-IvSp-I-sfbpw Hnv skeIvSv sNm Editsa\phnseSelect all (ctrl+A) D]tbmKn-mw. hIvkvt]-knse Hcp {]tXyI`mKs H_vP-IvSp-Isf am{Xw HnvskeIvSpsNm skeIvSv Sq FSpv{UmKv sNptm DmIp NXpcn\pn hcp Fm H_vP-IvSp-IfpwskeIvSv sNsSpw. Hn IqSpXH_vP-IvSp-Isf skeIvSv sNp--Xn\vshift

    Io Aan-n -Snv skeIvS vsNt H_vP-IvSp-Isf Hmtcm-mbnnp sNpI. Cs\ HnvskeIvSvsNsn-cn-p mKw Ftm-pthWsa -nepw {UmKv sNbvXv \omw.skevIvSv sN-s-n-cn-p H_vP-IvSp-Isf H bqWnmbn ampXn\v Objectsa\phnse group ^Mvj D]tbm-Kn-pI (Ctrl+G).

    CvkvtIn anI Nn{X Xbm

    dmm kKtijnsmw hnhn[ SqfpIfpsSbpw sa\p Hm]vj\pIfpsSbpw D]tbmKcoXn \mbn AdnncnWw. IqSmsXX{-]c-ambn Ahsb D]tbmKn-m-\ptijnbpw t\SWw. CXv km[y-amIW-san \ncc {iahpw abpw BhiyamWv.XpSp `mKv \In-bn -cn -p{]h-\ Hmtcmpw sNbvXv t\mn\npw Cu tijn-I BPn-mhp-XmWv.

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    angnhm Nn{XtemIw

    11

    {]h\w 2

    KWn-X-imkv{X mkp-I-fn tKmf-, kvXw`, kvXq]nII XpSnb-h-sb-n \n ]Tn-n-nt? Ccwcq]- Zznam\ {]X-e-amb IS-em-knhcp t\mn -bn -ptm? Chsb{Xnam\amm Fv X{-amWv D]tbm-KnpXv? \ngepw shfnhpw \InbmWvkm[mcW Cu Nn{Xv {Xnam\cq]w\Ip--Xv. CvkvtIv D]tbm-Knv HcptKmfw Fs\ \nan-m-sav t\mmw.

    Create Circle Tool D]tbmKnv

    Hcp hrw hcv A\p-tbm-Py-amb\ndw \IpI.

    Gradient Tool skeIvSv sNbvXv SqIt{Smkv _mdn {Intbv tdUn

    b t{KUn-b v skeIvSv sNp-I.(Nn{Xw 1.5)

    hr-n-\p -n U_n npsNpI. \nehn sXcsSpnp\ndn\v A\pkrXambn Hcp t{KUnb v e`npw.

    t{KUn-bp-ambn _-s-n-cn-paqp t\mUpI ImWpnt? Ah Edit

    Path by Node Tool D]tbmKnv Nenn

    p-t\m-q. Fp am-amWv ImWp-Xv?

    cv hcIfpw tNcp `mKs NXpcmIrXnbnep t\mUv skeIvSv sNbvXv Ifs]n nv sNq. ap t\mUpIfntesXnepw Hv skeIvSv sNbvXv asmcp

    \ndw sXcsSpq. IfdpI amdn amdnD]tbmKnv Cu {]h\w XpScpI. Fs\-bp \nd- Fhn-sS-sbmw sXc-s-Sp-tmgmWv hrw Hcp tKmfambntXmn-bXv? t\mUp-I Nen-nv \ng-en-sbpw shfnnsbpw m\w hyXymksSpn t\mq, av cq]fpw CtXt]mse \nanp t\mpatm. knen\nanptm path sa\phnse unionFsa\p Fs\ D]tbmKnmsav Sodns

    klmbtmsS Isn sNbvXv t\mq.{]h\w 3

    Pohimkv{X mkpIfn Aao_sbIpdnv ]Tnnnt? FmWv Aao_bpsSkhntijXI? \nnX cq]anm HcpGI-tImi Pohn -bm -Wtm Aao -_.CvkvtI-n Hcp Aao-_bpsS cq]wFs\ hc-b vm-sap t\mmw.(Nn{Xw 1.6)

    {]h\-{Iaw:

    Draw Bezier Line Tool D]tbmKn v

    Hcp _lp pPw hcbvpI

    Edit path by Node Tool D]-tbm-KnvHmtcm hihpw A\p-tbmPyambn hf-bvpIbpw t\mUpIfpsS m\w {IaoIcnpIbpw sNpI.

    t{KUnb v Sqfn npsNbvXv tdUnb t{KUnb v sXcsSp v A\ptbmPyamb \ndw \IpI.

    kn Sq D]tbmKn v tImiaahpwt^\hpw apw hcv t{KUn-b v SqD]tbmKnv \ndw \IpI.

    Object Fill and Stroke ktXw D]tbm-Knv tImi-{Z-hy-n\v tbmPn

    \ndw \IpI. (Nn{Xw 1.7, 1.8)

    Nn{Xw 1.4

    Nn{Xw 1.5

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    hnhchn\nab kmtXnIhnZy

    12

    ]cnN-b-s-m Cu tPmen Ffp--nsNmw. ]IsSpm EditDuplicateD]tbmKnpI. AXn\ptijw skeSq D]-tbm-Knv H_vP-IvSns\ amnhp

    t\mq. C-cn CvkvtIn Xbm-dm-nb H_vP-IvSp -Isf {Kqv sNbvXvUyqntv sNbvXv F{X Fw Aao_sbthW-sanepw \nanpIqsS?

    `mK ASbmfsSpm FmWvsNtXv? Isn sNq.

    Hcp hrs cq]mcsSpnbpw

    Aao-_-bpsS Nn{Xw hc-bvmtam Fv]con-q. \n hc Aao-_-bpsS]IsSpWsan Fv sNWsavNnn-n-ptm? Nne kt-X- IqSn

    ^npw kvt{Smpw

    Nn{Xw \nconq (Nn{Xw 1.7). hrmIrXnbnep Idp hcbmWv Cu H_vPIvSns kvt{Smv. \oe\ndnep mKw npw. Chbpambn _s hnhn[ Hm]vj\pI e`n-m ObjectFill and StrokeF {Ia-n Xpd-p Ub-temKvt_mIvkv (Nn{Xw 1.8) XpdpI. H_vPIvSv skeIvSv sNbvXv AXnse Sm_pIfpw Hm]vj

    \pIfpw ]conp t\mn D]tbmK a\nemq.

    Nn{Xw 1.7 Nn{Xw 1.8

    Nn{Xw 1.6

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    angnhm Nn{XtemIw

    13

    cne[nIw H_vPIvSpI apIfn apIfnembn ASpn hv GsXnepsamscwskeIvSv sNbvXvPage Down, Page up, End,Home Fo Key I Aan t\mq.

    \n-fpsS \nco-Ww ]nI 1.3 tcJ-sSpq.

    km[mcWbmbn Ahkm\w DmpH_vPIvSmWv apIfn DmhpI. (Nn{Xw1.9). Fm Nne Ah-k-c--fnCXns\ Xmsgbmtnhcpw. AXn\mbnB H_vP-IvSns\ skeIvS v sNbvXvObjectLowerF Hm]vj D]tbm-KnpI. AXn\p ]IcambnPage Down

    Key {]kv sNbvXmepw aXn.

    {]h\w 4

    kvIqfpI-fpsS tKp-Ism--apIam\w In-nt? A-c-samcp Iam\wBWv ChnsS \In -bn -c n -p -Xv(Nn{Xw 1. 10) CXv hc-bvpXn\v \nCXphsc ]cn-N-b-s GsXmw Sqfp-I thW-sav NsNbvXv NphsS

    IpdnbvpI.

    Bhiyamb SqfpI:

    hrw hcbvm\p Sq

    .............................................................................

    .............................................................................

    .............................................................................

    .............................................................................

    NphsS \Inb {]h-\-{IahpwNn{Xhpw {]tbm-P-\-sSpn (Nn{Xw 1.12)\nfpsS kvIqfns Iam\w Cv kvtIn\nanpatm.

    {]h-\-{Iaw

    Hcp hrw hcbvpI.

    Edit Path NodeD]tbmKnv AXns\Hcp A[hrampI.

    EditDuplicateF {Ianse cvXhW Uyqn-tv FSpv henwIpdv Nn{Xw 1.12 Lw 3 ImWp

    Xpt]mse {IaoIcnpI. kvIqfns t]cv sSIvv Sqfp]tbmKnv

    ssSpsNpI.

    a[y -`m -Ks A[-hr -hpwkvIqfns t]cpw Hnv skeIvSvsNpI. Text Put on pathHm]vjsXc-s-Sp-p-I. Ctm a[y-`m-Ks A[hrns ]mXbneqsSkvIqfns t]cv {IaoIcn--s-n -

    pmIpw. t]cn\papnembn Bhiyn\v ew- \In IrXy-ambn

    Nn{Xw 1.9

    Nn{Xw 1.10

    Io Dmb amw

    Page Down skeIvSv sNbvX H_vPIvSv]nnep H_vPIvSns]ndInembn.

    ]nI 1.3

    Page Up .................................................

    End .................................................

    Home .................................................

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    hnhchn\nab kmtXnIhnZy

    14

    Nn{Xw 1.13

    Nn{Xw 1.14

    {]h\w 5

    CvkvtIn hc Hcp ]qhmWvNphsS ImWpXv (Nn{Xw 1.13). \n CXphsc ]cnNbs SqfpIv ]pdsa ap Nne

    SqfpI IqSn Cu {]h-\n {]tbmP-\-s-Sp-n-bn-p-v. NphsS \In-bn-cn-p {]h-\{Iaw ]cn-tim-[nv (Nn{Xw1.14) Nn{Xw hcv \n-fpsS t^mUdntkhv sNpI.

    Nn{Xw 1.12

    hc Nn{Xnse skeIvSvsNbvX H_vP

    IvSp-Isf am{X-ambn dm Nn{X-ambntkhv sNp-Xv F-s\-sbvt\mmw. AXn-\mbn Nn{Xnse Bhiyamb `mKw am{Xw skeIvSv sNpI.Fnv File Export BitmapFHm]vj FSppI. SelectionF Sm_vskeIvSv sNbvXv ^b \maw \InExport sNpI. B mKw am{Xambn.pngt^mam-n tkhv sN-s-Spw. (Nn{Xw1 . 11) . Export Bitmap Ub-temKv

    t_mIvknse ap kuIcy Fsmssbv \nconq. AhbpsS D]tbmK- Fs-m-sav {]tbm-Knpt\mn Isq.

    Nn{Xw 1.11

    {IaoIcnpI.

    a[y-`m-Ks A[-hrw am{X-ambnskeIvSv sNbvXv AXns kvt{Smv

    Ifdpw ^n Ifdpw HgnhmpI. av cv hr- am{Xambn Hnv

    skeIvSv sNbvXv Path DifferenceHm]vj\n npsNbvXp t\mq.

    NphsS \Inb Ipdnv {]tbmP\sSp-n (Nn{Xw 1.11) .pngt^mam-ntkhv sNpI.

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    angnhm Nn{XtemIw

    15

    {]h-\-{Iaw

    s]kn Sq D]tbmKnv apI

    fnepw Xmsgbpw npsNbvXv Hcp hc\nanpI.

    hc skeIvSv sNbvXv Edit CloneCreate Tiled ClonesHm]vj sXcsSppI. Ctm e`np UbtemKv t_mIvkn SymmetrySm_nPM:ReflectionsXcsSppI. Row,column 1X2 \In Create npsNbvXv Ub-temKv t_mIvkvASbvpI.

    hc skeIvSv sNbvXv Edit Clone select original Hm]vj sXcsSppI. XpSv Edit Path by NodeSq D]tbmKnv hcbn npsNbvXvhcsb Hcp hitv henpt\mq.knsa{Snmbn cp hitpw hchfbpXv ImWmw. CXns\ Hcp CXfns cq]nemnsbSppI. HnvskeIvSv sNbvXv Hcp ^n Ifdpw\IpI.

    Ctm e`n CX-fns\ HnvskeIvSv sNbvXv EditCloneUnlink Clone F Hm]vj sXc-sSppI. XpSv PathUnion

    \IpI. Ctm CX Hcp kzX{H_vPIvSmbn amdpw.

    C\n AXns Uyqn-tv tImn-IFSpv object sa\phnse Rotate,FlipXpS-nb kt-X- D]-tbm-Knv Hcp ]qhns BIr-Xn -bn\ncn hbvpI.

    CXfpIsfmw Hnv skeIvSv sNbvXvPathUnion\IpI.

    Hcp {]tXyI tImW-f-hn IrXyambnsdmtv sNm\mbnObjectTransformskeIvSv sNp-tm e`n-p Ub-temKv t_mIvknse RotateSm_nsektX D]tbmKnpI. H_vPIvnU_n np sNbvXpw CXfns\ Bhiyamb coXnbn {IaoIcnmw.

    C\n Fsmw sNbvXm CXns\Nn{Xn ImWp Hcp ]qhmn ammw?CXphsc ]Tn ap ktX {]tbmP

    \sSpn Nn{Xw ]qnbmpI.

    A[nI{]h\w

    A\n-taj \nam-W-n-\m-hiy-amb Nn{X hc-bvp--Xn\v D]-tbm-Kn-p \smcptkm^vvshbdmWv CvkvtIv. AcnsemcpNn{Xs Cu tkm^vvshb D]tbmKnp hcpt\mq. A\n-taj\n Hcp Nn{Xs Nen-n-Wsan AXns Nennm Dtinp mK shtsd hcpmWw. CvkvtInhcbvp Nn{X Fmw hnhn[ H_vPIvSpIfpsS IqamsWv Adnbmatm? BhiyapH_vPIvSpIsf {Kqv sNm\pw \mw ]TnpIgnp.C\n hc Nn{X-nse skeIvSv sNbvXH_vPIvSpIsf am{Xambn dm Nn{Xambn tkhvsNpXv Fs\sbv \ndnbmw. A\nta-j-\p-thn Hcp ]nsb kz-ambn hc-p-t\mq. AXns DS, NndIpI, sImv, IvFnh {]tXyIw tkhv sNbvXpt\mq. Cs\tkhv sNbvX `mK-- \n-fpsS A\ntaj

    ]mT`mKv {]tbmP\sSpmw. Nn{Xw 1.15

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    hnhchn\nab kmtXnIhnZy

    16

    XpS {]h\-

    \n-fpsS kvIqfns temtKmCvkvtI-n \nanv dm ^b-

    embn \n-fpsS t^mU-dn tkhvsNpI. Cu temtKm \nfpsS kvIqsh_vsskns tlmwt]Pn DsSppI.

    Poh-imkv{Xw ]mT-]p-kvX-I-nsekpc-bpw NnIn-bpw F ]mT-`mKp ^mtKmssktmknkv L

    hy-am-p Nn{Xw hcv \nfpsS t^mUdn tkhv sNpI.

    \f-N-cnXw B--Y-bnse lwkhpw

    Za-b-nbpw Xn-ep kw`m-jWwaebmfw ]mT]pkvXIn AhXcnn-n-p--tm. lwkw ]d-p-h-cpZriyns A\n-taj\pthn lwkns hyXykvX `mK CvkvtIn Xbm-dmn hyXykvX ^b-ep-I-fmbn tkhv sNpI.

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    hnhchniIe\ns ]pXpcoXnI

    17

    ]T\ {]h\fpambn _s v{]m[m\yalnp HmWtm hnhctiJcWw. hnhctiJcWn\pw hniIe\n\pw \nch[n amK Dv.Ccnep Hcp ]T\{]h\amWvHXmwXcn IpnIfpsS BtcmKyioes kw_nv \n \SnbXv.Hcp ]T\hpambn _s v tiJcnphnhc icnbmb coXnbn ]nIsSpnbm am{Xta AXn\nv e`nphniIe\ IrXyambncnpIbpq.

    IpnIfpsS BtcmKyioehpambn_sv HXmw mkn \Snb

    hnhctiJcWw ]nIsSpnbtmFsmw {]iv\fmWv \n t\cnXv?

    ]nIbpsS henw

    ...............................................................................

    ...............................................................................

    ...............................................................................

    Ch ]cnlcnm Fp amKamWv\n kzoIcnXv?

    sk {^oknwKv

    ...............................................................................

    ...............................................................................

    ...............................................................................

    ...............................................................................

    hnhc ]nIsSpptmgpmIp Ccw {]iv\ ]cnlcnpXn\v Hcp ]pXnb coXn ]cnNbsmtem.

    hnhc ]nIsSpm Umm t^mw

    Umm t^mw D]tbmKnv Hcp ]nIXbmdmpsXs\sbv \apv]cntim[nmw. \nfpsS mknseIpnIfpsS t]cv, hopt]cv, hbv, hnemkw,cImhns t]cv FnhDsSpn Hcp ]nI Ummt^mwD]tbmKnv Xbmdmn t\mmw. CXn\mbnHm Hm^okv kvs{]UvjonBhiyap XehmNI ssSpsNbvXvskeIvSv sNpI. (Nn{Xw 2.1).

    2 hnhchniIe\ns ]pXpcoXnI

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    hnhchn\nab kmtXnIhnZy

    18

    XpSv Data Data Form F{Ian Ummt^mw PmeIw XpdpI.(Nn{Xw 2.2)

    X e h mN I \ pkc n pt_mIvkpI Ummt^man ImWpnt?CXnse Fm ^oUnepw UmssSpsNbvXv New _ AapI.]nIbn h amw \nconq.Ccn Ummt^mw D]tbmKnv ap]nIIfnepw hnhc tcJsSpn

    ]cnioenq.slvImUv Xbmdmmw

    kqW ImbnIaXm ]XnbpsS`mKambn IpnIfpsS Dbchpw XqhpwXnsSpm Xocpam\np. Cu Z]nIsSpn \nfpsS mknseIpnIfpsS slv ImUvXbmdmpXns\pdn v BtemNnmtem? slv ImUntemhiyambhnhc ]nIsSppXn\vUmmt^mw ktXw D]tbmKnmw.

    CXn Fsmw hnhcfmWvDsSptXv?

    hnhctiJcWn\p amXrImt^mw ImWq.

    Cu amXrIbn Hcp t^mdw Hm

    Hm^okv ssddn Xbmdmn \nfpsSmknse IpnIfpsS hnhcw tiJcnq.Xbmdmm t]mIp slv ImUnHmtcm IpnbpsSbpw t_mUnamkvCUIvkv, CXns\ ASnm\amnbpap Nne hniIe\ Fnh IqSn

    DsSpn ImUns\ sasXmmw.AXn\pthn e`yamb Zsf]nIsSpn hniIe\w sNtXpv. hnhctiJcW t^mdneqsS e`nZ Ummt^mw ktXw D]tbmKnvkvs{]Uvjon ]nIsSppatm.

    epvA]v ^Mvj hKoIcWn\v

    Cu ]nIbn\npw BMI ASnm\n IpnIsf `mcpdhph (Under

    Weight), km[mcW `mcaph (NormalWeight), AanX`mcaph (Over Weight),s]mSnbph (Obesity) Fns\XcwXncnmw. CXn\mbn \nXbmdmnb ]nIbn FmhcpsSbpwBMI IWmq. (BMI IWmmIntem{Kmanep `mcs aodnepDbcns hKw sImv lcnmaXnbmIpw). BMI bpsS ASnm\napIfn kqNnnt]mse IpnIsfXcwXncnpXn\mbn kvs{]UvjonseepvA]v ktXw (Lookup)

    Nn{Xw 2.1

    Nn{Xw 2.2

    slv ImUv hnhctiJcW mdw

    AUvanj \ ......................................................

    t]cv ......................................................

    mkv, Unhnj ......................................................

    Dbcw ........... ............. ............. ............. ....

    `mcw ......................................................

    hbv ........... ............. ............. ............. ....

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    hnhchniIe\ns ]pXpcoXnI

    19

    D]tbmKnmw. CXn\mbn \n Xbmdmnb ]nIbns Hcp epvA]v Nm vXbmdmWw. NphsS tNncnp amXrI {inq (Nn{Xw 2.3).

    Lookup Chart s ASnm\n IpnIsf XcwXncnmw. CXn\mbn epvA]v

    Nm v skeIvSv sNbvXv Data sa\phn\npw Define Range sXcsSpv t]cp\Intkhv sNpI.

    Nn{Xw 2.3

    Nn{Xw 2.4

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    hnhchn\nab kmtXnIhnZy

    20

    ]nIbn\npw hynKX hnhc

    Ctm \n Xbmdmnb ]nIHcp hnhckbambn (Database)IWmmw. Cu Umm-t_kn \npwHmtcm IpnbpsSbpw dntm v(DZmlcWambn, slv ImUv)XbmdmpXn\p amKw FmWv?Hmtcm IpnbpsSbpw hnhc tImnsNbvXv dntmv Xbmdmp {]hrn{]bmkIcat? Hmtcm IpnbpsSbpwhnhc Bhiyamb coXnbn{IaoIcnm Ignm tPmenFfpnemmw. CXn\p]tbmKnmhpktXfn HmWv sabn saPv.

    slv ImUv XbmdmpXn\pUmmt_kv ]qnbmbngn-m.slv ImUn\mhiyamb Hcp sSwtvHm Hm^okv ssd-dn Xbmdmmw.amXrI ASp t]Pn sImSpncnpp.

    \n Xbmdmnb sSwtv ^bentev Umm-t_-knse hnh-c- Ds-SpWw. AXn\mbn Tools sa\phn\nvMail Merge Wizard sXcsSppI.XpSv Zriyamhp PmeIn\npw

    Ummt_kv

    Hcp hkvXphns\pdnv ]eXcnep hnhcfpsS tiJcs Ummt_kvFp]dbpp. Hcp henb Ummt_kv FgpXn Xbmdmptm AXnse hnhc

    Xncv Ip]nSnpI {]bmkIcamWv. Fm Iyq Ummt_knse hnhctkm^vvshb D]tbmKnv BbmkclnXambn Xncv Ip]nSnphm Ignbpw.UnPn cq]n hnhc tiJcnpXn\p Hcp]m[nbmWnXv. hyXykvXhnhc ASnb ^bepIfpsS tiJcsav CXns\ IWmmw.Ummt_knepsnp ^bepIsf km[mcWbmbn tS_nfpI FmWv]dbpXv. Hcp Ummt_kn Htm AXne[nItam tS_nfpIfpmtbmw. HcpUmmt_kv hyXykvXamb bepIfpsS tiJcamsWnepw CXnepsnp HmtcmtS_nfpIfntebpw DSw Htc kz`mhnephbmbncnpw. DZmlcWambn HcpkvIqfnse Fm hnhcfpw Hcp Ummt_kn Dsmnnpsncns.AXnse IpnIsf kw_np hnhcsfmw Hcp tS_nfnepw A[ym]Isckw_np hnhc asmcp tS_nfnepambncnpw.

    km[mcW ^bepIfn \nv hyXykvXambn Ummt_kv ^bepIfpambn t\cn vkwhZnm\mhn. Ummt_kv amt\Pvsa v knfpsStbm Bntjt{]m{KmapIfpsStbm klmbtmsSbmWv CXv km[yamhpXv. AXpsImpXsCXn Dsmnncnp Um IqSpX kpcnXambncnpw.

    Hmas Ipnsb kw_npsk (tjUv sNbvXncnpXv) skeIvSvsNbvXtijw Insert sa\phn\npw

    Function sXcsSppI. {]XyamIpenn\npw Lookup sXcsSpvaptmpt]mIpI. XpSphcpPmeIfn (Nn{Xw 2.4) aqv ImcyBhiysSpXp ImWmw. (SearchCriterion, Search Vector, Result Vector)ChFns\bmWv kqNnnpXv?

    Search Criterion : GXv ZnsASnm\nemWv Ipnsb XcwXncn

    tXv,

    Search Vector : Data Range Unss^sNbvXtm \Inb t]cv.

    Bhiyamb hnhc tNv OKnpsNbvXp Ignm HmasIpnsb kw_np hnhcw Bskn e`yamhpp. NphsSbpskpIfnepw hnhc e`yamhmFmWv sNtXv? Isn ]nI]qnbmq.

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    hnhchniIe\ns ]pXpcoXnI

    21

    Insert Address Block npsNpI. ChnsSA{Ukv skeIvSv sNpXn\p _sXcsSpv Add _ npsNbvXv\n Xbmdmnb ]nI tUmIypsan

    DsSppI. Atmgp Pme-I-nSnv ampI Dsn Ah Hgn-hmnCreate Salutation np-sN-p -I.XpSphcp PmeInsebpw SnIvampI Ifv Edit Document PmeIwskeIvSv sNpI. tijw Edit Document_ npsNbvXv {][m\ tUmIypsantev XncnsI hcmw. C\n View sa\phnseData Source np sNbvXm (Nn{Xw 2.5)\mw DsSpnb ]nI tUmIypsans

    apI `mKv {]XysSpw (Nn{Xw 2.6)

    ]nIbnse iojI Hmtcmmbn npsNbvXv henv {][m\tUmIypsanse Bhiyamb `mKvsImpt]mbn shbvmw. XpSv sabn

    GHSS AVITANALLUR

    Health Card

    Name .............................................................

    Address .............................................................

    Class .............................................................

    Age .............................................................

    Height .............................................................

    Weight .............................................................

    BMI .............................................................

    Comment .............................................................

    Signature of the Class Teacher

    slv ImUv amXrI

    Nn{Xw 2.5

    Nn{Xw 2.6

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    hnhchn\nab kmtXnIhnZy

    22

    IF F Mvj D]tbmKnmw. Ipn Xncs-Sp--stm Fv tcJ-s-Sp-tskn npsNbvX tijw IF ^MvjsXcsSppI. Xpdphcp

    PmeIfn Test^oUn B IpnbpsSDbcw tcJsSpnb skns hneFmbncnWsapw (H2>=160),Then_ValueF oUn SELECTEDFpw Otherwise_value FXn NOTSELECTED Fpw tcJsSpn OKnpsNq. Ctm B skn FmWvZriyamhpXv? NphsSbp skpIfnap IpnIsf kw_np hnhcwFs\ tcJsSpmw. Cu tUm

    t_kn\npw NphsS ImWnncnp amXrIbn Fm IpnIpapkn^nv sabnsaPv kwhn[m\ap]tbmKnv Xbmdmq.

    Umm-t_kv Xbm-dmmw

    Hcp {]tXyI Bhiyn\mbntiJcnp hncnp hnhcfpsSIqamb Ummt_kns sNdnb cq]]cn-N-b-s-p-h-tm? Hcp Umm-t_-kn

    \np- hnh-c- ]e Bh-iy-v{]tbm-P-\-s-Sp-p coXnbpw a\nemnbtm? kvs{]Uvjov D]tbmKnvUmmt_kv XbmdmpXn\v Nne]cnanXnI Dv. \mw apv XbmdmnbUmmt_kn cv IpnIv HtcAUvanj \ sXmbn \InbmFmWv kw`hnpI? Cu hneI tkhvsNpXmbn ImWmw. ImcWwAcn Hcp ]cntim[\ \Sm\p

    \ntZiw ChnsS DsSpnbnn. Hcp

    CERTIFICATE

    Certified that Master/Kumari.Rajeev. K,

    Standard 10 A is Selectedto participate in

    the Volly Ball Team Selection Camp 2012.

    His/Her height is162 cm

    .

    Place Signature of Class Teacher

    Date

    saPv hnkmUntev Xncnpt]mIpXn\p PmeIn npsNbvXme`np ]pXnb PmeIn Save MergeDocument

    sXcsSpv tkhv sNpI.Ctm e`n bense ]pXnb t]PpI]cntim[nq. e`yamb slv ImUvC\n {]n v sNmw.

    \n Xbmdmnb Ummt_knsklmbtmsS C\n FsmwdntmpI Xbmdmmw?

    sFUnn ImUv

    kz`mh kn^nv ...............................................................................

    ...............................................................................

    ...............................................................................

    Ccnep ]pXnb dntmpIXbmdmn ]cnioenpatm?

    XcwXncnm ]pXnb coXn

    kvIq thmfnt_m SowsXcsSppXn\p ]cnioe\ IymvBcw`npIbmWv. Hmtcm mkn\npw160 skoaodn IqSpX DbcaphscbmWv Iymn DsSppXv.Iymntev sXcsSpsSpIpnIv mkv So Hcp kn^nv\tIXpv.

    \nfpsS ssIhiap ]nID]tbmKnv CXv Fs\ Xbmdmmw?]nIbn Hmtcm IpnbpsSbpw Dbcn\vt\tcbp tImfn Dbcw 160skoaodn IqSpXemsWn SelectedFpw 160 skoaodn IpdhmsWnNot Selected Fpw tcJsSpnbmsabnsaPv ktXw D]tbmKnvkn^nv Xbmdmmatm. Cs\tcJsSpm FmWv amKw?CXn\p]tbmKnmhp Hcp kwhn[m\

    amWv IojW tvsa v. CXn\mbn

  • 8/2/2019 FINAL-ICT TB -X - 17.12

    23/111

    hnhchniIe\ns ]pXpcoXnI

    23

    Hm Hm^okv Ummt_knsPmeIw (Nn{Xw 2.7) \nconq. CXnFsmw XbmdmpXn\p kuIcyfmWv DXv? Isn ]nIsSpq.

    Tables : ]nI XbmdmpXn\v

    Quaries : Nne {]tXyI hnhcsXcbpXn\v

    Forms : .......................................................................

    Reports : .......................................................................

    ]nI Xbmdmmw

    Hm Hm^okv Ummt_kn ]nI

    Xbmdmm aqv amKfmWpXv.Chbn Hmas amKw (Create Tablein Design View) sXcsSpq. ]nIbnDsSpt hnhcfpsS iojIfpw Ah GXpXcns hnhcfmbncnWsapw \apv Xocpam\nmw.DZmlcWambn AUvanj \ FXvkwJym]camb hnhcamWv (Numeric), t]cvFXv Ac]camb hnhcamWv (Text).

    IpnIfpsS AUvanj \, t]cv,mkv , kvIqfn tN XobXn,

    Nn{Xw 2.7

    henb Ummt_knse hnhckpcnXambn ssIImcyw sNtnhcptm Cs\ ]eXcnep]cntim[\I Bhiyambn hcpw.

    DZmlcWambn Htc hneI BhnmXncn, A am{XwDsSpt skpIfn AcHgnhm Fns\ ]eXpw.

    Ccw {]iv\-IqSn ]cn-K-WnvkpcnXambn Hcp Ummt_kns\ssIImcyw sNm klmbnptkm vvshbdpIsf s]mXpsh Ummt_kvamt\Pvsa v knw (DBMS) Fp]dbpp.Ccnep Hcp tkm^vvshbdmWvHm Hm^okv Ummt_kv. Officesa\phn\npw Hm Hm^okvUmmt_kv (Open Office Database)Xpdpt\mq. FsmamWv tkm^vvshb BhiysSpXv? Hmtcm PmeIhpw]cntim[nv Bhiyamb hnhc \In]pXnb Ummt_kv \nanq. \n\nan Ummt_kv Xpdp XcpXn\papv AXp tkhv sNmBhiysSpnt, Fmbncnpw

    ImcWw? NsNq.

  • 8/2/2019 FINAL-ICT TB -X - 17.12

    24/111

    hnhchn\nab kmtXnIhnZy

    24

    ]nIbntev hnhc tNm t^mw

    \n Xbmdmnb ]nIbntevhnhc tNm t^mw (Form) F

    ktXw D]tbmKnmw. Hm Hm^okvUmmt_kv PmeIn Form F_ npsNbvXv heXphip\npwcmas amKw (Use Wizard to createform) sXcsSpv aptmpt]mIq.\n Xbmdmnb ]nIbpwAhbn\nv t^man DsSpthnhcfpw sXcsSpm Ignbpw.Arrangement of the main form F-Xn\nv Hcp teHuv sXc-s-Spvaptm-p-t]m-Iq. t^man\v Bhiyamb

    \ndhpw teHupw sXcsSpv t^mwtkhv sNpI (Nn{Xw 2.9).

    Cu t^mw D]tbmKnv Z]nIsSpn t\mq. \nXbmdmnb t^manse Hmtcm oUnepw

    Nn{Xw 2.8

    cmImhns t]cv FnhDsSp Hcp ]nI Hm Hm^okvUmmt_kn Xbmdmmw. CXn\mbn]nIbn DsSpt iojIfpw

    AhbpsS hn`mKfpw \In ]nINnsSppIbmWv thXv. Hmtcm skvhnhcsfbpw aphbn\nvXncndnbpXn\v Hcp Zs ss{]adnIo Bbn \nhNntXpv. CXvBhnm ]mSnmXpw (Unique) Hgnhm-m ]mSn-m-Xpw (Not Null) BbZamWv. \nfpsS ]nIbn GXvZamWv ss{]adn Io Bbn\nhNntXv? B Zs kqNn-n-

    p iojIns CSXp`mKv ssdvnpsNbvXv ss{]adn Io F hn`mKwsXcsSppI. (Nn{Xw 2.8). XpSv Hcpt]cp\In ]nI tkhv sNmadcptX.

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    25/111

    hnhchniIe\ns ]pXpcoXnI

    25

    Nn{Xw 2.9

    hnhc tNtijw Sm_v IoD]tbmKnv ASp ^oUntevt]mImhpXmWv. Hcp Ipnsbkw_np hnhcw tNtijwSm_v Asn F Io Aap

    tXmsS Cu hnhc \n apvXbmdmnb ]nIbn tiJcnnpmIpw. Ccn hnhc tcJsSpnbtijw ]nI Xpdpt\mq. Cs\Xbmdmnb ]nI \mw apv ]cnioensabnsaPv t]mep ktXD]tbmKnv amhiypw {]tbmP\sSpmw. \nfpsS ]T\{]h\ns `mKambn Hm Hm^okvUmmt_kv D]tbmKnv IqSpX

    Ummt_kpI Xbmdmn ]cnioenpatm?

    XpS {]h\

    \nfpsS mknse IpnIfpsSXncndnbn ImUv XbmdmpXn\mhiyamb Z tiJcnv

    Hm Hm^okv Ummt_kvD]tbmKnv Ummt_kv XbmdmpI.sabnsaPv ktXw D]tbmKnvXncndnb ImUv Xbmdmn {]n vsNpI.

    Hcp hmUnse hoSpIfnse IpSnsht{kmXpIsf kw_np hnhc tiJ-cnv Hm Hm^okv Ummt_kn tS_nfpw AXn-tev hnh-c- \IpXn\p t^mapw \nanv

    ]nIsSppI.

  • 8/2/2019 FINAL-ICT TB -X - 17.12

    26/111

    hnhchn\nab kmtXnIhnZy

    26

    AXncmWnmSw IpSn]mptI{ambnamdnbtm q{]IrXnbnepmb am

    F{X at\mlcambmWv Fkv.sI.s]mmS v BhnjvcnncnpXv!\n Xmaknp {]tZipw amhpsImncnpnt? \nfpsS{]tZiv C-c -n hn -p`qanimkv{X]chpw a\pjy\nanXhpambam --sfmw `q]S cq]ntcJsSpm km[nptam? GXpXcw`q]SnemWv tcJsSppI? CXv Xocpam-\n-p--Xn-\mbn \apv hnhn-[-Xcw

    `q]Ssf ]cnNbsSmw.

    km[m-cW `q]Sw

    \np kp]cnNnXamb GsXnepsamcp km[m -cW `q]Sw (wall map)\nconv AXn Fsmw ImcyfmWvDsSpnbnpsXv Isq(Nn{Xw 3.1).

    tdmUpI

    sdbnth

    ...............................................................................

    ...............................................................................

    Hcp henb NXpp\new Ime{ItaW Xqpmb Hcp IpSn]mp tI{amWvAXncmWnmSw. ]pcmX\Imev Hcp sNdnb ]pg, AXneqsS Hcp ssa ]Snmdpkap{Zntev HgpIntncpp. iXm_vZnSbn B ]pg hn, sNfnsInaqSn hensbmcp tXmSmbn Xop. B mKn\v ]pghv FmWv Ctmgpw ]dp

    hcpXv. B tXmSpw {ItaW Xqv Xqv AhnSsamw NXpp\nefmbnop. B NXpp\nefpw Xqp XpSnbtm B ]mS--fn a\pjy{]thinp. {]bXv\ns ]mSpI sXfnp. AhnsS Icnn tXmfpw, Fv, Xphc XpSnb [m\y hnfbp Iffpw, thensInb hfpIfpwDmbnhp...

    Hcp tZins IYFkv. sI s]mmSv

    3 Fs hn`h `q]Sw

  • 8/2/2019 FINAL-ICT TB -X - 17.12

    27/111

    Fs hn`h `q]Sw

    27

    D]-{Kl `q]Sw

    www.wikimapia.org F sh_vsskvkinv \nfpsS {]tZiw Isn\nconq. Hcp km[mcW `q]Ss

    At]nv Fsmw hnhcfmWvIqSpXembn CXn DsSpnbnpXvFp Isq.

    hoSv

    ]mbv tdmUv

    Ipfw

    ...............................................................................

    hnnamnbbn e,tdmUpI, m]\, Bcm[\meb apXembhbpsS t]cpI ASbmfsSpm km[n -pw. \n-fpsSkvIqfns m\w q]Sn IspI.

    Nn{Xw 3.1

    Nn{Xw 3.2 D{]{Kl hoWw

  • 8/2/2019 FINAL-ICT TB -X - 17.12

    28/111

    hnhchn\nab kmtXnIhnZy

    28

    kvIqfns t]cv Fs\bmWv hnn amnbbn ASbmfsSppI?

    hnnamnbbn Fs kvIqfpw

    hnnamnb Xpdv Search sNbvtXm,aukv kvt{Im hgntbm \n-fpsSkvIqfns m\w Is-mw. Satelliteview, map view Fo cpcoXnbn q]Sw

    \nconm CXn kuIcyw Hcpnbnp-v. kvIqfns m\w Is-n--gn-m]ns q]Sn\Iv apI`mKve`yamIp SqfpIfn Edit Map se Addplace FSppI.

    Nn{Xw 3.3 q]S hoWw

    Nn{Xw 3.4

    Nn{Xw 3.5

  • 8/2/2019 FINAL-ICT TB -X - 17.12

    29/111

    Fs hn`h `q]Sw

    29

    aukv npIsImv t]mbnpIkrjvSnv \nfpsS kvIqfncnp ewASbmfsSpmw. CXpt]mse \nfpsShoSv nXnsNp ehpw `q]Sn

    ASbmfsSpq.

    Save _Wn npsNptmXpdphcp PmeIn esIpdnp hnhcIqSn DsSpntkhv sNq.

    IyqPnkv(QGIS) `q]Sw

    C\n keralaresourcemaps.in Fsh_vsskv kinv ]memSv Pnbnseaepg tmnse AItd

    {Kma]mbns sh_v IyqPnkv (webQGIS) `q]Sw t\mp. B ]mbns`qhnhc hyhsbpdnv `q]SnDsSpnb hnhcsfmwXs taJeXncnv CSXphiv \InbncnpXvt\mpI. Fsmw taJeIfpambn_s hnhcfmWv IyqPnkv `q]-S-n \InbncnpXv?

    Hcp taJebnse hnhcsf`q]Sn {]ZinnpXn\v BtaJebpsS CSXp hip sNvt_m

    Nn{Xw 3.6

    GISse hnhn[ hnhc ]mfnI

    AXnn ]mbpI

    ]mbnse BkvXn-I

    tmns AXnn

    I\mepI

    IS AXnn

    sNv Umw sIt e

    agpgnI Ipgnt e

    ........................................................................

    ........................................................................

    ........................................................................XpSn [mcmfw ]mfnIQGISamnImWmw.

    Ivkn aukv npsNbvXm aXnbmIpw.Hmtcm taJesbpdnpap FsmwhntijW (Attributes) `q]SnDsSpnbnpsv B taJe{]h\aamnbpw `q]SnnpsNbvXpw IspI.

    Ctm \mw aqpXcw q]S ]cn

  • 8/2/2019 FINAL-ICT TB -X - 17.12

    30/111

    hnhchn\nab kmtXnIhnZy

    30

    tim[ntm? Chbn {]IrXnZhpw a\pjy-\nan-X-hp-amb `utam-]-cn-Xe khn-ti-jXIfpw Ahbpambn _s ]camh[nhnh-c-fpw Ds-Sp -n-bn-cn -p-XvIyqPnkv (QGIS) `q]S-fn -em-sWvt_m[y-ambtm? IyqPnkv `q]SnDsSpp hnhcsfmwXs {]mtZin -Im-kq -{X-W-n\pw ap hni-I-e-\-pw D]-tbm-Kn -m km[n-pw.

    ]mwXcw kmaqlyimkv{XwII se cmwA[ym-b-n Ccw `q]S-fpsS D]-tbmKspdnv ]dbp Imcy {inpatm. IyqPnkv q]Ssfpdnpw AhbpsS Nne D]tbmKsfpdnpw C\n a\n-em-mw.

    Nn{Xw 3.7 Bbn \In-bn-cn-phmUv `q]Sw {in-q. AXn kqNn-n-p {][m\ tdmUv (Main Road) Itm?

    Nn{Xw 3.7

    IyqPnkv(QGIS)

    \nfpsS {]tZins khntijXI Hmtcmpw Dsmp Hcp km[mcW`q]Sw Xbm-dm-n-sb-n-cn--s. Cu `q]Sn Ds-Sp-nb hnh-c- GsX-

    nepw Bhiyn\mbn hniIe\w sNbvXp]tbmKnpI {iaIcamb Hcp {]hrnXsbmbncnpw. Fm m\ob hnhcfpw AhbpsS khntijXIfpw C\wXncnv Hmtcm hn`mKsbpw {]tXyIw {]tXyIw ]mfnIfn tcJsSpnbmWv`q]Sw \nanpsXv IcpXpI. Cu hnhc]mfnIsf Bhiyw hcptm ths]Spnbpw Bhiym\pkcWw Iqntpw hniIe\w sNm\p kuIcyhpw e`yam-Wv. Fn Acw `q]-S--fn\npw hnh-c- hos-Sp-epw hni-I-e\wsNepsams Ffphpw kqvaXbpXpambncnpw. Cs\ \apv kuIcy{]Z-ambn D]-tbm-Kn-m-hp Xc-n hnhn[ ]mfn-I-fn-embn hnh-c- {Iao-I-cn-n- p q]S \nanpXn\v klmbnp Hcp {][m\ tkm vvshbdmWv IzmwPn.sF.Fkv.

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    31/111

    Fs hn`h `q]Sw

    31

    tdmUns hoXn 10 ao Iqm Xocpam\nppshp IcpXpI. Xocpam\w \Smnbm GsXmw sInSsf AXv _m[np-sav Is-m km[n -ptam?

    IyqPnkv `q]Sam-sW-n Xo-bmbpwCXn -\p kuIcyw {]kvXpXtkm^vvshb-dn e`y-am-Wv. _^-dnwKv(Buffering) F kt-X-amWv Cutkm^vvshb-dn CXn\v {]tbm-P-\-s-Sp-p --X v . _^-dnwK v F-s\-sbvt\mmw.

    _^-dn-wKv

    Cu {]h-\-n-\mbn \nv

    Nn{Xw 3.7 kqNn-n-n-p IyqPnkv `q]Sns UnPn cq]w (QGIS Project) e`yammw. CXns\ Izmw Pn.sF.Fkv. F`qhnhc hyhm tkm^vvshbdn XpdWw. IyqPnkv (Quantum GIS) Xpdv Filesa\phnse Hm t{]mPIvSphgn \nfpsSIyqdnse QGIS Project Xpdm\mIpw.CS -Xp -h -i -p seb t_mIvkv

    \nconv `q]Snep GsXmw ]mfnI Zriy-am-Ip-pv Fv Is-q.seb t_mIvknse ]mfnIsf CSXphip sNIvt_m-Ivkn np-sNbvXv

    {]h-\-aamn t\mq.

    `q]Snep {][m\ tdmUns hoXn10 ao Iqptm GsXmw sInSsf_m[n-p-sav Xmsg--d-bp coXn-bnIs-mw.

    BZyw Road F ]mfn skeIvSvsNpI.

    select single feature button D]

    tbmKnv `q]Snse {][m\ tdmUvskeIvSv sNpI.

    Vector Geo processing Tools

    Buffer(s) F {Ia-n np-sNpI.

    Input vector Layer Bbn Roads sXcsSppI.

    Nn{Xw 3.8

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    32/111

    hnhchn\nab kmtXnIhnZy

    32

    Buffer distance Main Road \v A[nI-ambn \Ip hoXn 10 ao-dmbn\IpI.

    output Shapefile FnSs browse

    _ npsNbvXv ]mfnv A\ptbmPy-amb ^b\maw (buffer_roads)\In tkhp-sN-p-I. ]pXnb ]mfntNpXn\pw A\phmZw \IpI.

    seb t_mIvkn Road Layer s\{UmKpsNbvXv buffer_roads ]mfnpapIfn-tepw, House Layer s\ RoadLayer \v apIfntepw {IaoIcnpI.

    C\n `q]Sw \nconv tdmUv hoXn

    Iqptm _m[np sInSGsXms Fp Ism\mIpw?

    Bhiysan `q]Sw Zoom in sNmw.BcpsSsbms hoSpIfmhpw \sSpIFp Ism\mbn house ]mfnbn

    np sNpI. Identify Features F

    Sqfn npsNbvXtijw _^ sebdnep Hmtcm hoSpItfbpw kqNnnpt]mbnpIfn hopw np sNpI.hoSpIsfpdnv Fsmw hnhcfmWv`q]S \namW kabv DsSpnbncnpXv Fpt\mq.

    ]pXnb ]mfn tNmw

    `q]Sn hoSpIsfmw Hcp]mfnbnemWv ASbmfsSpnbncnpsXv {intm? hoSpItfmSp tNvkm[mcWbmbn InWdpI Dmhpw.

    Nn{Xw 3.9

    Pnsbm d^dknwKv

    Hcp {]tZins q]Sw kvIm sNbvXvQGIS DsSpptXmsS AXv Pnsbmd^dkp sNWw. CXn\mbn B {]tZip IrXyambn Xncndnbm Ignbp

    e ASbmf (Landmark) Isn AhbpsS Amwihpw tcJmwihpwtm_ s]mknj\nv knw(GPS) F ktXap]tbmKnv Ispp. CuASbmfsf B[mcamn `q]Ss kvsIbnev sNpp. CXns\bmWv Pnsbmd^dknwKv Fp]dbpXv. Pnsbm d^dknwKv sNbvXp Ignm `q]SnseHmtcm _nphnsbpw m\w Adnbm\pw km[npw.

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    33/111

    Fs hn`h `q]Sw

    33

    Nn{Xw 3.10

    ]nI 3.1

    ]mfn (Layer) C\w (Layer Type) hntijW (Attributes)

    AXncpI _lp`pPw (Polygon) ]mbns/hmUns t]cv,P\kwJy, hoSpIfpsS Fw apXembh

    Ipf _lp`pPw (Polygon) DSaX, Pee`yX, D]tbmKwapXembh

    ]pcbnS _lp`pPw (Polygon) ksh \, `qan D]tbmKw, an\w,DSaX apXembh

    \ZnI hc (Line) t]cv, hoXn, Pe e`yX apXembh

    \om hc (Line) t]cv, hoXn, Pe e`yX apXembh

    hgn hc (Line) t]cv. Xcw ({][m\ ]mX Asn]mbv hgn), hoXn, D]cnXew,apXembh

    hoSv _np (Point) hop\, hopt]cv, IpSpw_mwKfpsSFw, taqc (RCC or tiled or thatch)

    InW _np (Point) DSaX, Pee`yX, D]tbmKw,Ah, Bgw, Pe ]cnipn apXembh

    s]mXp sInSw _np (Point) t]cv, C\w, sInS \ apXembh

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    34/111

    hnhchn\nab kmtXnIhnZy

    34

    ChnsS InWdpI tcJsSpnbnn.Ah Fs\ DsSppw?

    QGIS sa\phn\nv Layer NewNew Shapefile Layer {Ian npsNpI.

    {]XyamIp UbtemKv t_mIvknLayer Type GsXv (XmsgXncnp ]nI t\mn)tcJsSppI.

    New Attribute \pXm-sg-bp Namet_mIvkn InW-dn\v A\ptbmPy-ambhntijW- (Attributes) \IpI.

    hntijWfmbn Fsmw

    Imcy \Im km[npw? ]nIbn\nv Isq. hntijWfpsSXmsgbp type box IqSpX A\p_hntijWfpw tcJsSpmw. Ac D]tbmKnptm text data FtmAv Whole number AsnDecimal number Ftm \Imw. HmtcmhntijWw \Iptmgpw Xmsg Add toattributes list F Sm_n npsNphm adcpXv. th hnhc

    sfmw tcJsSpnb tijw OK _Aan well F ^b\maw \In

    Nn{Xw 3.11

    tkhv sNpI. Atm well F t]cnHcp ]mfn CSv seb t_mIvkn{]XyamIpw. ]mfnbn ssdv npsNbvXv properties Xpdv t\mq. Cu

    ]mfnv C\nbpw Fsms amhcpm Ignbpsav Isq(Nn{Xw 3.11).

    Cs\ Xbmdmnb ]mfnbnemWv\apv InWdpI tcJsSptXv.Xmsg--d -bp coXn -bn InW-dp -IHmtcm-mbn tcJ-s-Sp-ntmfq.

    seb t_mIvkn\npw well ]mfnXncsSppI.

    Sq_mdnse toggle editing _ -Wn npsNpI.

    Atm am{Xw kPohamIp kao

    ]-p capture point _

    AapI.

    hoSn-\-Spv InW ASbmfsSpt m\v np sNpI.

    Xpdphcp Attributes PmeIn

    ( Nn{Xw 3.12 ) Bhiyamb hnhc\evIn OK np sNpI.

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    35/111

    Fs hn`h `q]Sw

    35

    CtX coXn Ah-ew -_n -p -XsBh-iy-amb ]mfnI \nanv ]pcbnSw,Ipfw, \ZnI XpSnbhsbmw C\n

    \np Xs `q]Sn Dsmnmatm?

    Nn{Xw 3.12

    `q]Sw IqSpX BIjIammw.

    \ Xbmdmp `q]SnXesv , tXmXv , Znv (North line) ,kqNI (Legend) XpSnbh Fs\

    hntijW (Attributes)

    GIS `q]Sn Dtp Hmtcmhn`mKw hnhcfpsSbpw _s aphntijW IqSn DsmpXn\p kuIcy e`yamWv .DZmlcWn\v `q]Sn Dsm

    p IrjnbnSfpsS hntijWfmbn kth \, hnkvXoWw,ans kz`mhw, Pee`yX, Irjnbn\ XpSn _s Fmhnhcfpw tNpXn\p km[npw.am{Xa, `q]Sn tNphnhcsfViewsa\phnseIdentify Fea-turesnpsNbvXv XncsSpm\mIpw.\ \Inb apgph hnhcfpw]nIbmbns Layer sa\phnseOpen Attribute Tablehgnbpw e`npw.

    GIS`qhnhc hyh D]tbm-Knphn[w

    s\Irjn hnI-kn-n-p--Xn-\mbn

    Xcnip `qan D]tbmKsSpp ImcywXocp-am-\n--W-sa-n-cn--s. `qhn-hchyhm `q]Snse IrjntbmKyambXcn-ip-\new ImWn-p ]mfnp apI-fn av, tImq tcJI, Pet{kmXpI Fnh ImWnp ]mfnIhncnp(Overlay) t\mpp.

    CXp-t]m-se-Xs tdmUv `q]S]mfnpapI-fn ]mS-ti-J-c- `q]Sw hncn-n-m]pXnb tdmUv \nan-p-tm Fhn-sS-

    sbmw ]mS-ti-J-c- \nI-p-t]m-Ip-sav Ism\mIpw. Cs\ {]mtZin-Im-kq-{X-W-ns Hmtcm kp{]-[m\LfnepwGIS`q]SfpsS D]tbmKwCv AXym-hiy-ambn hn-cn-bmWv.

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    36/111

    hnhchn\nab kmtXnIhnZy

    36

    bmWv DsSppI? CXn\mbn file New print Composer FSpptmZriyamIp Iwt]mk PmeIn\nvadd new map Sq np sNbvX tijwXmsg Iymhmkn Ncn Zni-bnclick & drag sNpI. q]Sw {]XyamIpw.\nfpsS Bhiya\pkcnv henw

    {IaoIcnm\p SqfpI {]tbmP\sSpmw (Nn{Xw 3.13). heXp hipproperties box general, item FnhD]tbmKnv `q]Sn\v assmw amwhcpm\mIpsav \n Ispatm?

    XesIv \Im Iwt]mkPmeInse add new label Sq _skeIvSv sNbvXv Iymhmkn npsNpI. quantum GIS F te_temSp

    IqSnb Hcp sSIvkv t_mIvkv ZriyamIpp.heXp hip label box amw hcpnA\ptbmPyamb t]cp\In sSIvkvt_mIvkn amns Xes v ZriyammIgnbpw.

    legend DsSpm add new vectlegend _ skeIvS v sNbvX vIymhmkn np sNbvXm am{XwaXnbmIpw.

    C\n Sq _mdnse add image skeIvSv

    sNbvXv Iymhmkn AaptmheXp hip ZriyamIp Picture option \npw A\ptbmPyamb North lineASbmfw DsSpmw. CXpt]mseIwt]mk PmeInse ap SqGsXmw Fv ]cnNbsSpatm.

    File Export as Image Xpdv

    A\ptbmPyamb t^mamn \mw \nan`q]Sw Save sNbvXv kqnmw.

    XpS {]h\-

    {Kma ]mbns `q]Sn\nfpsS hoSpw kao] efpwDsmp QGIS `q]Sw XbmdmpI.

    Izmw Pn.sF.Fkn XbmdmnbkvIq hmUns q]Sn kvIqfn\v

    50 ao Npfhn F{X InWdpIDsv Bhrn hniIe\neqsSIspI.

    CUybpsS `q{]IrXn hn`mKhyXykvX \ndfn \nanpI.

    CUy kmnI qanimkv{Xw FA[ymbnse Cy tKmXv IrjnsNp {]tZi (t]Pv 87) Pn.sF. Fkv. tkm^vvshb D]tbmKnv\nanpI.

    Nn{Xw 3.13

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    Iyq mj

    37

    ss] F Iyq`mjbpsSklmbtmsS PymanXob cq]\nanp hn[w \mw A`yknnptm?AXpt]mseXs IuvUu tmv\nanpXn\pw efnXamb KWnX{InbI sNpXn\pw \mw ap

    mkpIfn ss]`mj D]tbmKnpIgnp.

    F v, H]Xv mkpIfn ]cnNbsNne ss] \ntZifpw AhbpsSD]tbmKhpw Xmsg ]nIIfn \Inbncnpp.

    \ntZiw DZmlcWw D]tbmKw

    import from turtle import* Fm turtle {Km^nIvkv

    samUyqfpIfpw t{]m{Km-anDsSp-p--Xn\v

    raw_input a=raw_input(Enter your Name:)aF Ncntev Hcp t]cvIot_mUv hgn C]pmbnkzoIcnpXn\v

    if if(n>10)

    print Greater than TEN

    else

    print Less than TEN

    nF Ncnse kwJy ]nIqSpXemsWn Greaterthan TEN Fpw kwJy ]nIpdhmsWn Less than TENFpw {]np sNpXn\v

    iF Ncn 0,1,2,3,4Fo kwJyI tiJcnpXn\v

    range i=range(5)

    iF Ncn tiJcnkwJyI {]n v sNpXn\v

    for for i in range(11):

    print i

    time samUyq t{]m{KmanDsSppXn\v

    import import time

    turtle {Km^nIvkv PmeIns F Ncnse hne {]n vsNpXn\v

    write() write(s)

    ]nI 4.1 : \mw CXphsc ]cnNbs Nne ss] \ntZi

    4 Iyq `mj

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    hnhchn\nab kmtXnIhnZy

    38

    {]h\w : Nne ss] \ntZifpw AhbpsS D]tbmKhpw ]nI 4.2 \Inbn-cn-pp. Bhiyambh Iqntv ]nI ]qnbmpI.

    ss] `mjbnse IqSpX NnehkvXpXI C\n \apv ]cn-N-bsSmw.

    for \p]Icwwhile

    Hcp t{]m{Kman DsnpGsXnepw \ntZi Hcp \nnXXhW Bhnp {]hnWsan

    for \ntZiamWv D]tbmKntsXv\mw a\nemnbnpv . ss]

    t{]m{Kmw 1 t{]m{Kmw 2

    from turtle import*

    clear()

    for i in range(8):

    rt(45)

    circle(50)

    from turtle import*

    clear()

    i=0

    while(i

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    Iyq mj

    39

    t{]m{KmapI {]hnntijwXmsgdbph IspI.

    GXv Bh\ \ntZitm

    sSmamWv range ^MvjD]tbmKnncnpXv?

    cmas t{]m{Kman i=i+1 F\ntZiw \Inbnnsn Fpkw`hnpambncpp?

    t{]m{Kmw 2 i=0 F \ntZiwFn-\mWv \In-bn-cn-pXv?

    ^Mvj\pI ss]Wn

    Imv, ssd XpSnb tkm vvshbdpIfn D]tbmKnp SUM,AVERAGE, COUNT XpSnb Mvj\pI\mw ]cnNbsnptm? CXpt]mseKWnX{InbI FfpampXpw hopwhopw D]tbmKnm IgnbpXpamb

    for\ntZin\Isfor\ntZiw

    Hcpfor\ntZin\Iv Hcp \nnX XhW Bhnp {]hnt\ntZi {IaoIcnm \mw Ign mkpIfn ]cnioennpv .

    AXpt]mseXsfor\ntZin\Iv hopwfor\ntZi \Im\mIpw.

    HXmwmkn Iyq Ifsagpv F ]mT`mKv ]cnNbs {]h\wcpcoXnIfn Xmsg\Ipp. t{]m{KmapIfnse ASbmfsSpnb `mKXmcXayw sNbvXv Hcpfor\ntZin\Iv asmcpfor\ntZiw DsSpphn[wXncndnbm\mIpw. coXn 2 \nconpI. CXn for i in range(8): Ffor\ntZin\Iv hopw for j in range(30,91,10): F for \ntZiw\InbncnpXp ImWmw.

    coXn 2 se Hmtcm \ntZifpw F{X XhW {]hnppsv Xmsg ]nIbn\Inbncnpp.

    \ntZiw F{X XhW {]hnpp?

    from turtle import*

    clear()

    for i in range(8):

    rt(45)

    for j in range(30,91,10):

    circle(j)

    1

    1

    8

    56

    coXn 1 coXn 2

    from turtle import*

    clear()

    for i in range(8):

    rt(45)

    circle(30)

    circle(40)

    circle(50)

    circle(60)

    circle(70)

    circle(80)

    circle(90)

    from turtle import*

    clear()

    for i in range(8):

    rt(45)

    for j in range(30,91,10):

    circle(j)

    ]nI 4.4

    ]nI 4.5

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    hnhchn\nab kmtXnIhnZy

    40

    ^Mvj\pI ss] `mjbnepw\nanm Ignbpw. Cs\ \nanp^Mvj\pI ap t{]m{KmapIfn{]hnnm\pw Ignbpw.

    cp kwJyIfpsS XpIImWpXn\p ^Mvj NphsS\Inbncnpp (t{]m{Kmw 3).

    Cu t{]m{Kmanse HmtcmhcnIfpsSbpw D]tbmKw Xmsg ]nIbn\Inbncnpp.

    t{]m{Kmw 3

    def sum(a,b):

    c=a+b

    return c

    ]pXnb t{]m{Kman ss] ^Mvj

    DsSpp hn[w

    apIfn \Inb XpI ImWp

    Xn\p ^Mvj (t{]m{Kmw 3)ssSpsNbvXv myfunction.py Ft]cnkzw t]cn-ep t^mU-dn tkhvsNpI. AXn\ptijw Xmsg \Inbncnp t{]m{Kmw (t{]m{Kmw 4) CtXt^mUdn Xbmdmn {]hnnpt\mpI. Cu t{]m{Kmanse Hmtcm\ntZihpw ss] sjn{]hnnmepw aXn.

    {]h\w

    t{]m{Kmw 4s Huv]pv \nconv]nI.4.7 ]qnbmpI. AXn\ptijwcp kwJyIfpsS KpW\^ewImWpXn\p ^Mvj myfunction.pyF t{]m{Kmant\mSv IqntpI.

    kv{SnpI

    kv{Snv Fm Accq]nep

    UmbmWv. DcWnbn \Ip kwJyIfpw kv{Snp-I-fm-Wv. apIfn \Inbt{]m{Kman (t{]m{Kmw 4) print

    t{]m{Kmw 4

    import myfunction

    print myfunction.sum(3,4)

    print myfunction.sum(3,4)

    print myfunction.sum(30,40)

    print myfunction.sum(a,b)

    \ntZiw D]tbmKw

    def sum(a,b): cv NcfpsS hneIkzoIcnm Ignbpsum F t]cnep

    ^Mvj \nanpXn\p \ntZiw

    c=a+b e`yamb cv hneIXn Iqn c FNcn tiJcnpXn\v

    return c Cu ^Mvj {]tbmP\sSpp t{]m{Kman\vcv hneI XnIqnbm Inp

    hneI Xncnp \I]nI. 4.6

    \ntZiw D]tbmKw

    import myfunction

    print myfunction.sum(3,4)

    print myfunction.sum(30,40)

    print myfunction.sum(a,b)

    ]nI. 4.7

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    Iyq mj

    41

    myfunction.sum(Good,morning)

    F \ntZiw IqSn tNv{]hnnm Huv]pmbn GoodmorningFpIqSn {]np sNpw.

    ^Mvj\ntev C]pmbn \Ip Um,kwJyIfsv ss] XncndnXpsImmWv CXv kw`hnXv. ss]Wn+ Nnw cp kwJyIsf IqpXn\pam{Xa cp kv{SnpI IqntpXn\pw D]tbmKnpp.

    {]h\w : kv{Snv ]ncanUv

    kv{Snv ]ncanUv \nanpXn\p{]h\w NphsS (t{]m{Kmw 5)\Inbncnpp. ssSpsNbvXv {]hnnpI.

    t{]m{Kmw 5

    s=raw_input(Enter Your Name:)

    n=len(s)

    for i in range(n+1):

    print s[:i]

    ss] samUyqfpI

    {Km^nIv t{]m{KmapIfn from turtle import* F \ntZiw XpSnDsSpnbncpXv Hmpatm. AXpt]mseXs kabhpambn _s\ntZi DsSp t{]m{KmapIfnimport timeF \ntZihpw XpSn\ImdpmbncpXpw {inncnpw. Time, turtleXpSnb ss] samUyqfpIt{]m{Kman DsSpm\mWv Ccw \ntZi t{]m{Kman tNpXv.DZmlcWambn timeF samUyq import time F \ntZiw D]tbmKnv Hcpt{]m{Kman DsSpptm kabhpambn _s v Cu samUyqfn DsnpFm Mvj\pIfpw ]pXnb t{]m{Kman e`yamIpw. \mw \nanp t{]m{KmapIfpwCcnimportF \ntZins klmbtmsS ]pXnb asmcp t{]m{KmanDsSpmw.

    ss] t{]m{Kmw \psS knn Cm sNptm t\cs Xbmdmnh \nch[n samUyqfpI AtXmsSmw e`yamIpw. Ccnep samUyqfpI GXp t{]m{Kmantepw kuIcy{]Zambn importsNmw. Fm \mw \nanpHcp ss] ^b asmcp ss] ^ben import sNWsan cp^bepIfpw Htc t^mUdnembncnWw.

    kv{Snn\Is KWnXw

    kv{SnpI Hcp {]tXyI coXnbnemWv tiJcnsSpXv. Nne kv{Snv \ntZifpw AhbpsS D]tbmKhpw Xmsg \InbncnpXv {inpI.

    print a[0]

    print a*3

    print a[:2]

    print a[2:]

    print a[-1]

    print a.upper()

    print a.lower() ]nI 4.8

    \ntZiw D]tbmKw

    a=Good a F Ncn GoodF kv{Snv tiJcnpXn\v

    print a a bnse DSw {]n v sNpXn\v

    a bn tiJcn kv{Snnse BZys Acw {]n v sNpXn\v

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    hnhchn\nab kmtXnIhnZy

    42

    CtX t{]m{Kmw while D]tbmKnvXbmdmnbXv Xmsg (t{]m{Kmw 6)\Inbncnpp. t{]m{Kmw {]hnnvsXpsn XncppI.

    ss] tImUv P\td

    ss] t{]m{KmapI WYSIWYG

    (What You See Is What You Get)amXrIbn \nanm klmbnp Hcptkm^vvshbdmWv wxglade. Cu tkm vvshb Programming sa\phnemWvDsSpnbnpXv. tkm^vvshbXpdptm Sqt_mIvtkmSpIqSnb{][m\ PmeItmsSmw (Nn{Xw 4.1)Properties PmeIhpw (Nn{Xw 4.2)wxglade:Tree PmeIhpw (Nn{Xw 4.3) HcpanvXpdphcpw.

    wxglade D]tbmKnp ss]

    t]m{Kmw \namWw

    Hcp ss] t{]m{Kmw

    {]hnntm e`n PmeIamWv(Nn{Xw 4.4) \InbncnpXv. wxglade

    t{]m{Kmw 6

    s=raw_input(Enter Your Name:)

    n=len(s)

    i=1

    while(i

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    Iyq mj

    43

    \namWw, te_epI, _WpI XpSnbh Ds-Sp - Fo Imcy -

    Adn-n-cn-tXpv. Ch Xmsg hnhcn-pp.

    s{^bnw \namWwwxglade

    Programming sa\phn\nv wxgladetkm^v vshb XpdpI. aqvPmeI Xpdphcpw ({][m\PmeIw (Nn{Xw 4.1), Properties PmeIw(Nn{Xw 4.2), wxglade : Tree PmeIw(Nn{Xw 4.3) Fnh).

    {][m\ PmeIn\nv (Nn{Xw 4.1)Add a Frame _ npsNpI.

    {]Xy--s-Sp Pme-I-n\npw(Nn{Xw 4.5) wxFrame Hm]vjskeIvS v sNbvXv OK _AapI. Atm s{^bnw PmeIw e`yamIpw (Nn{Xw 4.6).

    CtX kabv wxglade:Tree

    PmeIn (Nn{Xw 4.3) DmIp

    hnjz t{]m{KmapI

    hnjz t{]m{KmapI D]tbmKnptm t{]m{KmanMv FfpamIpp. CXv Iyqt{]m{KmapI XbmdmpXn\pWYSIWYGamXrIIfmWv. km[mcW t{]m{KmanMv

    `mjIfn Hcp NXpcw hcbvpXn\v _s tImUpIfSnb \ntZissSpsNWw. Fm hnjzssekv sNbvX t{]m{KmanMv `mjbn Hcp NXpcwhcbvpXn\v ssddnsebpw apwt]mse {UmKv B v t{Um]v aXnbmIpw.

    {][m\s Fm t{]m{KmanMv mjIfpw hnjzssekv sNbvXnpv. C++F Iyq`mjbpsS hnjzssekv sNbvX cq]amWv Visual C++, en\Ivknse t{]m{KmanMvsa\phn DsSpnbnp wxglade F tkm^vvshbdns klmbtmsSss], C++. Perl, XRC, Lisp Fo `mjIfnep t{]m{KmapI WYSIWYGamXrIbn Xbmdmmw.

    amw \nconpI (Nn{Xw 4.7). ]pXnbs{^bnans t]cpw Sizer Dw{]Xysnp-m-Ipw.

    Nn{Xw 4.4

    Nn{Xw 4.5

    Nn{Xw 4.6

    Nn{Xw 4.7

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    hnhchn\nab kmtXnIhnZy

    44

    te_-ep-I-fpw _Wp-Ifpw Ds-Sp-p--Xn\v

    s{^bn -an te_epw sSIvvt_mIvkpw _Wpw DsSppXn\pamKw Xmsg \Ipp.

    te_ \namWw : {][m\

    PmeInse (Nn{Xw 4.1) Add a staticText _ sk-eIvSv sNbvXv

    PmeInse BZysIf-n np-sN-p-I. PmeInepw wxglade:Tree PmeInepw te_ens t]cv sXfnphcpw. Properties PmeInseWidget Sm_ns klmbtmsSLabel 1 FXv Number 1 FmnampI. cmas te_epw CtX {Ia

    n ampI. (Nn{Xw 4.11 ImWpI).

    wxglade:Tree PmeInse Sizer npsNpI. Properties PmeIn\npw A\ptbmPyamb Sizer skeIvSvsNpI. Frame PmeIwNn{XnteXp (Nn{Xw 4.10) t]mse{IaoIcnpI.

    s{^bnw {IaoIcWn\vSizer

    s{^bnw PmeInse hcnIfpw \ncIfpw {IaoIcnpXn\mWv SizerD]tbmKnpXv. Sizer D]tbmKnv hcnbpw \ncbpw {IaoIcnp hn[w Xmsg

    \Ipp.

    wxglade:TreePmeIn (Nn{Xw 4.7) \npwSizer npsNpI. PropertiesPmeIn AXn\\pkrXambn amw DmIpw (Nn{Xw 4.8). PmeInseClass

    \p t\tcbp _Wn npsNpI. Atm e`npSelect sizer type

    PmeIn (Nn{Xw 4.9) \npw A\ptbmPyambSizer type sXcsSppI.Nn{Xw 4.4 teXpt]mse tdmbpw tImfhpw DsSp s{^bnamWv\nanpsXnwxFlexGridSizerBWv sXcsSptXv.

    AXn\ptijw wxglade:Tree PmeInse Sizer ssdv npsNbvXvBhiyn\v tdmbpw tImfhpw Iqntmw.

    Nn{Xw 4.8 Nn{Xw 4.9

    Nn{Xw 4.10

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    Iyq mj

    45

    sSIvv t_mIvkv tNp--Xn\v :{][m\ PmeInse Add a Text Ctrl

    _ np-sN-p-I. te_

    \nan amXrIbn Bhiyamb efn npsNbvXv Nn{Xw 4.11 teXpt]mse sSIvv t_mIvkpI DsSppI.

    _ -Wp-I tNp--Xn\v : {][m\PmeInse Add a Button npsNbvXv s{^bn-an _ -Wp-I tNpI. BZys _ (Add) DsSp -n -bm Properties cpam- IqSn hcp -t--Xp -v.Properties Pme-I-nse Widget

    Sm_nse Label 1 FXv AddFmn ampIbmWv BZyw sNt-Xv. AXn-\p-tijw Event Sm_nHandler F `mKv _-Wnnp-sN-p-tm {]hn-t^Mvjs t]cv tNt--Xp-v.({]-h-\-n sum FmWv\In-bn-cn-p--Xv). Dcw sXfn-tb cm-as _ skeIvSvsNbvXv Widget Sm_nse Label 2FXv Hgn-hm-pIbpw thWw.

    ss] tImUv \namWw

    Nn{Xw 4.11 se PmeInse{IaoIcWn\v kam\amb ss]

    te_ens t]cpw DShpw ammw

    Add a static Text _ D]tbmKnv te_ \nanptm km[mcWbmbnLabel_1, Label_2 Fns\bp t]cpw DShpamWv sXfnphcnI. Cs\

    e`np t]cpI Xmsgdbp {Ian ammhpXmWv.

    wxglade:TreePmeInse amw hcpt te_en npsNpI. PropertiesPmeIn AXn\\pkrXambn amapmIpw.

    Properties PmeInse Common Sm_n npsNbvXv t]cv ammhpXmWv. DSw ampXn\p Hm]vjWidget Sm_n \npw e`npw.

    Nn{Xw 4.11

    Nn{Xw 4.12 Nn{Xw 4.13

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    hnhchn\nab kmtXnIhnZy

    46

    tImUv \nanpXn\p {]h\{IawXmsg \Ipp.

    wxglade:Tree PmeIn\npw

    Applications npsNpI. AXn\ptijw Properties PmeInseOutput path Hm]vj\p t\scbp

    (Nn{Xw 4.13) _Wn npsNbvXvBhiyamb t^mU sXcsSpv ^b \maw \IpI. .pyF FIvj \n_--ambpw\IWw.

    CtX PmeInse Python FHm]vj skeIvSv sNbvXv GenerateCode _Wn AapI. \ntZins t^mUdn ss]tImUv \nansnpmIpw. IDLEXpdtm Terminal D]tbmKntm Cut{]m{Kmw {]hnnp t\mpI.

    t^mans\ {]h\aammw

    apIfn \mw \nan t{]m{Kmw{]hnnp kabv Iffn

    kwJyI tNm Ignbpw. Fm Add_Wn npsNptm XpIe`yamIpIbn. Cu {]iv\w ]cnlcnpXn\p amKw Xmsg \Ipp.

    \nans ss] ^bXpdpI. sum ^Mvjs tImUvhcp `mKv (Nn{Xw 4.14) Nn{Xw 4.15teXpt]mse amw hcppI.

    sSIvvt_mIvkpI hgn Iyqdntev\Ip kwJy \yqsa-dnIv Umb.Ccw kwJyI KWnX {InbIvD]tbmKnpXn\papv\yqsadnIvUmbmn amtXpv. CXn\mbnintF^Mvj\mWv ss]Wn D]tbmKnp-Xv.

    Nn{Xw 4.14

    Nn{Xw 4.15

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    Iyq mj

    47

    t{]m{Kmw {]hnnp t\mpI.Ctm Add _ {]h\aamIpIbpw Dcw cmas_Wn sXfnbpIbpw sNpw.

    Nn{Xw 4.16 teXpt]mse amwhcpnbpw {]hnnpI. cpwXnep hyXymkw XmcXaywsNqI.

    {]h\w

    Nn{Xw 4.17 s amXrIbnep PmeIwe`y-am-Ip--Xn-\p ss] t{]m{Kmw

    te_epI, sSIvv t_mIvkpI, _WpI XpSnb Hm_vPIvSpI Nc D]tbm-Kn-pXpt]mse ss] `mjbn D]tbm-Kn-mw. Nn{Xnset{]m{Km-an (Nn{Xw 4.18) sum F ^Mvj-\n sSIvv t_mIvkp-I-fp-sSbpw_Wnsbpw t]cv DsSpnbncnpXv {inpI. wxglade : TreePmeInse H_vPIvSpIfpsS t]cpXsbmWv t{]m{Kman DsSpn-bn-cn-pXv.

    wxglades klmbtmsS \nanpI.IqSpX KWnX {InbI t{]m{Kman Iqn

    tpI.

    Nn{Xw 4.18

    Nn{Xw 4.16

    Nn{Xw 4.17

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    hnhchn\nab kmtXnIhnZy

    48

    F\npw HcpGUI tkm^vvshb

    \n \nan tkm^vvshb D]tbmKnv ssddpw Impw PnpsamwXpdm\mbmtem! \nmhiyamb Nne t{]m{KmapI XpdpXn\pss] tImUv Xmsg \Inbncnpp.

    from Tkinter import *

    import os

    def callback():

    print called the callback!

    quit()

    def callback1():

    os.system(oowriter)

    def callback2():

    os.system(oocalc)

    root = Tk()

    menu = Menu(root)root.config(menu=menu)

    filemenu = Menu(menu)

    menu.add_cascade(label=File, menu=filemenu)

    filemenu.add_command(label=New Writer file, command=callback1)

    filemenu.add_command(label=New Calc file, command=callback2)

    filemenu.add_separator()

    filemenu.add_command(label=Exit, command=callback)

    mainloop()

    \nv ]mwmkn Bhiyap Fm tkm^vvshbdpIfpw XpdmklmbnpXn\p ss] t{]m{Kmw C\n \nanpatm.

    XpS {]h\

    Xmsg \Inbncnp t{]m{KmapIfpsSHu v]p v IspI.

    Program 1

    a = ofor i in range (1, 11):

    print i * a

    Program 2

    a = oc = for i in range (0, 11):

    print (10-i) * c,(2*i+1)*a

    apIfnse t{]m{KmapIfn amw hcpnNn{Xn \In-bn-cn-p ]mt-WpI \nanpI.

    ****** +ooooo***** ++oooo**** +++ooo

    *** ++++oo** +++++o*

    1111

    11111

    1111111111111111

    PIT F hmns\ TIP Fv Xncn-s-gpXpXn\p t{]m{Kmw NphsS \Inbncnpp. Cu t{]m{Kmans\ C]p vcoXnbntev amnsbgpXpI.

    a = TIP

    n = len (a)s = for i in range (n):

    s = s+a[n-i-1]

    print s

    (1) (2)

    (3)

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    Iyq F b{w

    49

    hnhc kmtXnIhnZybpsS AXn{ZpX

    amb hfsbpdnv \m]ne[nIwhjpapv {]kn imkv{X\mb {io. tKmU aq {]h-Nn--Xns NpcpamWn-Xv.

    Iyqdpw A\p_D]IcWfpw A\mbmkwD]tbmKnphcmWtm\. AXpsImpXsA\p_ D]IcWfnepw

    Iyqdn\pXsbpw hpsImncnp amsfpdnv hnhc tiJcnpXv ckIcambncnpatm.mknse IpnIv hnhn[{KqpIfmbn Xncnv Iyqdn\pw ap]IcWpwhpsImncnp amIsm\p NpaXeGsSpmw. hnhctiJcWn\v klmbIamb NnekqN\IfmWv C\n \IpXv.

    aukv

    Xmsg sImSpncnp Nn{Xw{inpI. aukpw AXv LSnnpXn\p hnhn[ Ct^kpIfpamWv

    Nn{Xw 5.1

    Hcp sF.kn Nnn A[nI NnehnmsX Dsmnmhp {SmkndpIfpsS Fw

    Hmtcm cp hjw IqSptmgpw Ccnbvpw. Cu {]hWX 2015 hscsbnepw XpScpIbpwsNpw.

    {io. tKmU C. aq, CeIvt{SmWnIv amKkn, G{]n 1965

    5 Iyq F b{w

  • 8/2/2019 FINAL-ICT TB -X - 17.12

    50/111

    hnhchn\nab kmtXnIhnZy

    50

    Nn{Xn. CXn kocnb IWIvdpaukpI Ctm D]tbmKnmtdbn.]n.Fkv 2 IWIvSdpIfpw A{]Xyambnsmncnpp. ]Icw bp.Fkv._naukpIfpw hbsekv aukpIfpw{]Nmcnembnhcpp.

    aukns kmtXnIhnZybnepw Gsdamhp. \nfpsS auknsASnhiw Hp ]cntim[npt\mq.aukn\Snbn m]n Hcp tKmfnsNe\w ]nXpSmWv sam-\n-aukpI {]hnpXv. ]noS vCcw aukpIp ]Icw {]Imiw]pdsSphn v AXns {]Xn^e\wD]tbmKnv {]hnp aukpI

    \nan-sp. F{XthKamWv kmtXnIhnZyI ImelcWsSpXv!

    IeSpnpXpt]mse Xs!

    \map]tbmKnp Iyqdns\Nnetmsgms knw Fphnfnmdnt? Iot_mUv, aukv, tamWn,knw bqWn v XpSn Hne[nIw

    D]IcW Hsmcpanv {]hnpXn\memWv Cs\ hnfnpXv. CuD]IcWsfmw Fs\bmWv knwbqWnpambn LSnnpXv?

    ]pdp\np IepI Icbntev ASpnp eamWtmXpdapJw (t]m v). AXpt]mse C]p v,Hu v]p v D]IcW (kw`cWD]IcWfpw) knhpambn LSnnmkm[mcWbmbn knw bqWnnt]mpIfpmIpw. Cu Ct^kpIv

    Iot_mUv

    Iot_mUv asmcp C]p v D]IcWamWv. aukpt]mseXs Iot_mUpIfpwPS/2, USB, Wireless Ct^kpIfn e`yamWv . (Iot_mUp

    IfpsSPS/2 IWIvdpI km[mcWbmbn GXv \ndnepXmbncnpw?)

    Iot_mUn IoI \ncnhncnp {IaamWv Iot_mUv teHu v. CwojnQWERTY F Iot_mUv te HumWv s]mXpsh Fmhpw kp]cnNnXw.ssSp ssddpIpthn \nan Iot_mUv kwhn[m\amWnXv. ASpSpIoI thKn ssSp sNptm ssSpssddpIfnse ssSnMv enhdpIXn IpcpntmIpXv km[mcWamWv. Cu {]iv\w ]cnlcnpXn\mbnCwojn Ghpw D]tbmKnsSp A-c ASpSpv hcmXncncoXnbnemWv ChnsS IoI kwhn[m\w sNbvXncnpXv. ]t, IyqIot_mUn IoI Cs\ IpcpntmImsdmpantm. \psSssIhncepIfpsS {]tXyIXI A\pkcnv Ghpw thKn ssSpsNm

    km[np Iot_mUv te HupI ]noSv \nansp. Dvorak, ColemakXpSnbh AcnephbmWv. Dvorak te HumWv Nn{Xn.

    12 e[nIw Cy `mjI ssSpsNpXn\mbn `mcX kmdn\p IognepknUmv \nan Iot_mUv te HumWv Ckv{In]vv. `mcXob `mjIfpsSen]nbnse kmayX Ahew_npmnb Ckv{In]vv te Hun Cu mjIfnseAcsmw Htc Io m\fmWv.

    Nn{Xw 5.2

  • 8/2/2019 FINAL-ICT TB -X - 17.12

    51/111

    Iyq F b{w

    51

    GXv D]IcWw?D]IcWns

    Ct^kv

    ]n.Fkv.2

    kocnb

    ]mce

    hn.Pn.F.

    bp.Fkv._n.

    RJ45

    TRS Plug(Tip, Ring, Sleeve jack)

    kocnb tamUw(D]tbmKnen)

    Nnebn\w tUm vam{SnIvkv{]ndpI

    {]n

    i_vZ C]p v, Hu v]p vt]mpI, A\temKvkn sse C

    Nn{Xw 5.3

    s{]mP-IvS

  • 8/2/2019 FINAL-ICT TB -X - 17.12

    52/111

    hnhchn\nab kmtXnIhnZy

    52

    tbmPnp Xcnep t]mpIXsbmbncnWw knw bqWnnDmbncntXv. apIfnep ]nI ]eXcw Ct^kpIsfbpw Ah knn

    LSn-n-p t]mp-I-sfbpw Ipdn-m-Wv.]nIbn hnpt]mb `mK ]qcnnpa-tm.

    em]vtSm]v, s\v_pv XpSnbIyq hIt`Zfn knw bqWnpwtamWndpw Iot_mUpsamw HcpanmWv.]t, ap]IcW LSnnpt]mpIfn amaptm? Ah FhnsSsbmambmWv kwhn[m\w sNbvXncnpXv?]cntim[np t\mpI.

    s]nbvIv FmWv?

    knns Iptdtbsd mK Hcps]nImn (knw Im_n\n v)shXmWtm knw bqWnv. Fsmw`mKfmWv CXn\IpXv? Ch \apvhniZambn ]cntim[nmw.

    ssat{Im t{]mkk

    CXmWv Iyqdns Xetm. \mwsImSpp Z- \ntZivA\pkcnv t{]mkkv sNsSpXvChnsS hmWv. sk{S t{]mkknMvbqWnv (CPU) FdnbsSpXpw Cu`mKamWv. Nn{Xn ImWpXv (Nn{Xw5.4) AMD (Advanced Micro Devices) FI\nbpsS Athlon 64 F t{]mkkdmWv.

    Hcp knnse kn.]n .bp

    hns\pdnp hnhc AdnbpXn\vknw Im_n\v Xpd-W-san. AXn\v

    Sysinfo(Applications System Tools

    Sysinfo) F t{]m{Kmw D]tbmKnmw. HcpIyqdn LSnnncnp C

    s]nbw Uph tIm ssat{Imt{]mkkdns\pdnp hnhc Cutkm^vvshb ImWnpXv t\mpI.

    C\n \nfpsS knw IqSn

    ]cntim[nv XmsgsmSpncnp ]nI]qcnnpI.

    Nn{Xw 5.4

    Nn{Xw 5.5

    Nn{Xn ImWnncnpknw

    \nfp]tbm-Kn-pknw

    ssat{Im t{]mkkdns\namXmhv

    tamUens t]cv

    Intel

    Pentium Dual-Core

    1200 MHz

    1024 KB

    tmv tdv

    Iymjv sadn (L2)

    ]nI 5.1

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    Iyq F b{w

    53

    Hcp knw Im_n\v Xpdpt\mnbm ap]v Nn{XfnImWnncnpt]mebp t{]mkkdpI \apv ]pdp ImWm\mhn.

    Iyq {]hnptm t{]mkkdpI AXy[nIw NqSmIpXn\m Ahbvv{]tXyIw ioXoIcW kwhn[m\Dmbncnpw. ssat{Im t{]mkkdpIXWpnpXn\p lo v knpw^m\pamWv Nn{Xn.

    {]h\w 1

    kvIqfn e`yamb kn]cntim[nv ssat{Im t{]mkkdpIfpsS\namXmhv, tamU Fnh ]nIsSpqI. F{X t]mkk \namXmsf\nv enp sNm\mIppv?

    aZt_mUv D]IcWfpsS t]m

    Iptdtbsd D]IcW tNmWvHcp knw DmIpXv Fv \mwIpIgnp. ]t Cu D]IcW

    sfsbmw Hnv tNpXv BcmWv?

    AsXmcp Ct{KUv CeIvt{SmWnIv ko v t_mUmWv. knnse Fm LSIfpw Cu t_mUntemWv LSnnpXv.

    BZyIme IyqdpIfnsemwAXnse Hmtcm LSIs\nb{npXn\pw Hmtcm {]h\w\SpXn\pw sNdnb t{]m{KmapI

    Dsmnp shtsd Ct{KUv

    Nn{Xw 5.6

    tmv tdv

    Hcp knn kn.]n.bphn\npwasm LSIfntepw XncnpwF{Xam{Xw hnhcfmWv Hmtcmsknepw {]hlnpXv FvBtemNnp t\mq. Hcp ASppwNnbpanmsXbmsWn Cu hnhcsfmw Hmtcm D]IcWnepw FpXpw D]IcW Ah FSppXpsamw BsI Ipgpt]mInt?

    Fs\bmWv knn {]h\w

    {IaoIcnncnpXv?

    knns kn.]n.bphn\v AIvLSnnncnp Hcp IzmSvkvtmmWvCu kwLmS\w km[yampXv .CXns anSnn\\pkcnmWv knn\Is Hmtcm D]IcWhpw {]hnpXv. Cu tmns ]kv\ncmWvt{]mkkdns tmv tdv ({^oIzkn).CXv AfpXv slS vkv FbqWnnemWv. DZmlcWambn, s]nbwIV, 3.2 Ghz.

    kn.]n.bp Imjv

    kn.]n.bp hfsc thKn {]hnp D]IcWamWv. ]t, ]etmgpw

    ap D]IcWv kn.]n.bphns\mwFm\mImdn. AXpsImpXskn.]n.bphn\v Bhiyamb hnhcInm ImeXmakhpw t\cnSpp. CXv]cnlcnpXn\v FmWv D]mbw?

    kn.]n.bphn\IpXs sNdnb hnhckw`cW kwhn[m\ DmpI.knw D]tbmKnpbm GhpwIqSpX D]tbmKsSpp Zfpw\ntZifpw ChnsS Xs

    kqnmatm. CXns\bmWv kn.]n.bpImjv Fp ]dbpXv. CXns kw`cWtijnbmWv ]nIbn Imjv sadnFbnSv \mw IXv.

  • 8/2/2019 FINAL-ICT TB -X - 17.12

    54/111

    hnhchn\nab kmtXnIhnZy

    54

    kov (IC) NnpI Dmbncpp.]noSv Ccnep At\Iw NnpIsfHnp tN henb koWambNnpI \nansp. ChbmWv VLSI

    (Very Large Scale Integrated Chips)NnpI. Hcp aZt_mUn {][m\ambpwcv hn.F.Fkv.sF NnpIfmWv DXv.Ch sadn \nb{W lv (t\mv{_nUvPv/tlmv {_nUvPv), I/O lv(kuv {_nUvPv) Fnhbm-Wv. CuNnpI D]mZn-n-p \namXmhnst]cn-emWv B t_mUv Adn-b-sSpI.XmsgsmSpncnp Nn{Xw t\mpI(Nn{Xw 5.7).

    \nfpsS Iyq - -dn D]tbmKnncnp aZt_mUv GXv NnvskpXmWv? Sysinfo F t{]m{Kmw

    {]hnnv Hardware F C\w]cntim[npI. sImSpncnp Nn{Xwt\mq. (Nn{Xw 5.8).

    C\n ]nI 5.2 A\ptbmPyambn]qcnnpI.

    ]nIbn sImSpncnp NnvskpIfp Hcp aZt_mUns\ Intel82945 Nn]vskv t_mUv Fp hnfnpp.

    {]h\w 2

    hnhn[Xcw aZt_mUpI]cntim[nv Nn{Xw 5.7 sImSpncnp

    Fm tmpIfpw cv VLSI NnpIfpwXncndnbpI. hymhkmbnI ASnm\n Ccw VLSI NnpI D]m-

    C]pv Huv]pv t]mpI

    BUv Hm ImUpIp tmpI

    ]h IWIvS 1

    s{]mkk tmv

    I/Olv sadn It{Sm lv

    (XWpnm\p ^m\Sw)

    ]h IWIvS 2

    _tbmkv_mdn

    _tbmkv

    dmw IWIvSv sNm\p tmpI

    lmUv UnkvIv. kn.Un ss{Uhv, ^vtfmn ss{Uhv Fnh IWIvSv sNpXn\p tmpI

    Nn{Xw 5.7

  • 8/2/2019 FINAL-ICT TB -X - 17.12

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    Iyq F b{w

    55

    ZnnpXv BscmamWv Fv At\zjnvHcp ]nI XbmdmpI. CtX \namXmXs-bmtWm aZt_mUv hn]-W\wsNbvXn-cn-p-Xv?

    hnhc kw`cWn\v lmUv UnkvIv

    Nn{Xn ImWnncnpD]IcWw Xncndnbm km[npptm?HmtdnwKv knw, Bntjtkm vvshbdpI, \mw \nan bepIFpth Iyqdnep HsmImcyfpw ChnsS kqnncnpp.

    Hcp Zfin (kv]nUn) LSnns Htm AXne[nItam UnkvIpI

    CXmWv lmUv UnkvIns s]mXpLS\.

    UnkvIpIfn Hcp ImnI hkvXp]qinbncnpw. Cu ImnI hkvXphns\ImhcnpI hgnbmWv UnkvIpIfn hnhc tcJsSppXv.

    apIfn ImWnncnpknw

    \nfp]tbm-Kn-pknw

    Nnv skv \namXmhv

    sadn \nb{W lv(tlmv {_nUvPv)

    I/O lvPCI, USB {_nUvPpI

    Intel Corporation

    82945 G/GZ/P/PL

    N10/ICH7

    ]nI 5.2

    Nn{Xw 5.8

    Nn{Xw 5.9

  • 8/2/2019 FINAL-ICT TB -X - 17.12

    56/111

    hnhchn\nab kmtXnIhnZy

    56

    lmUv UnkvIv ]moj\pI Fp]dbpXv. Nnetm Hcp HmtdnwKvknn\pXs ]e ]moj\pI

    thnhcpw. Hcp km[mcW q/en\Ivkvknn

    dqv (/) HmtdnwKv knnst{]m{Kmw ^bepI kqnpXn\v.

    tlmw (/home) D]tbmmhv\nanp ^bepI kqnpXn\v

    Swap - Hcp AXnthK b knw.hnhc XmmenIambn kqnpXn-\v.

    Fo ]moj\pI DmbncnpXmWv A`nImayw. (NneXn dqv, swapFnh am{Xambncnpw DmIpI).

    s]ss{UhpI, sadn ImUpI,kn.Un/Un. -hn .Un Fnhbpw Umm

    kw`cW D]IcWfmWv. kn.Un/Un.hn.Unbnep hnhc hmbnpIbpw AXntev FgpXpIbpw sNm\p]tbmKnp D]-I-c -W-amWv kn.Un/Un.hn.Un ss{Uhv.

    {]h\w 3

    s]ss{U-hp-I hmp-tmXsAXnsemcp ^b knw Dmbncnpw.CXp-amn \apv asmcp ^b knkvw\nan--W-sa-n-cn--s. CXn-\mbn Diskutility (System Administration Disk

    UnkvIpIfn\nv hmbnsSppXn\pw AXntev FgpXntpXn\pw slUpIfpapmIpw. (Nn{Xwt\mpI). UnkvIpIsfbpw slUpIsfbpw

    tamtmdp]tbmKnv IdpXphgnbmWvUnkvIpIfpsS Fm `mKpwFm\mIpXv.

    ]mnj\pIfpw ^b knhpw

    \mw Hcp ]pXnb lmUv UnkvIvhmnsbncns. hmptm CulmUv UnkvIv iq\yambncnpatm.CtmgnXn hnhn[ tkm^vvshbdpIfm\nansSp ^bepIsfmpw kqnm IgnbpIbn. UnkvIn ^bepIFhnsSsbmamWv kqnsSpXvFv ImWnp e kqN\IsfmpwXsbn FXmWv {]iv\w. ^bepIkqnpXn\pw XncnsSppXn\pwCh BhiyhpamWv.

    GXp ^b FhnsSsbmambnkqnncnpp FdnbpXn\v Cuss{Uhns\ ]e tmpIfmbn

    (skspI Fpw hnfnmw) XncntXpv. Cu tmpIsmw A{UkvsImSppIbpw thWw. Cs\ sNp{]{InbbmWv t^mamnMv. Ccnep tmpIfmpXpw A{UkvsImSppXpw HmtdnwKv knhpwAXn\p tbmPnp coXnbnemWv.

    Cs\ Hmtcm HmtdnwKv knhpwAXn\p tbmPnp coXnbn lmUv

    UnkvIns\ t^mam v sNbvXncnpXns\bmWv AXmXns ^b knwFp ]dbpXv . Nne HmtdnwKvknfpsS b kn apIfnep]nIbnepv.

    Hcp lmUv UnkvIn ]eXcwHmtdnwKv kn Cm sNtnhmtem? Atm ]eXcw ^bknfpw thnhcpw. CXn\mbn lmUvUnkvIns\ ]e `mKfmbn Xncnt

    nbpw hcpw. Ccw `mKsfbmWv

    HmtdnwKvknw

    D]tbmKnsSp^b kn

    q/en\Ivkv Ext3, Ext4

    ssat{Imtkm vvhntUmkv (c) FAT 32, NTFS

    Bn HPFS, HPFS+antmjv (c)

    ]nI 5.3

  • 8/2/2019 FINAL-ICT TB -X - 17.12

    57/111

    Iyq F b{w

    57

    utility) F t{]m{Kmap]-tbm-Knmw.t^mamv sNpXn\papv ss{UhvAauv sNm adcpXv.

    4 Pn._n. kw`-c-W-ti-jn-bp Hcps]ss{Uhn NTFS, Ext3 Fo ^bknfp cp ]moj\pI \nan-Ww. apIfn sIm-Spn-cn-p Nn{Xw

    t\mpI.

    dmUw BIvkkv sadn

    Iyqdn hnhc ssIImcywsNpXv ssat{Im t{]mkkdmWv Fv\mw IpIgnp. hfscb[nIw thKXIqSnb D]IcWamWv CXv. AXpsImvt{]mkkv sNm\p Zfpw\ntZifpw AtX thKXbnXsCXn\v e`yamtXpv. ]t,

    hnhc FhnsSbmWpXv? AhlmUv UnkvIntem, kn.Un ss{Uhntem,Atm \mw sImSpptXmHsbmImw. t{]mkkdn\v hnhcssIImcyw sNpXn\v asmcp D]IcWwIqSn ChbvnSbn BhiyamWv. CuD]IcWamWv dmw AYhm dmUwBIvkkv sadn.

    Iyq {]hnpXn\v

    Bhiyamb hnhc dmantevFSpphv, AhnsS\nv Bhiy

    n\v t{]mkkdn\v e`yampIbmWvsNpXv. knw {]hnpXn\v Bhiyamb HmtdnwKvknwt]mepw Cs\ dmantevamppv. Cu {]{InbbmWv _qnMv.

    dmans GXp`mKv kqn

    snp hnhcfpw t\cnpXsFSpm\mIpw. (Hcp HmUntbmImkn Bdp ]mpI tiJcnsncnpp Fp IcpXpI.CXn\npw \memas ]mmWv\apv Bhiysan Fs\Atmv Fpw? BZys aqp]mpIfnIqSnbpw ISpt]mtInhcpw. Ccnep sadnbmWvkocnb BIvkkv sadn. dmUwBIvkkv sadnbn \memas]mns\ t\cnp Xs FSpmw).

    Nn{Xw 5.10

    Nn{Xw 5.11

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    58/111

    hnhchn\nab kmtXnIhnZy

    58

    Nn{Xw 5.13Nn{Xw 5.12

    apIfnImWnncn

    p knw

    \nfp]tbmKnpknw

    e`yamb

    kw`cWtijnD]tbmKsXv

    kzm]v tijn

    D]tbmKnsXv

    938 MB

    225 MB

    0

    956 MB

    ]nI 5.4

    Iqnttnbncnpp. CXn\mbnNn{Xw 5.13 ImWnncnpXpt]msebp D]IcW e`yamWv.

    Cs\ Iqntp LSIfmWvBUv Hm ImUpI. NneXcw BUvHm ImUpI ]nI 5.5 sImSpncnpp.

    BIOS (Basic Input Output System)

    knw {]hnmXncnptmAXnep HmtdnwKv knnsbpwapw t{]m{KmapI lmUv UnkvIn\Imbncnpw kqnpXv Fv \mw

    IpIgnp. Cu t{]m{KmapIsf dmantevamp {]{InbbmWv _qnwKv. ]t,knnse lmUv UnkvIn ChbpvFpw Ahsb dmantev amWw Fpw\ntZ -in -p t{]m{Kmw FhnsSbmWpXv?

    CXp sNpXv aZt_mUnXsbp Hcp IC Nnn Dsm-n-n-p - _tbmkv F t{]m{K -mamWv .FsmamWv _tbmkv sNpXv?

    dmw hfscb[nIw {]h\thKXbp CeIvt{SmWnIv D]IcWamsWnepw AXns hnhc tiJcWaX sshZypXnbpnStmfw

    am{Xtabpq. Iyq- {]h\w\nptm dmanep hnhcfpw\jvSsSpp.

    hoUntbm FUnnwKv t]meptPmenI sNtn hcptm hfschenb bepI Hcpanv Xpdtn hcpw.Cu ^bepI dmans kw`cWtijntbm IqSpXemsWntem?lmUv UnkvInXs Hcp {]tXyI^b knw \nanv A[nIaphAtmp ampIbmWv {]Xnhn[n.CXn\pthn lmUv UnkvInXbmdmp ^b knamWv kzm]v.

    Sysinfo F t{]m{Kmw {]hnnp]nI 5.4 ]qcnnpI. ChnsS 938 MBFXv HmtdnwKv knns ]eBhiymbn hIbncpnb tijwD]tbmKnpbmv e`yamb AfhmWv.(dmans ]camh[n tijn AXn Iq-SpX

    em-Imw).

    BUv Hm ImUpI

    IyqdnXs Sn.hn t{]m{KmapIfpwImWWsantem? Hcp knw hmptmgp LSI am{Xw D]tbmKnv Sn.hn t{]m{KmapI ImWpIbpwdntmUv sNpIbpw sNm\mhn.tI_nfnIqSn hcp knepIsfUnPn knepIfmpXn\p

    kwhn[m\ aZt_mUnt\mSp

  • 8/2/2019 FINAL-ICT TB -X - 17.12

    59/111

    Iyq F b{w

    59

    knw ]h Hm sNptm Fm

    LSIfpw {]h\aamtWmFv ]cntim[npp (Power OnSelf Test - POST). Cs\ ]cntim[np Ignp IsepI\apv ImWmhpXmWv. Nn{Xw5.15 ImWnncnpXpt]mse Hcpktiw ]e-tmgpw \nInpmIp-atm?

    knn dmUw BIvkkv sadn

    samUyq (D-]-I-c-Ww) AXnst]mn \mbn LSn-n-m-Xn-cn-pI-tbm, s]mSn ]nSn -n -cn -p-ItbmsNbvXmepw _tbmkv {]XnIcnmdpv. Fs\bmWv _tbmkv {]XnIcn-pXv Fv Ip]n-Sn-pI.

    aukv, Iot_mUv XpS -nbASnm\ lmUv shbdpI{]hnpXn\p t{]m{KmapIkoIcnpp.

    ImUv Fv Bhiyn\v

    BIvknetdUv {Km^nIv ImUv

    Sn.hn SyqW ImUv

    kuv ImUpI

    USB FIvkv]mj ImUpI

    CtW tamUw

    s\vhv Ct^kv ImUpI

    NneXcw Iyq sKbnapIvBhiyamIpXpt]mse koWamb{Km^nIv C^IvSpI thnhcptm

    ]nI 5.5

    Nn{Xw 5.14

    Nn{Xw 5.15

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    hnhchn\nab kmtXnIhnZy

    60

    -tijw am{Xta lmUv UnkvIv ASap ap D]IcW- ]cn-tim-[n-pIbpq.

    \nfpsS knns sUkvIvtSm-nse tmn ImWn-p kabw_tbmkn ImWnncnpXpXsbmtWm Fp ]cntim[npI.

    sshZypXnbpsS ]mX

    Hcp km[mcW Iyq {]hnm icmicn F{X sshZypXn thnhcpw?

    Cu tNmZyn\v Dcw ]dbpI A{XFfpa. XmsgsmSpncnp ]nIImWpI.

    Nn{Xw 5.16

    knw _q v sNpp. _qp sNpXn\p HmtdnwKv knw lmUvUnkvIntem, kn.Un ss{Uhnep kn.Un-bntem s]ss{U-hntem BImw.

    Fhn-sSbmWv _qp sNt Hmtd-nwKv knapXv Fv \apv \ntZin-mw.

    knw {]hnmXncnptmgpwIyqdnse tmns kabwicnbmbn kqnpp.

    {]h\w 4

    _tbmkv Nnn kw`cnncnp

    t{]m{KmapIfn A[nI]pw amm\mImhbmsWnepw Hcp sNdnb `mKw \appXs {IaoIcnmhpXmWv. CXmWvkntamkv skv. Iyq {]h\wXpSptm F1, F2, Del XpSnb IoIGsXnepw Hp]tbmKnv \apv_tbmkv skv sNp PmeIntev{]thinmw (Nn{Xw 5.16).

    \n-fpsS kn-ns _tbm-knse

    kabw icn-bmtWm Fv ]cn-tim-[n-pI. kabw sXmbn ImWnppshn icnbmbn {IaoIcnpI.

    kn-ns Hmw _qv D]-I-cWwkn.Un ss{Uhmbn {Iao-I-cn -p-I.(Hmw _q v D]IcWw kn.Un ss{UhmsW-n, AXn Hmtd-nwKv knaSnb kn.Un Dtm Fp ]cn-tim-[n-

    D]IcWw {]hnpthmtPv

    kn.Un ss{UhnsebpwlmUv UnkvInsebpwUnkvIns\ IdptamtmdpI

    ssat{Imt{]mkk

    12V DC

    5V DC

    3.3V DC

    ]eXcw UnPnkopI

    1.3 - 1.5V DC

    ]nI 5.6

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    Iyq F b{w

    61

    ]nIbn\npw hyamIpXvFsmamWv?

    Fm D]IcWfpw Un.kn

    (UbdIv Id v) bnemWv {]hnpXv.

    ]t, \mw knntevsImSppXv 220V AC bmWv.CXns\ ]e sNdnb thmtPpDC Bn amtnhcpw. ssethmtPn hcp hyXnbm\sfAXnPohnpIbpw thWw.

    knn\Is (]pdtbpw)

    Hmtcm D]IcWhpw Ahbv\ptbmPyamb thmtPnemWv {]hnpXv.

    IqSmsX, Fm D]IcWfpwFmbvt]mgpw {]hnpIbpwC. (DZmlcWambn kn.Un ss{Uhv).am{Xa, Ah {]hnptmGsSpp {]h\nsImTn\yn\\pkcnv D]t`mKhpw

    hyXymksSpw.

    SMPS - kznvUv tamUv ]h kss

    CXmWv Iyqdns ]h lukv.apIfn NsNbvX Imcyfn \npwHcp Fkv.Fw.]n.Fkv Fsmw sNppFv env sNmtam?

    Fkv.Fw.]n.Fkn \npw ]pdphcpXv ]e thmtPnep Iptdtbsd

    Nn{Xw 5.17

    Un.kn IdpIfmWv. Ah ]e\ndneptI_n-fp-I-fn IqSn-bmWv aZt_mUn-tev FpXv. XmsgsmSpncnpNn{Xw t\mpI. Fkv.Fw.]n.Fkn

    \npw hcp tI_nfpIfpw AhaZt_mUn LSnnp ]hIWIvdpw ImWmw.

    Hcp em]vtSmn C-csamcp Fkv.Fw.-]n.-F-kv. ImWm-\m-hptam? AhnsSFp ]Icw kwhn[m\amWv D]tbmKnpXv Fp Ispatm?

    XpS {]h\

    1. F{XthKamWv lmUvshb kmtXnIhnZyI ImelcWsSpXv!Iyqdns cq]n h ]cnWmasfpdnv (]gbIme IyqdpI,t]gvkW IyqdpI, kqIyq--dp -I, em]vtSmpI, s\v_ppI, ]mwtSmpI, Sm_vsepI)Hcp Ipdnv XbmdmpI.

    2. kvIqfntev Iptd Iyq hmm\p\ntZi Xbmdmm \sfG]n-p-shv Icp-XpI. kvIqfn\nehnep knfn DsSpnbncnp LSIsfnbphnhc tiJ-cnpsXs\sbv\apv Adn-bp-Ibpw sNmw. Ghpw]pXnb knsfnbp hnhcIqSn At\zjnv IspI. ChbnFp LSIfpsS kwtbmP\amWv

    \n kvIqfntev \ntZinpXv?

    Nn{Xw 5.18

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    hnhchn\nab kmtXnIhnZy

    62

    hnhn[ \ntZi kanpXn\p skan\m ]mwmknseFm Unhnj\pIfnsebpw Ipn-Isf]sSpnv \SpI.

    3. mknsemcp lmUvshb Iznkv \Snbmtem? tNmZy- hni-Z-am-bn-s{]ktj\pIfmbn AhXcnnWw.

    4. \n-fpsS kn-n q/en\Ivkvm]n-pXn\v Fsmw sNWw.Xmsgdbp IpdnpI t\mpI.

    HmtdnwKv knaSnb kn.Un/Un.hn.Un ss{UhnenSpI.

    Cu ss{Uhns\ Hmw _q v D]IcWambn {IaoIcnpI.

    knw kn.Un-bn \nv _q v sNsSpp. lmUv UnkvIv t^mamvsNbvXv HmtdnwKv knn\mhiyamb ]moj\pIfpw ^b kn

    fpw \nanpI.

    Iot_mUv te Huv , knw,{]hnp cmPyw (kabtaJe),D]tbm-m-hns t]cv, ]mkvthUvXpSnbh {IaoIcnWw.

    .............................................................................

    .............................................................................

    .............................................................................

    .............................................................................

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    63/111

    hcIv Poh ]Icmw

    63

    Xs BZys A\ntaj kn\na]qnbmbtm tImgntmSv PnbnsetKmhnv F hnZymYnbvpmb

    BmZamWv apIfn AhXcnnncnpXv. HXmwmknse sF.kn.Sn]mT]pkvXInse A\ntaj\pIfpsSclkyw F `mKw ]TntmPntIm{nkv D]tbmKnv CXpt]mse\nfpw Hcp Imdn\v A\ntaj \InbXvadnntm?

    Imdns\ Nennm FsmwImcyfmWv \n sNbvXXv? \nfpsS

    Iyqdn Cu sKbnw Hcn -IqSnIfnXn\ptijw Xmsgbp ]nI]qnbmpI.

    Nn{Xs skeIvS v sNbvX vIymhmkn DsSpn

    {]kvXpX Nn{Xs Fms{^bnantepw DsSpn

    ...............................................................................

    ...............................................................................

    \ne Nn{Xsf tkm^vvshbD]tbmKnv NennpXns clkyw]nSnInnhcpp. At?

    Iyqdnep Nn{XsbmWv \mwCtm NennXv. Fm \mw hcNn{XpXs Ne\w \Im \apvkm[npIbmsWntem? A\ntajtkm^v vshb D]tbmKnv Ccw{]h\w sNm \apv km[npw. \mw`mh\bn ImWp temIw Iyqdn]p\xkrjvSnm km[npIbmsWntKmhnn\pmb A\p`hw \appw

    e`nnt? \psS HmtdnwKv knne`yamb p]o tkm^vvshb CXn\mbn\apv D]tbmKnmw.

    Nn{Xw hcbvmw

    A\ntaj \nanm hfscb[nIwNn{X BhiyamsWv \mwa\nemngnp. Cu Nn{XA\ntaj tkm^v vshbdnshcbvm km[npw. Xmsg Xncnp

    kqNIfpsS klmbtmsS p]o

    Rm BZymbnv Iqdn hc Nn{Xw Hcp ]qmbptSXmWv. AXns NndIn\v sNdnb

    Hcp Cfw Innbtm A\ntaj sImSpX... AXn\v Poh sImSp t]msebmWv

    F\nv tXmnbXv...

    6 hcIv Poh ]Icmw

  • 8/2/2019 FINAL-ICT TB -X - 17.12

    64/111

    hnhchn\nab kmtXnIhnZy

    64

    tkm^v vshbdn Hcp Nn{Xw hcvXbmdmq.

    Graphics sa\phnse Tupi:2D MagicXpdpI.

    File New New Project {Ian

    Nn{Xw 6.1 p]o {][m\ PmeIw

    A\ntaj

    NenpXmbn anYymt_m[w P\nnphmthn Zznam\Nn{XfpsStbm {Xnam\Nn{XfpsStbm XpSbmbXpw thKnepap {]Zi\amWv A\ntaj. \mw

    Hcp Nn{Xw IpIgnXn\ptijhpw AXns {]Xn-_nw_w A]t\cw (1/16sk v) \psS In Xn\npw. hoW ncX (Persistance of Vision)F Cu {]Xn`mks ASnm\amnbmWv A\ntaj kmtXnIhnZy {]hnpXv. CXpaqew Htc t{iWnbnep Nn{X \nccw \psS In\papneqsSamdnamdn hcptm \apv AXv NenpXmbn tXmpp. tXmakv BhmFUnkWmWv Cu kmtXnIhnZybvv XpSanXv. hm v Unkv\n, hneyw l,tPmk v_m_d XpSnbh Cu taJebn hfscb[nIw kw`mh\ \InbhcmWv.p/en\Ivknse {][m\ Zznam\ A\ntaj tkm^vvshbdpIfmWv Tupi, Ktoon,Synfigstudio, PencilapXembh. kzX{ tkm^vvshbdn e`yamb anI {Xnam\Iyq {Km^nIvA\ntaj tkm^vvshbdmWv sU. CXp]tbmKnv \nan{][m\ A\n-ta-j kn\n-a-I-fmWv _nKv_v _n, Fen^ vkv {Uow, knapX-em-bh.

    Iymhmkv PmeIw Xpdv Project

    Name, FPS Fnh \In OKnpsNpI.

    Sqt_mIvkn \npw s]knSq skeIvSv sNbvXv IymhmknNn{Xw hcbvmw.

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    65/111

    hcIv Poh ]Icmw

    65

    kqNIfpsS klmbtmsS sXmSp

    s{^bnapIfntev DsSpq.

    s{^bnans\ tImn sNm tImn

    sNt s{^bnan npsNbvXvRight Click Copy frame

    s{^bnantev t]v sNm t]vsNt s{^bnan npsNbvXvRight Click Paste in frame

    \mw Xbmdmp A\ntaj Hcpskn 6 s{^bnw F coXnbnemWv{]ZinntsXn -cn -s. Cu{Ian 3 sk v ssZLyap

    A\ntaj Xbmdmm F{X s{^bnanNn{Xw DsSptn hcpw. IqpImcpambnNsNbvXXn\ptijw Bhiyaps{^bnapIfntev Nn{Xw DsSpq.

    s{^bnapIfnsemw Nn{XwDsSpnbtm. Ctm Fms{^bnapIfnepw Nn{Xw Htc m\mWvDXv. Hmasbpw 18masbpws{^bnapIfnse Nn{XfpsS m\w Hv

    XsbmbXn\m {]hnnptmChnsS Ne\sampw kw`hnpn.PntIm{nkn Imdns\ Nennm \mwFmWv sNbvXXv? \Inbncnp]T\pdnns ASnm\n Hmtcms{^bnansebpw Nn{Xns m\namw hcpn A\ntaj {]hnnp

    t\mq.

    ]qmbvv Poh \Imw

    Nn{Xw hcpIgnnt? \mw hcNn{Xs Nennm Hne[nIws{^bnapIfn Nn{X thWatm.\n hc Nn{Xw Ctm GXvs{^bnanemWv DsXv p]o {][m\PmeInse seb 1 \nv Isq.ap s{^bnapIfntev Nn{Xw DsSpm FmWv sNtXv? Fms{^bnapIfnepw CXpt]mse Nn{XwhcbvtXptm?

    Iyqdn hc Nn{Xns]IsSpm Copy & Paste ktXwD]tbmKnmsav \apdnbmw. p]obnNn{Xs tImn sNm Nn{XwDsSp s{^bnans\ ap s{^bnapIfntev tImn sNbvXm aXn. \n hcNn{Xs Xmsg \Inbncnp

    Nen{Xfn Hcp skn

    {]Zinnp s{^bnapIfpsS (\neNn{XfpsS) FamWvFPS(FramesPer Second). Hcp skn 12 24 XhWNn{X amdptmgmWv km[mcWthKXbnep Hcp Nen{XwDmIpXv. s{^bnapIfpsS Fw{IaoIcnpXneqsS \apv Nen{Xns thKX {IaoIcnm\mhpw.

    Hmtcm s{^bnansebpw Nn{Xns m\w amm

    Tupi {][m\PmeInseExposure SheetseLayert_mIvkn \npw Nn{Xaps{^bnw skeIvSv sNpI. tijw Sq t_mIvkn \npwObjectske SqskeIvSv sNbvXv Iymhmknse Nn{Xns m\w sXmpapp s{^bnansm\n \npw Aev]w amnshbvpI. Cu Sq D]tbmKnv Nn{Xw apgph\mbpw skeIvSv sNptm Nn{Xn\v Nppw At\Iw ske t\mUpIImWmw. s]kn Sq D]tbmKnptm Nn{Xn Iqntp HmtcmhcIfpw {]tXyIw \nesImpXpsImmWnXv . Cs\bp Fmt\mUpIsfbpw Hnv Nennm am{Xta Nn{Xs \om km[nq. CXn\mbnBtcm Io D]tbmKnmw. Fm Nn{Xw Hscm ske\mbn \mev t\mUpIfnam{Xw \nesImpp sn Nennm aukv D]tbmKnm aXn. Cs\

    \optm thKX \nb{nmCtrl, ShiftIoI D]tbmKnmw.

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    hnhchn\nab kmtXnIhnZy

    66

    \n Xbmdmnb A\ntaj{]hnnv t\mntbm? CXnFsnepw amw hcptXpsvtXmpptm? Xmsg XncnpkqNIfpsS ASnm\n NsNbvXv ]cnlmcw Isq. tijwBhiyamb amw hcpn A\ntaj{]hnnv t\mq. Bhiysan

    SodpsS klmbw tXSpatm?

    C\n ASp s{^bnw skeIvSv sNbvXv Nn{Xs sXmp]nnep s{^bnanseNn{Xns m\sm Aev]w aptmv \opI. Cs\ NennthkvXphn kmc ]mX \mw apIqn Xocpam\nv AXn\\pkrXambn {]kvXpXm\tv Hmtcm s{^bnansebpw Nn{Xs amnhbvpI.

    A\ntaj {]hnnm

    PlayerF sa\p npsNpI. tijw Xmsgbp Play_Wn np sNpI.

    ^b tkhv sNmw

    p]o t{]mPIvSv ^bens\ tkhv sNm, FileSave Project

    Nn{Xw 6.2p]obnse s]kn Sq D]tbmKnv hc Nn{Xw.

    Nn{XfpsS Ne\v kzm`mhnIX Bhiyat?

    Hmtcm s{^bnantebpw Nn{XfpsSm\n am{Xat \mwhyXymkw hcpnbXv.

    ............................................................

    ............................................................

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    67/111

    hcIv Poh ]Icmw

    67

    SqfpI ]cnNbsSmw.

    q]obn Nn{Xw hcv Ahsb Nennnt? Cu {]h\n FsmwSqfpIfmWv \n ]cnNbsXv. ]nI ]qnbmq.

    {]h\w : 1 IY Ismw, tmdnt_mUvv

    Xbmdmmw

    A\ntaj Nen{Xw XbmdmpXn\v hyamb apsmcpwAXymhiyamWv. CXn {][m\amWvkvtmdnt_mUv Xbmdm. IsnbIYsb Xnc --Y -bn -tepw ]noS vkvtmdnt_mUntepw amWw. Hmtcmko\nsbpw hniZmwi kvtmdnt_mUn BhiyamWv. IYbpsS]mew, \ne Nn{X, Nennt Nn{X, ko\ns kab

    ssZLyw, kw`mjWtam, ]me

    itam -Dsn AhbpsShniZmwi Chsbmw {]tXyIw{]tXyIw In-I-fn-emn Nn{XfpsSkvsIv XbmdmWw. Hcp ko\n hcpkw`hsfmw Hcp InbnDsSppIbmWv \sXnepw Bhiy

    san Hcp ko\ns\ Xs ]etjmpIfmn hcbvmhpXmWv. Cs\hniZamb kvtmdnt_mUv XbmdmnbnpthWw Hcp A\ntaj kn\nabpsS\namWw Bcw`nm.

    Xmsg \Inbncnp kvtmdnt_mUv ]qnbmq. CXv D]tbmKnvHcp A\ntaj kn\na \apv Dmmw.

    Nn{Xw hcbvm Pencil (P)

    Nn{Xs skeIvSv sNm ...............................................................

    Line hcbvm ...............................................................

    Zoom sNm ...............................................................

    ................................................................................ ...............................................................

    ................................................................................ ...............................................................

    ................................................................................ ...............................................................

    p]obn Nn{Xw hcbvm Back-ground Mode, Frames Mode

    Fns\ cp Xcw Iymhmkve`yamWv. Nennt Nn{XsfFrames Mode emWv hcbvtXv.]meambn Nn{Xw ncambnDsSpWsanBackgroundMode XncsSppI.

    ko 1

    Nn{Xw 6.3

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    hnhchn\nab kmtXnIhnZy

    68

    kvtmdnt_mUv ]qnbmbnIgnnt? t\cs \mw XbmdmnbA\ntaj\n Nn{Xs Hnv NennXn\m Ne\ns kzm`mhnIX \jvSsXmbn \mw a\nemnbnptm.Ctm Xbmdmnb kvtmdnt_mUnseHmtcm ko\nsebpw IYm]m{Xsf{]tXyIw {]tXyIambn NennWsan AhcpsS icoc`mKsf shtsd

    XbmdmtXnt? Ch p]obns

    ko 3

    ko 4

    Nn{Xw 6.4

    ko 2

    hcbvtXptm? \mw apv ]cnNbs CtaPv FUnnwK v/Nn{XcN\mtkm^v vshbdpIfn Nn{Xw hcvp]obn DsSpnbmtem? Cs\

    Nn{X apIqn hcv XbmdmpIbmsWn A\ntaj \namWw IqSpXefnXamm km[npw.

    Hmas ko XbmdmmGsXmw Nn{Xw hcbvWw? \Inbncnp ]T\pdnv hniIe\w sNbvXv]nI 6.1 ]qnbmq.

    CXpt]mse ap ko\pImhiyamb Nn{Xfpw hcv Xbmdmq.CXn\mbn apmkpIfn ]cnNbsCvkvtI]v, Pnv , FIvkvs]bn v ,SIvkvs]bn v FnhbntesXnepwD]tbmKnmw.

    t{UmbnwKv/CtaPv FUnnwKv tkm^vvshbdpIfn hc Nn{Xsf InsertBitmap, Insert SVG File sa\p hgnp]obntev DsSpmhpXmWv.png. jpg, gif, xpm Fo FIvj\nep Nn{X^bepIsfInsert Bitmapsa\p hgn DsSpmw. svgFIvj\nep Nn{XsbmWvInsert SVG FileF sa\phgn IymhmkntevDsSpm km[n -p -Xv. Cs\ aptkm^vvshbdpIfn Nn{Xw hcbvp

    tm ]me Nn{Xw p]obpsSIymhmkns AtX hennepw(width=520 height=380) IymhmknNennt ap cq] AhbpsShenn\v B\p]mXnIambnIymhmknt\mfpw sNdnb hennepamWv hcbvtXv. Pnp-]-tbm-Knvicoc`mKsf shtsd hcbvptm_mv{Kuv seb Uneov sNbvXvNn{Xw pngt^mam-n tkhv sNWw.

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    hcIv Poh ]Icmw

    69

    Nn{Xw 6.5

    Hmas ko\n\mhiyamb]meNn{Xw Background Mode tepwap Nn{X`mKsf Frames Mode seHmas s{^bnantepw Insert

    sNbvXXn\ptijw Nn{X`mKsf Nn{Xw6.5 teXpt]mse tbmPnnv Hmass{^bnan Nennt Nn{XwXbmdmpI.

    tijw {]kvXpX s{^bnans\Bhiyap s{^bnapIfntev DsSpn Hmtcm s{^bnanepw A\ntaj\pth am hcpn {]hnnv

    t\mq.

    Hmas ko {]hnnpt\mnbnt? CXnse IYm]m{XnsNe\n Fsnepw amw Bhiy

    amtWm? Cu ko\n\v FPS F{XbmWv\n \InbXv? FPS amw hcpn{]hnnp t\mn ko\n\ vA\ptbmPyamb FPS Isn tkhvsNq. Fm ko\pIfnepw CXv{intXt? IqpImcpambn NsNbvXv ap ko\pIpap XbmsdSpv\Sq.

    ]mew - 520x380 (henw)

    ...................................................... - .........................................

    ...................................................... .........................................

    ...................................................... .........................................

    ]nI 6.1

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    hnhchn\nab kmtXnIhnZy

    70

    Hmas ko ]qnbmbm]pXnb t{]mPIvS v ^b Xpdv_mnbp ko\pIfpw Xbmdmn .avit^mamntev FIvkvt]mv sNbvXv Hcpt^mUdn kqnq.

    {]h\w : 2 ^b FIvkvt]m v sNmw

    Hmas ko ]qnbmbtm?Ctm p]o tkm^vvshbdn am{XatA\ntaj \apv {]hnnmkm[nppq. av Bntj\pIfnCu b {]hnnm km[nptam?

    Ccw bepIsf aoUnbm sbdpIfn{]hnnm A\ptbmPyambt^mamntev FIvkvt]mv sNWsav \mw apmkn ]TnnpXvHmpatm? \n XbmdmnbHmas ko\ns\ XncnpIpdnns ASnm\n .avit^mamntev FIvkvt]mv sNq.FIvkvt]mv sNbvX hoUntbm bens\A\ptbmPyamb aoUnbm sbdn

    {]hnnp t\mpIbpw sNmw..

    Nn{Xw 6.6

    Nn{Xsf hepXmmw

    A\ntaj \nanptm IYm]m{XfpsS kzm`mhnIamb Ne\n\pthn Nn{Xs Hmtcm s{^bnanepw]e`mKtpw Nenntn hcpw.

    CXn\mbn insert sNbvX Nn{XsObject Selection Sq D]tbmKnvskeIvSv sNpI. Atm ske\va[y`mKv ImWp shfpASbmfn npsNbvXm Ahsb\om km[npw. {]kvXpXASbmfn U_n npsNptm hifn Zriyamhpske t\mUv Nennv Nn{XsRotate sNmw. hifnse ske

    t\mUn {UmKp-sNbvXv Nn{Xnshenn amw hcpm\pw km[npw.

    ^b FIvkvt]mv

    p]obn\npw ^bens\ hoUntbmbmbn tkhv sNWsan t{]mPIvSv^bens\ FIvkvt]m v sNtXpv.FIvkvt]m v sNm\mbnFile ExportProject {Ian npsNpI.XpSphcp PmeIfnFIvkvt]mv sNt hoUntbm^b t^mam v , FIvkvt]m vsNt ko Fnh skeIvSv sNbvXv

    ko 1 ko 2 ko 3 ko 4

    FPS 6 .................. ...................... ....................

    kabssZLyw 3 sk v .................. ...................... ....................

    s{^bnapIfpsS-Fw 18 .................. ...................... ....................

    ]nI 6.2

  • 8/2/2019 FINAL-ICT TB -X - 17.12

    71/111

    hcIv Poh ]Icmw

    71

    {]h\w : 3 ko\pIsf tbmPnnmw

    ko\pIsfmw Xbmdmbtm?tmdnt_mUv {]Imcap Cu kn\na

    ]qnbmhm C\nbpw {]h\_mnbnt? Cu {]h\v \mwHXmw mkn ]cnNbs GsXmw

    Nn{Xw 6.7

    Next npsNpI. XpSv tkhv sNt t^mU, ^b\maw, FPSFnh\In tkhv np sNpI.

    ko\pIsf IqntWw Hmtjmv hoUntbm FUn

    i_vZw dntmUv sNWw ...............................................................

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