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Ditch the Reliever, Bring on the Fever Duration of sickness behaviour will be significantly different with no aspirin treatment versus aspirin treatment in male rats Alisha Jiwani, Dorcas Kwan, Amanda Li, Joy Santiago
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  • 1.Ditch the Reliever, Bring on the Fever Duration of sickness behaviour willbe significantly different with no aspirin treatment versus aspirin treatment in male rats Alisha Jiwani, Dorcas Kwan, Amanda Li, Joy Santiago

2. Outline

  • Introduction
    • Whats the deal with fever and sickness behaviour?
  • Hypotheses
  • Method
    • Experimental Phases
    • Data Analysis
  • Limitations
  • Conclusion
    • Implications
    • Applications

3. 4. Whats the deal with fever and sickness behaviour?

  • Fever
    • Elevated temperature above the normal range
  • 1800s
    • Anti-pyretics
  • Fever therapy

5. 6. Julius Wagner-Jauregg 7. Transformation

  • Fever Phobia
    • Fever had become a harmful by-product of infection rather than a host-defense response, probably due to the misconstruction of the relief felt after the use of anti-pyretics, which are often analgesics as well.

8. Sickness Behaviour

  • Sickness Behaviour
    • Fatigue
    • Loss of appetite
    • Inability to concentrate
    • Loss of interest in social activity
  • Adaptive strategy
    • Reset priorities

9. What has been done so far

  • Quantitative relationship between cytokine levels ofnon-specific sickness behaviour symptoms
  • More research on sickness behaviour
  • Effect of anti-pyretics in duration of sickness behaviour
  • Is recovery faster when fever is not suppressed?

10. We hypothesize

  • Alternative Hypothesis (H 1 ):
  • There will be a significant differencein duration of sickness behaviour when antipyretics are administered.
  • Null Hypothesis (H 0 ):
  • There will be no significant differencein duration of sickness behaviour when antipyretics are administered.

11. Method 12. Albino Wistar Rats

  • 60 Adult male albino rats
  • 200-250 g
  • Decreased appetite
  • Decreased activity levels
  • Increased sleeping time

13. Groups 14. Experimental Phases 15. Phase 1 Weeks 1 and 2

  • Temperature Telemetry Transmitter (TTT)transplant
  • Recovery (week 1)
  • Acclimation to device (week 2)

16. Phase 2 Week 3

  • Measure baselines:
    • Temperature
    • Food Consumption
    • Motor Activity
    • Sleeping Behaviour

17. Phase 3 Experimental Day Induce Fever

  • Inject Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for bothAspirinandNon-Aspiringroups

18. Phase 4 Experimental Day Induce Treatment

  • Aspirin group
    • Inject Aspirin at 6-hour peak of LPS effect
    • Wait 2 hours for peak of Aspirins anti-pyretic effect
  • Non-Aspirin group
    • Inject tragacanth at 6-hour peak of LPS effect,
    • Wait 2 hours

19. Phase 5 Experimental Day Data collection

  • Temperatures
  • Feeding behaviour(How much food eaten?)
  • Exploration behaviour(How much activity?)
  • Sleeping behaviour(How much sleep?)
  • ** each experiment will span over 4 days

20. Food Consumption

  • At 24 hr intervals
  • Remaining food measured on triple beam balance

21. Food Consumption

  • EXPECTED RESULTS:
    • After fever induction, initial decrease in appetite for both groups
    • Animals in Non-Aspirin group will have appetites restored sooner than animals in Aspirin group

22. Motor Activity

  • Open Field Test
  • Field is separated into 16 boxes, marked by horizontal and vertical blue lines
  • Camera-based computer tracking system and video camcorder
  • Total Motor Activity = Line Crossing + Rearing

23. Motor Activity

  • EXPECTED RESULTS:
    • The Non-aspirin group will resume activity sooner over the four days that the Aspirin group

24. Sleeping Behaviour

  • Measure duration of sleep in percentage
  • Measure by camera recording

25. Sleeping Behaviour

  • EXPECTED RESULTS:
    • Compared with baseline: An increase in sleep duration after the LPS injection
    • Duration of sickness behaviour:the rats with Aspirin injection will experience a longer duration of sickness behaviour

Aspirin Non-Aspirin 26. Data Analysis

  • Dependent Paired T-test
  • Independent variables: Rats with Aspirin vs. Rats with tragacanth
  • Dependent variables for each experiment:
    • Experiment 1 : Remaining food after 24 h (g)
    • Experiment 2 : Motor activity calculated
    • Experiment 3 : Sleep duration (%)
  • For each experiment, the dependent variables will be:
    • i.Comparing the baseline level with the performance afterLPS injection
    • ii.Comparing the difference between the 2 groups over thefour-days

27. Discussion 28. Limitations

  • Administration of LPS will always induce fever

29. Future implications andpotential applications 30. But remember

  • Take with a grain of salt
  • Fever can be fatal
    • Too high
    • Fever persists
  • Appreciation of evolved physiological and psychological mechanisms

31. Thank you! Dr. Faure, Brandon & class! 32. Questions? 33. References

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