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FAKTOR-FAKTOR YANG BERHUBUNGAN DENGAN KELUHAN MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDER (MSDs) PADA OPERATOR CRANE DI TERMINAL 2 PT PELABUHAN TANJUNG PRIOK TAHUN 2018 SKRIPSI WINA KHAIRUNNISA 1410713013 UNIVERSITAS PEMBANGUNAN NASIONAL ”VETERAN” JAKARTA FAKULTAS ILMU KESEHATAN PROGRAM STUDI S-1 KESEHATAN MASYARAKAT 2018
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FAKTOR-FAKTOR YANG BERHUBUNGAN DENGAN KELUHAN

Nov 12, 2021

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Page 1: FAKTOR-FAKTOR YANG BERHUBUNGAN DENGAN KELUHAN

FAKTOR-FAKTOR YANG BERHUBUNGAN DENGAN KELUHAN

MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDER (MSDs) PADA OPERATOR CRANE

DI TERMINAL 2 PT PELABUHAN TANJUNG PRIOK TAHUN

2018

SKRIPSI

WINA KHAIRUNNISA

1410713013

UNIVERSITAS PEMBANGUNAN NASIONAL ”VETERAN” JAKARTA

FAKULTAS ILMU KESEHATAN

PROGRAM STUDI S-1 KESEHATAN MASYARAKAT

2018

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FAKTOR-FAKTOR YANG BERHUBUNGAN DENGAN KELUHAN

MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDER (MSDs) PADA OPERATOR CRANE

DI TERMINAL 2 PT PELABUHAN TANJUNG PRIOK TAHUN

2018

SKRIPSI

Diajukan Sebagai Salah Satu Syarat Untuk Memperoleh Gelar

Sarjana Kesehatan Masyarakat

WINA KHAIRUNNISA

1410713013

UNIVERSITAS PEMBANGUNAN NASIONAL ”VETERAN” JAKARTA

FAKULTAS ILMU KESEHATAN

PROGRAM STUDI S-1 KESEHATAN MASYARAKAT

2018

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FAKTOR-FAKTOR YANG BERHUBUNGAN DENGAN

KELUHAN MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERS (MSDS)

PADA OPERATOR CRANE DI TERMINAL 2 PT

PELABUHAN TANJUNG PRIOK TAHUN 2018

Wina Khairunnisa

Abstrak

Menurut WHO Work-related musculoskeletal disorders merupakan multi faktor

dimana terdapat beberapa faktor risiko yang berkontribusi. Operator Crane

merupakan salah satu jenis pekerjaan yang berpotensi mengalami keluhan MSDs.

Dalam aktivitasnya operator Crane menggunakan kerja otot, otot berkerja dengan

cara berkontraksi dan berelaksasi. Otot yang berkontraksi dengan lama akan

menyebabkan kelelahan otot jika hal ini berlangsung setiap hari dan dalam waktu

yang lama hal ini dapat menimbulkan keluhan MSDs. Penelitian ini bertujuan

untuk mengetahui faktor-faktor yang berhubungan dengan keluhan MSDs yang

diantaranya faktor usia, masa kerja, kebiasaan merokok, kebiasaan olahraga dan

indeks masa tubuh (IMT). Penelitian ini merupakan jenis penelitian kuantitatif

dengan desain Cross sectional. Teknik pengambilan sampel menggunakan teknik

Purposive sampling dan didapatkan sampel sebanyak 72 operator. Hasil dari

penelitian ini diperoleh bahwa 76,4% operator crane mengalami keluhan MSDs

dengan bagian tubuh paling banyak pinggang 44,4%, tengkuk 33,3% dan leher

30,6%. Berdasarkan hasil uji statistik terdapat hubungan yang bermakna antara

umur dengan keluhan MSDs (P = 0,026) dan kebiasaan merokok kategori perokok

sedang (P = 0,014). Oleh sebab itu perusahaan perlu menyediakan tempat duduk

yang ergonomis, membuat sebuah program untuk melakukan gerakan-gerakan

ringan di sela-sela waktu istirahat dan membuat program safety morning setiap

minggunya yang di ikuti oleh seluruh pekerja.

Kata Kunci : Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), Operator Crane, REBA, Cross

sectional

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FACTORS RELATED TO MUSCULOSKELETAL

DISORDERS (MSDS) COMPLAINTS ON CRANE

OPERATORS AT TERMINAL 2 PORTS OF TANJUNG PRIOK

2018

Wina Khairunnisa

Abstract

According to WHO Work-related, musculoskeletal disorders are multi-factor

where there are several contributing factors. Crane Operator is one of the works

done based on MSDS. In its activities Crane operators use muscle work, muscles

work by contracting and relaxing. Muscles that contract with the old will be

collected if this happens every day and in a long time can cause MSDs. This study

aims to determine the factors associated with MSDS spending money, years of

work, smoking habits, exercise habits and body mass development (BMI). This

research is a kind of quantitative research with a cross-sectional design. The

sampling technique used Purposive sampling technique and obtained a sample of

72 operators. The result of this research showed that 76,4% crane operator had

MSDS with the most body part that was 44,4%, nape 33,3% and neck 30,6%.

Based on statistical test result there is a clear relation between age with MSDSs (P

= 0,026) and smoking habit of medium smoker category (P = 0,014). Therefore

the company needs to provide an ergonomic place, create a program to perform

light movements on the sidelines of the break and make a program of morning

safety every week that is controlled by all workers.

Key Word : Cross sectional, Musculoskeletal disorders ( MSDs ), Crane operator,

REBA

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DAFTAR ISI

HALAMAN JUDUL ............................................................................................... i

PERNYATAAN ORISINALITAS ......................................................................... ii

PERNYATAAN PERSETUJUAN PUBLIKASI. ................................................. iii

PENGESAHAN ..................................................................................................... iv

ABSTRAK ............................................................................................................... v

ABSTRACT ........................................................................................................... vi

KATA PENGANTAR ......................................................................................... vii

DAFTAR ISI ....................................................................................................... viii

DAFTAR TABEL ................................................................................................... x

DAFTAR GAMBAR ............................................................................................. xi

DAFTAR LAMPIRAN ......................................................................................... xii

BAB I PENDAHULUAN ........................................................................................ 1

I.1 Latar Belakang ............................................................................................... 1

I.2 Rumusan Masalah .......................................................................................... 3

I.3 Tujuan Penelitian ........................................................................................... 4

I.4 Manfaat Penelitian ......................................................................................... 5

I.5 Ruang Lingkup Penelitian ............................................................................. 6

BAB II TINJAUAN PUSTAKA .............................................................................. 7

II.1 Operator Crane ............................................................................................. 7

II.2 Pengertian Crane ........................................................................................... 7

II.3 Jenis-jenis Crane ......................................................................................... 8

II.4 Musculoskeletal Disorder (MSDS) ............................................................. 11

II.5 Sistem Musculoskeletal ............................................................................... 16

II.6 Faktor Risiko Musculoskeletal Disorder (MSDS) ...................................... 23

II.7 Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA) ...................................................... 30

II.8 Nordic Body Map ........................................................................................ 41

II.9 Penelitian Terkait......................................................................................... 45

II.10 Kerangka Teori ............................................................................................ 52

BAB III METODE PENELITIAN......................................................................... 54

III.1 Kerangka Konsep ....................................................................................... 54

III.2 Definisi Operasional.................................................................................... 55

III.3 Hipotesis Penelitian .................................................................................... 59

III.4 Desain Penelitian ......................................................................................... 59

III.5 Lokasi dan Waktu ....................................................................................... 59

III.6 Populasi dan Sampel ................................................................................... 59

III.7 Teknik Pengumpulan Data .......................................................................... 61

III.8 Instrumen Penelitian.................................................................................... 62

III.9 Manajemen Data ......................................................................................... 66

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BAB IV HASIL DAN PEMBAHASAN .............................................................. 69

IV.1 Gambaran Perusahaan ................................................................................. 69

IV.2 Analisis Univariat ....................................................................................... 71

IV.3 Analisis Bivariat.......................................................................................... 76

IV.4 Pembahasan................................................................................................. 79

BAB V PENUTUP ................................................................................................. 94

V.1 Kesimpulan ................................................................................................ 94

V.2 Saran ............................................................................................................ 95

DAFTAR PUSTAKA ............................................................................................ 96

RIWAYAT HIDUP

LAMPIRAN

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DAFTAR TABEL

Tabel 1 Nilai Postur Leher ................................................................................ 32

Tabel 2 Nilai Postur Punggung ......................................................................... 32

Tabel 3 Nilai Postur Kaki .................................................................................. 33

Tabel 4 Tabel A ................................................................................................. 34

Tabel 5 Nilai Postur Lengan Atas ..................................................................... 35

Tabel 6 Nilai Postur Lengan Bawah ................................................................. 36

Tabel 7 Nilai Postur Pergelangan Tangan ......................................................... 37

Tabel 8 Tabel B ................................................................................................. 37

Tabel 9 Tabel C ................................................................................................. 39

Tabel 10 Hasil Akhir Skor REBA ....................................................................... 40

Tabel 11 Tingkat Kesakitan Pekerja ................................................................... 42

Tabel 12 Kuesioner Nordic Body Map................................................................ 43

Tabel 13 Penelitian Terkait ................................................................................. 45

Tabel 14 Definisi Operasional ............................................................................ 55

Tabel 15 Besar Sampel ....................................................................................... 60

Tabel 16 Pengujian Validitas .......................................................................... . 65

Tabel 17 Pengujian Reliabilitas ........................................................................ . 65

Tabel 18 Distribusi Frekuensi Keluhan Musculoskeletal Disorder ............... . 71

Tabel 19 Distribusi Frekuensi Bagian Tubuh yang Mengalami Keluhan

Musculoskeletal Disorders ................................................................. . 72

Tabel 20 Distribusi Usia Operator Crane ......................................................... . 74

Tabel 21 Distribusi Masa Kerja Operator Crane .............................................. . 74

Tabel 22 Distribusi Kebiasaan Merokok Operator Crane ................................ . 75

Tabel 23 Distribusi Kebiasaan Olahraga Operator Crane ................................ . 75

Tabel 24 Distribusi Indeks Masa Tubuh (IMT) Operator Crane ...................... . 76

Tabel 25 Distribusi Responden Berdasarkan Usia, Masa Kerja, dan

Kebiasaan Olahraga Dengan Keluhan Musculoskeletal Disorders ... . 77

Tabel 26 Distribusi Responden Berdasarkan Kebiasaan Merokok dan Indeks

Masa Tubuh Dengan Keluhan Musculoskeletal Disorders ............... . 79

Tabel 27 Tabel Skor Akhir Kelompok A .......................................................... . 82

Tabel 28 Total Skor Akhir Kelompok B. .......................................................... . 85

Tabel 29 Total Skor Akhir Kelompok C ........................................................... . 86

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DAFTAR GAMBAR

Gambar 1 Multipurpose Gantry Crane .............................................................. 8

Gambar 2 Harbour Mobile Crane...................................................................... 9

Gambar 3 Reach Stacker .................................................................................. 10

Gambar 4 RubberTyred Gantry ....................................................................... 10

Gambar 5 Overhead Crane Single Girder ....................................................... 11

Gambar 6 Otot, Ligamen, Tendon ................................................................... 16

Gambar 7 Tulang Rangka Manusia.................................................................. 17

Gambar 8 Macam-macam Sendi ...................................................................... 18

Gambar 9 Tulang Belakang ............................................................................. 19

Gambar 10 Bagian-bagian Intervertebral Disc .................................................. 20

Gambar 11 Tulang Leher ................................................................................... 21

Gambar 12 Tulang Penyusun Siku ..................................................................... 21

Gambar 13 Tulang Bahu .................................................................................... 22

Gambar 14 Otot Bahu ........................................................................................ 23

Gambar 15 Postur Leher .................................................................................... 31

Gambar 16 Postur Punggung ............................................................................. 32

Gambar 17 Postur Kaki ...................................................................................... 33

Gambar 18 Lengan Atas..................................................................................... 35

Gambar 19 Postur Lengan Bawah...................................................................... 36

Gambar 20 Postur Pergelangan Tangan ............................................................. 36

Gambar 21 Perincian Bagian Tubuh Nordic Body Map ................................... 42

Gambar 22 Kerangka Teori ................................................................................ 53

Gambar 23 Kerangka konsep ............................................................................. 54

Gambar 24 Postur Bagian Leher Operator ........................................................ 81

Gambar 25 Postur Bagian Punggung Operator Crane ....................................... 81

Gambar 26 Postur Kaki Operator Crane ........................................................... 82

Gambar 27 Postur Bagian Lengan Atas Operator Crane ................................... 83

Gambar 28 Postur Bagian Lengan Bawah Operator Crane ............................... 84

Gambar 29 Postur Bagian Pergelangan Tangan Operator Crane ...................... 84

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DAFTAR LAMPIRAN

Lampiran 1 Kuesioner

Lampiran 2 Nordic body map

Lampiran 3 Tabulasi Data Penelitian

Lampiran 4 Surat Izin Penelitian

Lampiran 5 Surat Balasan Izin Penelitian

Lampiran 6 Ethical Approval

Lampiran 7 Dokumentasi Uji Validitas dan Penelitian