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Ethics Chapter11

Jul 15, 2015

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Business

  • Chapter 11Applying Ethicsto Maintain anEnvironmentally SoundHospitality and TourismIndustry

  • You're in charge of creating the report that goes to the board of directors. Just before the next meeting, the president asks you to leave something negative out and just add it in next time. Do you agree to do this as a favor to him?

    Yes, one time will not hurt. Yes, but only after the president agrees to give you a bonus.c) No, one small thing can turn into many small things, which is a big deal.

  • It is difficult to get a man to understand something when his salary depends upon his not understanding it

    Upton Sinclair

  • You are the manager and an employee comes to you and says, "I want to tell you something about someone, but you can't tell anybody." He then reveals that someone pushed another employee in the company kitchen. Do you tell your boss?

    I promised not to tell, so I don't. b) I find out if the employee was injured and decide based on that whether to tell. c) Even though it breaks my promise, I tell my boss so the incident goes on record.

  • You're in public relations writing a press release about a new product that didn't turn out quite as well as promised in earlier reports. How much do you reveal to the public in the press release?

    I don't hint at it. It's important that the company's image is not damaged by the flawed product.

    I write a more mildly enthusiastic, but honest, release than I would if the product were perfect.

    c) I'm completely honest, believing it will earn the respect of customers to be forthcoming.

  • In a Hurry. You're waiting tables at a busy little lunch spot downtown. You rush back to the kitchen to grab a bunch of entrees from the service window, and as you turn to head back to the dining room, one of the expensive steaks on your tray slides off its plate and onto the floor!

    No one saw it dropwhat should you do?

    You are the Manager and you saw the employee serve the food what do you do?

  • You are the office manager and one upper-level manager has repeatedly used the company credit card for personal expenses. How do you handle the situation?

    I do nothing. The person is higher than I am in the company, so it must be OK.b) I confront the person and hope that this won't threaten my job. c) I confront the person and reveal what I know to a higher-level manager or someone in human resources.

  • Although you're not an accountant, company policy now requires you to sign off on the tax filings for the department you oversee. You've never been a "numbers person" and don't fully understand the documents. What do you do?

    I sign it, figuring that if any problems are found, I can just argue that it's not my fault because I didn't understand the document. b) I ask someone with more knowledge to walk me through the report before I sign. c) I sign it, vowing to take an accounting course whenever I find the time.

  • Environmental ThreatsEach year:More than 150 million tons of pollutants are pumped into the air we breatheMore than 41 million tons of toxic wastes are produced15 million gallons of pollutants are dumped into the nations waterwaysEvery US citizen, on average, produces over 4 pounds of garbage each day

  • Hospitality and Tourism Environmental ConcernsWater pollutionNoise pollutionDeforestationDepletion of species and habitatsSolid waste managementRecyclingEnergy use

  • Guestroom WasteAluminum cansPlastic and glass bottlesNewspapers and magazinesOveruse of water

  • Other Lodging Facility Waste MaterialsCardboard boxesSteel cansCooking oilOffice paperYard waste and debrisLaundry water

  • Case(did you read it?): Gray Water/Black Water OverflowSuper Cruise Line owns five large shipsCompany has environmental management policiesTwo dominant waste streams:Black waterGray water

  • DefinitionsBlack water: waste stream generated by the ship from toilets, urinals, and drainage from infirmaryGray water: waste stream generated by galley services, laundry services, showers, baths, etc.If gray and black water are mixed, the mixture must be classified as black water

  • FactsShip cannot hold water longer than 48-76 hours (tank space limitation)Waste requires continual oversightBlack water is treated before it is discharged overboardGray water is discharged untreated into seaDischarge for both must be 12 nautical miles from land and marine sanctuaries

  • The IssueAccidental release of both gray and black water into Port of TampaThe Players:Edward Smythe: in charge of engineering watchDominick Dupree: Chief Engineer (The Chief)Mr. Jamison: Bridge OfficerThe CaptainThe Environmental Officer

  • FactsThe Chief has previously witnessed illegally dumped water, resulting in finesThe ship was holding extra black waterThe past week also generated more than the usual amount of black water (20%+)Smythe transferred half of the black water to a gray water tank (an acceptable but unusual practice)

  • More FactsSmythe became distracted by a faulty electrical generator and changed focusSmythe stopped the transference of the black water but forgot to close the valvesThe open valves allowed black water to freely flow into the tanks for more than three hoursBridge Office Jamison noticed liquid spilling from the vent on the port side

  • ActionsJamison called SmytheSmythe informed Jamison that there was no pumping operation going onSmythe told Jamison not to bother him; Jamison called the Captain and the ChiefThe Chief took action; closed the valves; the flow overboard stopped

  • Proper ActionsThe Chief investigated; spoke with SmytheHe identified times when valves opened and pumps were started and stoppedHe established that Smythe neglected to close the valvesHe briefed the Captain along with the Environmental Officer

  • Further ActionShore side environmental compliance was contactedSubsequently, both the U.S. Coast Guard and the state environmental authorities were notifiedAn investigation team was dispatched from the companys environmental management department

  • The Companys BehaviorUtilitarian, Kantian, and a Justice Ethicist: positive reviewUtilitarian: companys recent actions promote the greatest good for the greatest numberAct and Rule Utilitarian: positive review because of the strict corporate practices and good training

  • KantWould look at true motivation: is there really a change of heart in the new corporate culture?Kant would approve of the ethic to do ones duty; the rights of others are being respectedThere was no deception attempted by the company

  • Justice and Virtue EthicsBoth would praise the companys actionsJustice: preventing environmental pollutionOfficers displayed strong, virtuous characters by carrying out companys environmental policies

  • ResponsibilityThe company committed an environmental infractionShould the company be held responsible for the action of its employees?

  • Two Justice QuestionsCompensationThe company must pay for the clean upFurther expenses might include retraining Smythe or other new personnelRetributionIs it warranted?If so, what should it be?

  • Additional QuestionsWhat should happen to Smythe?Same two questions:CompensationRetribution

  • Retribution for SmytheShould definitely face some type of retributionEthical question: was his carelessness reckless and therefore morally wrong?No great lasting harm occurredHowever, Smythe refused to accept responsibility for the spill

  • What Should the Company Do?If Smythe engaged in immoral behavior, what should the company do?Possible courses of action:DischargeAdditional trainingProbationSuspensionNo action

  • UtilitarianismLooking at Smythes actions from a utilitarian perspective, how much harm will occur from the spill?Actual harms are fewActions have been taken all along to avoid spillage like this oneLegalities: the cruise line has recently shown itself to be a law-abiding business

  • ConsequencesWould firing Smythe lead to better consequences?Utilitarians would say some type of penalty is in order; this would lead to improved long-term actionsRule utilitarians would insist on a universal way to treat all employees that commit environmental violations

  • KantOrganization has done its partEthical praise depends on the companys intentions (is it doing the right thing because it is good for business or because it is good for the environment?)Smythes behavior is wrong; did not follow categorical imperative when he refused to take responsibility for his actions

  • RawlsPolluting the environment is unjust to those who depend on itWhat would Smythe have done from behind the Veil of Ignorance?

  • Virtue EthicsAristotle examines a persons characterHe would have found Chief Dupree and Bridge Officer Jamison to be of fine moral character; they both showed courage and prudence (wisdom) through their actionsSmythe showed himself to be unethical evaded responsibility (lacked courage and honesty) careless behavior (lacked prudence)

  • Case StudiesAll roads lead to the resortIts no big dealSafety first

  • Read assigned case study and prepare a 3-5 minute presentation Summarize the caseAnswer the questions provided Apply your favorite ethical theory

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