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Dec 27, 2015

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  • Graduate School ETD Form 9

    (Revised 12/07)

    PURDUE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL

    Thesis/Dissertation Acceptance

    This is to certify that the thesis/dissertation prepared

    By

    Entitled

    For the degree of

    Is approved by the final examining committee:

    Chair

    To the best of my knowledge and as understood by the student in the Research Integrity and

    Copyright Disclaimer (Graduate School Form 20), this thesis/dissertation adheres to the provisions of

    Purdue Universitys Policy on Integrity in Research and the use of copyrighted material.

    Approved by Major Professor(s): ____________________________________

    ____________________________________

    Approved by: Head of the Graduate Program Date

    Mousumi Mukhopadhyay

    LANE DEPARTURE AVOIDANCE SYSTEM

    Master of Science in Electrical and Computer Engineering

    Dr. Sarah Koskie

    Dr. Yaobin Chen

    Dr. John Lee

    Dr. Sarah Koskie

    Dr. Yaobin Chen 04/20/2011

  • Graduate School Form 20

    (Revised 9/10)

    PURDUE UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL

    Research Integrity and Copyright Disclaimer

    Title of Thesis/Dissertation:

    For the degree of Choose your degree

    I certify that in the preparation of this thesis, I have observed the provisions of Purdue University

    Executive Memorandum No. C-22, September 6, 1991, Policy on Integrity in Research.*

    Further, I certify that this work is free of plagiarism and all materials appearing in this

    thesis/dissertation have been properly quoted and attributed.

    I certify that all copyrighted material incorporated into this thesis/dissertation is in compliance with the

    United States copyright law and that I have received written permission from the copyright owners for

    my use of their work, which is beyond the scope of the law. I agree to indemnify and save harmless

    Purdue University from any and all claims that may be asserted or that may arise from any copyright

    violation.

    ______________________________________ Printed Name and Signature of Candidate

    ______________________________________ Date (month/day/year)

    *Located at http://www.purdue.edu/policies/pages/teach_res_outreach/c_22.html

    LANE DEPARTURE AVOIDANCE SYSTEM

    Master of Science in Electrical and Computer Engineering

    Mousumi Mukhopadhyay

    04/21/2011

  • LANE DEPARTURE AVOIDANCE SYSTEM

    A Thesis

    Submitted to the Faculty

    of

    Purdue University

    by

    Mousumi Mukhopadhyay

    In Partial Fulfillment of the

    Requirements for the Degree

    of

    Master of Science in Electrical and Computer Engineering

    May 2011

    Purdue University

    Indianapolis, Indiana

  • ii

    To My Parents and My Husband Debangshu Sadhukhan.

  • iii

    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

    I would like to acknowledge Dr. Sarah Koskie for providing guidance and being

    so instrumental throughout the study. I am much indebted for her valuable advice,

    supervision and devoting her precious time to the thesis.

    I would like to thank Dr. Yaobin Chen for his advice and support. I could never

    have embarked and started working on this thesis without his prior teachings.

    I would like to express my appreciation to Dr. Jaehwan Lee for being a part of

    my advisory committee.

    My gratitude also goes to Sherrie Tucker and Valerie Lim Diemer for all their help

    through the Masters Program.

    Also, I thank my family and especially my husband for encouraging me to pursue

    the degree.

  • iv

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    Page

    LIST OF TABLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vi

    LIST OF FIGURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii

    SYMBOLS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix

    ABSTRACT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xii

    1 INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

    1.1 Crash Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

    1.2 Safety Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

    1.3 Active Safety Systems in Production and Under Development . . . 2

    1.3.1 ABS (Anti-lock Braking System) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

    1.3.2 Traction Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

    1.3.3 Vehicle Stability Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

    1.3.4 ACC (Adaptive Cruise Control) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

    1.3.5 Forward Collision Mitigation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

    1.3.6 Lane Guidance System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

    1.3.7 Blind-spot Warning System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

    1.4 Lane-keeping System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

    1.4.1 Literature Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

    1.4.2 LIVIC System and Objectives of the Thesis . . . . . . . . . 7

    1.5 Motivation and Organization of the Thesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

    2 VEHICLE MODEL WITH STEERING ASSISTANCE . . . . . . . . . . 9

    2.1 Scope of the Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

    2.2 The Bicycle Model of Lateral Vehicle Dynamics . . . . . . . . . . . 10

    2.3 Bicycle Model Dynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

    2.4 Steering Dynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

  • vPage

    2.5 State Space Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

    2.6 Chapter Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

    3 CONTROL LAW DESIGN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

    3.1 Design Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

    3.2 Stability Analysis and Controller Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

    3.3 Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

    3.4 Chapter Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

    4 SWITCHING STRATEGY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

    4.1 Geometrical Constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

    4.2 Normal Driving Zone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

    4.3 Switching Strategy Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

    4.4 LIVIC Strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

    4.4.1 LIVIC 1 Switching Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

    4.4.2 LIVIC 2 Switching Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

    4.5 New Switching Logic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

    4.6 Chapter Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

    5 SIMULINK IMPLEMENTATION RESULTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

    5.1 Comparison of Simulation Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

    5.2 Impact on Vehicle Drivability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

    6 CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

    LIST OF REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

    APPENDICES

    Appendix A Block Diagram of Simulation Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

    Appendix B Matlab Scripts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52

    Appendix C Matlab Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58

  • vi

    LIST OF TABLES

    Table Page

    5.1 Comparison of maximum values of the state variables for LIVIC 1, atvarying simulation time. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42

    5.2 Comparison of bounds on state variables at simulation time 30, 60 and100 s for LIVIC 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42

    5.3 Comparison of bounds on state variables at simulation time 30, 60 and100 s for the new switching strategy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

    5.4 Comparison of bounds on state variables for normal driving zone anddifferent switching strategies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44

  • vii

    LIST OF FIGURES

    Figure Page

    1.1 Timeline of active safety system development [9]. . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

    2.1 Bicycle model geometry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

    2.2 Tire slip angle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

    3.1 State-feedback controller. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

    3.2 Matlab plot of root locus. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

    4.1 Normal driving zone of the vehicle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

    4.2 Switching strategy LIVIC 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

    4.3 Switching characteristic for LIVIC 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

    4.4 The trajectory of the front wheels. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

    4.5 Switching strategy for LIVIC 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

    4.6 Switching characteristic for LIVIC 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

    4.7 The trajectory of the front wheels for LIVIC 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

    4.8 New switching law controller. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

    4.9 Switching curve for new switching strategy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

    4.10 The lateral trajectory of the front wheels. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34