References for Facts about Plastic Particle Pollution
Microplastics: A Call To Action – A workshop hosted by Draper on
October 4, 2018 This document is available at
Worldwide production of plastic continues to grow with China,
Europe, and North America as the largest producers. The total
tonnage is very difficult to pinpoint and estimates range between
300 and 400 million metric tons (2015). What is more important is
our significant reliance on this material and the fact that a large
fraction is intended for “single use”. 1.
Approximately 10% of plastic waste in the U.S. and 31% in the EU
(2016) is collected for recycling. The amount of plastic that is
actually recycled is unknown due to the challenges of plastic waste
stream management. The remaining portion is landfilled or
incinerated. The amount of plastic waste that escapes solid waste
management systems needs further study. 2. Ragaert K, Delva L, Van
Geem K. 2017. Mechanical and chemical recycling of solid plastic
waste. Waste Management. 69:24-58. 3. Hopewell J, Dvorak R, Kosior
E. 2009. Plastics recycling: challenges and opportunities.
Philosophical Transactions B The Royal Society.
364(1526)2115-2126. 4. Grigore ME, 2017. Methods of Recycling,
Properties and Applications of Recycled Thermoplastic Polymers.
Recycling. 2, 24:1-11.
Ingestion of large quantities of plastic and has resulted in
wildlife mortality in many reported incidents. Microplastics can be
classified as plastic particles less than 1mm in diameter and are
found in nearly all waterways and oceans, in beaches and sediments.
Microplastics have also been found in wildlife and their impact on
wildlife health needs greater study. 5. Provencher JF, Bond AL,
Avery-Gomm S, Borrelle SB, Bravo Rebolledo EL, Hammer S, Kuhn S,
Lavers JL, Mallory ML, Trevail A, van Franeke JA.
2017. Quantifying ingested debris in marine megafauna: a review
and recommendations for standardization. Anal Methods. 9:1454-1469.
6. Browne MA, Underwood AJ, Chapman AG, Williams R, Thompson RC,
van Franeker JA. 2015. Linking effects of anthropogenic debris to
impacts. Proc Royal Soc. B. 282(1807). 7. Wagner M, Scherer C,
Alvarez-Munoz D, Brenholt N, Bourain X, Buchinger S, Fries E,
Grosbois C, Klasmeier J, Marti T, Rodriguez-Mozaz S, Urbatzka
R, Vethaak AD, Winther-Nielsen M, Reifferscheid G. 2014.
Microplastics in freshwater ecosystems: what we know and what we
need to know. Environmental Sciences Europe. (2014) 26:12.
8. Wagner J, Wang ZM, Ghosal S, Rochman C, Gassel M, Wall S.
2017. Novel method for the extraction and identification of
microplastics in ocean trawl and fish gut matrices. Anal Methods.
9. Ghosal S, Chen M, Wagner J, Wang ZM, Wall S. 2018. Molecular
identification of polymers and anthropogenic particles extracted
from oceanic water and fish stomach – a Raman micro-spectroscopy
study. Environmental Pollution. 233(2018)1113-1124.
10. Goldstein MC, Goodwin DS. 2013. Gooseneck barnacles (Lepas
spp.) ingest microplastic debris in the North Pacific Subtropical
Gyre. Peer J. Vol.1 e184.
11. Choy CA, Drazen J. 2013. Plastic for dinner? Observations of
frequent debris ingestion by pelagic predatory fishes from the
central North Pacific. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 485:
12. Rapp DC, Youngren SM, Hartzell P, Hyrenbach KD. 2017.
Community-wide patterns of plastic ingestion in seabirds breeding
at French Frigate Shoals, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Marine
Pollution Bulletin. 123: 269-278.
13. Phuong NN, Poirer L, Lagarde F, Kamari A, Zalouk-Vergnoux,
A, 2018. Microplastic abundance and characteristics in French
Atlantic coastal sediments using a new extraction method.
Environmental Pollution. 243: 228-237.
Plastic waste in water absorbs many toxic chemicals, such as
DDT, PCBs, dioxins, pesticides, and flame retardants, that exist in
the ocean in varying concentrations. In controlled studies, these
chemicals have been shown to release from plastic after it is
ingested by a variety of marine species. 14. Engler RE. 2012. The
complex interaction between marine debris and toxic chemicals in
the ocean. Environ Sci Technol. 46: 12303-12315. 15. Rochman CM,
Hoh E, Hentschel BT, Kaye S. 2013. Long-term field measurement of
sorption of organic contaminants to five types of plastic
pellets: implications for plastic marine debris. Environ Sci
Technol. (2013) 47:1646–54. 16. Rochman CM, Lewison RL, Eriksen M,
Allen H, Cook AM, Teh SJ. 2014. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers
(PBDEs) in fish tissue may be an indicator
of plastic contamination in marine habitats. Science Total
Environment. 476-477 (2014) 622-633. 17. Gassel M, Harwani S, Park
JS, Jahn A. 2013. Detection of nonylphenol and persistent organic
pollutants in fish from the North Pacific Central Gyre.
Mar Pollut Bull. (2013) 73:231–42.
Plastics are manufactured with additives to enhance their
functionality and performance. Toxic additives, such as BPA, PBDEs
and PCBs are known to leach from plastic in the recycling process
and unintentionally from plastic waste in marine environments. 18.
Wagner J, Ghosal S, Whitehead T, Metayer C. 2013. Morphology,
spatial distribution, and concentration of flame retardants in
and environmental dusts using scanning electron microscopy and
Raman micro-spectroscopy. Env Intern. 59 (2013) 16-26. 19.
Hahladakis JN, Velis CA, Weber R, Iacovidou E, Purnell P. 2017. An
overview of chemical additives present in plastics: Migration,
release, fate and
environmental impact during their use, disposal and recycling. J
Hazard Mater. 344:179-199. 20. Hermabessiere L, Dehaut A, Paul-Pont
I, Lacroix C, Jezequel R, Soudant P, Duflos G. 2017. Occurrence and
effects of plastic additives on marine
environments and organisms: A review. Chemosphere.
Microplastics containing additives and sorbed toxic chemicals
have been shown to degrade health and cause mortality in fish and
other aquatic wildlife. 21. Rochman CM, Hoh E, Kurobe T, Teh SJ.
2013. Ingested plastic transfers contaminants to fish and induces
hepatic stress. Nat Sci Rep. (2013)
3:3263. 22. EPA. 2016. State of the Science White Paper: a
summary of literature on the chemical toxicity of plastic pollution
to aquatic life and aquatic-
dependent wildlife. EPA-822-R-16-009.