CONTENT Introduction What is pollution Types of pollution Air pollution Light pollution Littering Noise pollution Soil contamination Radioactive contamination Thermal pollution Water pollution Pesticide Pollution Conclusion Bibliography
INTRODUCTION Environmental pollution is any discharge of material or energy into water, land, or air that causes or may cause acute or chronic detriment to the Earth's ecological balance or that lowers the quality of life. Pollutants may cause primary damage, with direct identifiable impact on the environment, or secondary damage in the form of minor perturbations in the delicate balance of the biological food web that are detectable only over long time periods.
What is pollution? Pollution is any discharge of material or energy into water, land, or air that causes or may cause acute or chronic detriment to the Earth's ecological balance or that lowers the quality of life or in simple terms we can say that pollution is the contamination of the waste materials into the earths ecology. Pollutants may cause primary damage, with direct identifiable impact on the environment, or secondary damage in the form of minor perturbations in the delicate balance of the biological food web that are detectable only over long time periods.
Types of pollution Pollution is of following types:Air pollution Light pollution Littering Noise pollution Soil contamination Thermal pollution Water pollution
Air pollution Air pollution is the introduction of chemicals, particulates, or biological materials into the atmosphere that cause discomfort, disease, or death to humans, damage other living organisms such as food crops, or damage the natural environment or environment. The sources of air pollution are classified into two groups: Natural Sources II. Man made sources Natural Sources of Air Pollution:-They are dust storms, forest fires, ash from smoking volcanoes, decay of organic matters and pollen grains floating in air. Manmade Sources of Air Pollution:- They are population explosion, deforestation, urbanization and industrialization, whose effects can be explained as follows: I.
Causes of air pollution (1) greenhouse effect, contamination, radiation, rain, (2) particulate (3) increased UV (4) acid (5) increased ground level ozone concentration, (6) increased levels of nitrogen oxides Air pollution affects respiratory system causing breathing difficulties and diseases such as bronchitis,asthma,lung cancer, tuberculosis and pneumonia. Air Pollution affects the central nervous system causing carbon monoxide poisoning.CO has more affinity for hemoglobin than oxygen and thus forms a stable compound carboxyl hemoglobin(CO),which is poisonous and causes suffocation and death.
Effect of air pollution Air pollution affects respiratory system causing breathing difficulties and diseases such as bronchitis, asthma, lung cancer, tuberculosis and pneumonia. Air pollution causes depletion of ozone layer due to which ultraviolet radiations can reach the earth and cause skin cancer, damage to eyes and immune system. It causes acid rain which damages crop plants, trees, buildings, monuments, statues and metal structures and also makes the soil acidic. It causes greenhouse effect or global warming which leads to excessive heating of earth's atmosphere, further leading to weather variability and rise in sea level. The increased temperature may cause melting of ice caps and glaciers, resulting in floods. Air pollution from certain metals, pesticides and fungicides causes serious ailments. Lead pollution causes anemia, brain damage, convulsions and death. Certain metals cause problem in kidney, liver, circulatory system and nervous system. Fungicides cause nerve damage and death.
Prevention And Control of Air Pollution: Methods of controlling gaseous pollutants Combustion Absorption Adsorption Methods of controlling particulate emissions Mechanical Devices Fabric Filters Wet Scrubbers
Light pollution Light pollution, also known as photo pollution or luminous pollution, is excessive, misdirected, or obtrusive artificial light. Pollution is the adding-of/added light itself, in analogy to added sound, carbon dioxide, etc. Adverse consequences are multiple, some of them may not be known yet. Light pollution is the alteration of light levels in the outdoor environment (from those present naturally) due to man-made sources of light. Indoor light pollution is such alteration of light levels in the indoor environment due to sources of light, which compromises human health. Light pollution is the introduction by humans, directly or indirectly, of artificial light into the environment. Apart from emitting light, the sky also scatters incoming light, primarily from distant stars and the Milky Way, but also the zodiacal light, sunlight that is reflected and backscattered from interplanetary dust particles.
Causes of light pollution 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Light pollution is caused by uncontrolled emissions and reflections. The design of most of the light emitting sources allows a significant fraction of light to go up in the sky. Excessive use of light emitting sources also causes significant loss of light energy and increases the production of greenhouse gases. Careless outdoor lighting is also responsible for light pollution. Estimates point out that about one-third of the energy used for outdoor lighting is sent to outer space where it doesn't serve any useful purpose and causes light pollution. The rate at which the urban areas are expanding is contributing to the increase in the levels of light pollution. Three decades ago, the outdoor lighting products that were available to the public were limited to incandescent lights, mercury vapor lamps, etc. but today more powerful fixtures are available.
Effect on wildlife Medical research on the effects of excessive light on the human body suggests that a variety of adverse health effects may be caused by light pollution or excessive light exposure, and some lighting design textbook use human health as an explicit criterion for proper interior lighting. light affects organisms and ecosystems it is called ecological light pollution. While light at night can be beneficial, neutral, or damaging for individual species, lighting is responsible for one-fourth of all electricity consumption worldwide and case studies have shown that several forms of over-illumination constitute energy wastage, including non-beneficial upward direction of night-time lighting. In 2007, Terns, the company responsible for managing electricity flow in Italy, reported a saving of 645.2 million kWh in electricity consumption during the daylight saving period from April to October. It attributes this saving to the delayed need for artificial lighting during the evenings . public lighting is the single largest source of local government's greenhouse gas emissions, typically accounting for 30 to 50% of their emissions . its presence invariably disturbs ecosystems.
Control of Light Pollution The following steps can be taken to reduce the light pollution: Avoid causing light pollution do not fit unnecessary lights do not use excessively bright lights, a 150 watt tungsten halogen lamp is quite adequate, 300 or 500 watt bulbs are too powerful for domestic security lighting Action against light pollution If you are experiencing light pollution from your neighbors try approaching the owner of the offending light, politely requesting: re-angling or partial shading of the light fitting of a passive infra red sensor using a lower power bulb
Littering In order to define the littering we need to define the litter first. The litter refers to different waste products such as containers, papers, and wrappers that have been disposed onto streets, countryside's and remote places, meaning that the simplest littering definition would be pollution of our environment by different litter waste. Littering is much more serious problem than some think it is, not just environmental but also an economic problem too because countries spend huge sums of money to clean and remove litter out of our environment. Litter is also not a local problem as some think it is, because littering is happening worldwide. In US 75% of Americans admit to littering within the last 5 years, most of them being young people between age 20-35. Among people that litter the most are smokers, and cigarette butts are believed to be most commonly littered items.
Causes of littering In addition to intentional littering, almost half of litter on U.S. roadways is now a result of accidental or unintentional litter, usually debris that falls off of improperly secured trash, recycling collection vehicles and pickup trucks. Population levels, traffic density and proximity to waste disposal sites are factors known to correlate with higher litter rates . Government neglect, the inability of governments to remove litter in a timely manner, is also a reason why humans are tempted to litter.
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