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Aug 23, 2014




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Communication All of us know that man is a social animal. He cannot survive in isolation. As a member of the society he is dependant on others. For most of the things he has to take help from others. But the question is, how does one know what the other wants? One has to convey his feelings, thoughts, ideas, requirements, experiences, etc. to another in such a way that the latter understands those correctly. The same thing happens with business also. It provides information to the customers, government, owners, employees, etc. and at the same time receives information from them. In this COURSE let us know, how people convey their feelings, thoughts, ideas, messages, etc.

Meaning of Communication Communication may be defined as - A process of sharing facts, ideas, opinions, thoughts and information through speech, writing, gestures or symbols between two or more persons. This process of communication always contains messages, which are to be transmitted between the parties. There are two parties - one is Sender, who sends the message and the other Receiver, who receives it. Generally the process of communication is said to be complete when the receiver understands the message and gives the feedback or response. At road-crossings red light of the traffic signal sends the message to stop the vehicle. When people stop their vehicles by seeing the red light, it is the feedback or response. This feedback may be in any form. Even while talking to your friend nodding of the head is treated as feedback. Thus, feedback becomes an essential element in the process of communication along with message, sender and receiver. Hence Communication Process includes the following elements: - The person who sends the message. Also known as the source. - The person who receives the message. - Subject matter of communication. It may contain facts, ideas, feelings or thoughts. - Receivers response or reaction or reply to the message, which is directed towards the sender. This process can also be shown as follows: Sender Receiver

Feedback Message For sending the message to the receiver or getting the feedback from the receiver we need a medium, which is called as a medium or means of communication. It carries the message to the receiver and brings the feedback from the receiver.

Types of Communication When we talk to others or write to them, communication takes place between us. But for such a communication, language is essential. Communication with the help of words is known as verbal communication. Similarly when we meet our friends, we shake our hand with them. This also conveys some meaning. This is an example of non-verbal communication. Communication without any use of words is called non-verbal communication. Let us know further about these two. Verbal communication is made through words, either spoken or written. Communication through spoken words is known as oral communication, which may be in the form of lectures, meetings, group discussions, conferences, telephonic conversations, radio message etc. In written communication, message is transmitted through written words in the form of letters, memos, circulars, notices, reports, manuals, magazines, handbooks, etc. Non-verbal communication may be Visual, Aural or Gestural. Sometimes you look into some pictures, graphs, symbols, diagrams etc. and some message is conveyed to you. All these are different forms of visual communication. For example, the traffic policeman showing the stop sign, a teacher showing a chart of different animals are visual communication. Bells, whistles, buzzers, horns etc. are also the instruments through which we can communicate our message. Communication with the help of these type of sounds is called 'aural' communication.

For example, the bell used in schools and colleges to inform students and teachers about the beginning or end of periods, siren used in factories to inform the change of workshift of the workers are examples of aural communication. Communication through the use of various parts of the human body, or through body language is termed as gestural communication. Saluting our

national flag, motionless position during the singing of national anthem, waving of hands, nodding of head, showing anger on face, etc. are examples of gestural communication.

Intext Questions 12.2 (A) Fill in the blanks with appropriate words: (i) Communication with the help of words is known as _____________. (ii) Communication through spoken words is known as _____________. (iii) Communication through the use of various parts of human body is known as _____________. (iv) Communication with the help of pirctures, symbols, diagrams etc. is known as _____________. (B) Write V to the phrase that illustrates Verbal Communication or NV to the phrase that illustrates Non Verbal Communication. (i) A person reading a letter. (ii) A teacher looking to a student with anger. (iii) Saluting the national flag. (iv) Talking to a shopkeeper (v) Nodding head silently.

THEORIES AND MODELS OF COMMUNICATIONCommunication theory is a field of information and mathematics that studies the technical process of information and the human process of human communication. According to communication theorist Robert T. Craig in his 1999's essay 'Communication Theory as a Field', "despite the ancient roots and growing profusion of theories about communication," there is not a field of study that can be identified as 'communication theory'. Models of communication The studies on information theory by Claude Elwood Shannon, Warren Weaver and others, prompted research on new models of communication from other scientific perspectives like psychology and sociology. In science, a model is a structure that represents a theory. Scholars from disciplines different to mathematics and engineer began to take distance from the Shannon and Weaver models as a 'transmissible model': They developed a model of communication which was intended to assist in developing a mathematical theory of communication. Shannon and Weaver's work proved valuable for communication engineers in dealing with such issues as the capacity of various communication channels in 'bits per second'. It contributed to computer science. It led to very useful work on redundancy in language. And in making 'information' 'measurable' it gave birth to the mathematical study of 'information theory' D. Chandler, Harold Lasswell (19021978), a political scientist and communication theorist, was a member of the Chicago school of sociology. In his work 'The Structure and Function of Communication in Society' (1948) he defined the communication process as Who (says) What (to) Whom (in) What Channel (with) What Effect.

These first studies on communication's models promoted more researches on the topic. Wilbur Lang Schramm (19071987), called by communication theorist Everett Rogers as the founder of communication study, focused his studies on the experience of the sender and receiver (listener). Communication is possible only upon a common language between sender and receiver. In 1960, David Kenneth Berlo, a disciple of Schramm, expanded on Shannon and Weavers linear model of communication and created the Sender-Message-Channel-Receiver Model of communication (SMCR Model) exposed in his work The Process of Communication, where communication appears as a regulated process that allows the subject to negotiate with his living environment. Communication becomes, then, a value of power and influence (psychology of communication.) Communication Theory as a Field- (R.T. Craig)

Although there exist many theories of communication (...) there is no consensus on communication theory as a field." In 1999 Craig wrote a landmark article. "Communication Theory as a Field" which expanded the conversation regarding disciplinary identity in the field of communication. At that time, communication theory textbooks had little to no agreement on how to present the field or what theories to include in their textbooks. This article has since become the foundational framework for four different textbooks to introduce the field of communication. In this article Craig "proposes a vision for communication theory that takes a huge step toward unifying this rather disparate field and addressing its complexities." To move toward this unifying vision Craig focused on communication theory as a practical discipline and shows how "various traditions of communication theory can be engaged in dialogue on the practice of communication." In this deliberative process theorists would engage in dialog about the

"practical implications of communication theories." In the end Craig proposes seven different traditions of Communication Theory and outlines how each one of them would engage the others in dialogue. Elements of communication Basic elements of communication made the object of study of the communication theory:

Source: Shannon calls it information source, which "produces a message or sequence of messages to be communicated to the receiving terminal."

Sender: Shannon calls it transmitter, which "operates on the message in some way to produce a signal suitable for transmission over the channel. In Aristotle it is the speaker (orator).[8]

Channel: For Shannon it is "merely the medium used to transmit the signal from transmitter to receiver.

Receiver: For Shannon the receiver "performs the inverse operation of that done by the transmitter, reconstructing the message from the signal."

Destination: For Shannon destination is "the person (or thing) for whom the message is intended".

Message: from Latin mittere, "to send". A concept, information, communication or statement that is sent in a verbal, writt

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