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ENERGY FROM OCEAN
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Energy From Ocean

Nov 20, 2015

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ENERGY FROM OCEAN

ENERGY FROM OCEAN1CONTENTSOcean EnergyThermal Energy Ocean Thermal Energy ConversionTypes Of OTECAdvantages, disadvantages And ApplicationsWave EnergyTypes Of Wave Energy Conversion SystemsAdvantages And DisadvantagesConclusionsENERGY FROM OCEANS22OCEAN ENERGYThe worlds oceans.Covers more than 70% of the whole earths volumeAre the largest solar energy collector, Solar energy absorbed by oceans is = (4000 x humanity annual consumption) Less than 1 % of this energy would satisfy all needs.

3ENERGY FROM OCEANS3INTRODUCTIONThe common forms of energy found in the sea areThermal energyWave EnergyTidal Energy

4ENERGY FROM OCEANS4THERMAL ENERGYOn an average day, tropical seas absorb large amount of solar radiation. This thermal energy can be converted into electric power.The solar energy can be converted into electricity by OTEC

5ENERGY FROM OCEANS5 OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSIONThe main objective is to turn the solar energy trapped by the ocean into useable energyOTEC generates electricity by using the temperature difference of 20C (temperature differs from surface to deeper into the sea to at least 20C )

6ENERGY FROM OCEANS

6To convert this thermal gradient into electrical energy, the warm water can be used to heat and vaporize a liquid.The working fluid develops pressure as it is caused to evaporate.This expanding vapor runs through a turbine generator and is then condensed back into a liquid by cold water brought up from depth and the cycle is repeated.

7ENERGY FROM OCEANS7OTEC ProcessCycle begins againReturn to step 2

5. Heat extraction from cold-water sink to condense the working fluid in the condenser.

1. Power input to pumps to start process

4. Expanding vapor drive the turbine, and electricity is created by a generator

3. Heat addition from the hot-water source used to evaporate the working fluid within the heat exchanger (Evaporator)

T TurbineG - Generator

2. Fluid pump pressurizes and pushes working fluid to evaporator8Types of OTEC PlantOTEC is classified depending upon the cycle of operation1.Open Cycle2.Closed Cycle3.Hybrid Cycle9ENERGY FROM OCEANS9Closed Cycle OTEC:

10ENERGY FROM OCEANS10Uses fluid with a low-boiling point, such as ammonia,,freon or propen to rotate a turbine to generate electricityWarm surface seawater is pumped through a heat exchanger where the low-boiling-point fluid is vaporized. The expanding vapor turns the turbo-generator(Turbine and generator)Then, cold, deep seawaterpumped through a second heat exchangercondenses the vapor back into a liquid, which is then recycled through the system.11ENERGY FROM OCEANS11Open Cycle OTEC:

12ENERGY FROM OCEANS12Open-cycle OTEC uses the tropical oceans' warm surface water to make electricityThe only difference is that an open cycle OTEC does not use intermediate fluid. The sea water is the fluid that pushes the turbine.When warm seawater is placed in a low-pressure container, it boils. The expanding steam drives a low-pressure turbine attached to an electrical generatorThe steam is condensed back into a liquid by exposure to cold temperatures from deep-ocean water.

13ENERGY FROM OCEANS13Hybrid Cycle OTECThere are two concepts:The first one is to use a closed cycle OTEC to generate electricity to create the necessary low-pressure environment for the open cycle OTEC.The second concept is to integrate two open cycle OTEC (one is used to create the vacuumed environment) so that there will be twice the amount of the original desalinated water.

14ENERGY FROM OCEANS14Advantages of OTECLow Environmental ImpactProduces FreshwaterHelps to meet increased electricity usageUsed to harvest large yields of multispecies mariculture,If discharged into a pond 15ENERGY FROM OCEANS15Disadvantages of OTECOTEC plants can alter and maybe damage the surrounding ecosystem.Pollution can be caused by closed cycle OTEC if intermediate chemicals leak into the ocean.16ENERGY FROM OCEANS16Applications of OTEC PlantElectricity generationOpen cycle and Hybrid cycle OTEC plants can also produce desalinated water.A closed cycle OTEC plant can also act as a chemical treatment plant. Enhances aquaculture/marine cultureMineral Extraction(mg)

17ENERGY FROM OCEANS17

Sea Water Air Conditioning Advanced Applications18ENERGY FROM OCEANS18Hydrogen production

19ENERGY FROM OCEANS19WAVE ENERGYCaused by wind, gravitational forces due to sun and moon, change in atmospheric pressure, earthquakes etcThe wave energy can be converted into power by using 3 common types of devices, they areOscillating Water Column(OWC)Floating DevicesFocusing Devices

20ENERGY FROM OCEANS20Oscillating Water Column(OWC)

21ENERGY FROM OCEANS21Floating DevicesMost common float used is Salters Duck(Nodding Duck)Converts wave power into electricity

22ENERGY FROM OCEANS22Focusing DevicesWater collected in reservoir is used to run hydro-electric turbines to produce electricity

Tapered Channel23ENERGY FROM OCEANS23Advantages of Wave EnergyNo fuel neededNo waste productionLess costNo serious environmental impacts

24ENERGY FROM OCEANS24Disadvantages of Wave EnergyWaves are largely inconsistentChances of causing distractions to marine lifeClimate may cause damage to energy producing devices25ENERGY FROM OCEANS25CONCLUSIONSClosed cycle OTEC is favored for the future development in expectation of higher efficiency but does not yet have the advantage of having been put in practice.To proceed beyond experimental plants and towards commercialization in developed nations, a scaled version of a 100 MW OTEC plant must be designed and operated.26ENERGY FROM OCEANS26CONCLUSIONS(Continued)Wave energy utilization is still in an early stage of technological development. With further research and development wave-energy devices will become economically competitive 27ENERGY FROM OCEANS27