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Energy Dismantling

Aug 07, 2018

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    CHAPTER 1 

    INTRODUCTION 

    1.1 Introduction to Ship dismantling: 

    Ship dismantling is done to recover and recycle the materials used in construction of the ships,

    and also to dispose the hazardous waste as per the rules. As a ship gets older, its operational costs

    increase on account of increase in fuel consumption, requirements of spare parts and corrosion

    protection. Due to wear and tear during its operational life, the structural integrity of a ship is also

    compromised. After 20 – 25 years of operations a ship becomes uneconomical and unsafe to operate.

    When a ship reaches this stage it becomes necessary to discontinue operating the ship and recover

    and recycle the material‘s used in its construction. The ship recycling industry performs this function.

    By recycling the construction materials and components, the demand for natural resources for

    producing the same materials is drastically reduced with consequent reduction in pollution.

    It needs to be noted that different names such as breaking, recycling, dismantling or

    scrapping are used by different stakeholders depending on their interests (Stuer-Lauridsen et al.,

    2004). The purpose of the present study is to stay as objective as possible towards the energy

    consumption for a ship dismantling yard and a single ship. For that reason the term  ‗ ship dismantling‘

    will be used throughout the whole project, without that implying that any side is supported more than

    others.

    1.1.1 Types of ships: 

     A ship can be defined as a vessel of any type whatsoever operating under its own power or

    otherwise in the marine environment, including hydrofoil boats, air-cushion vehicles, and

    submersibles, floating craft, and fixed or floating platforms, and a vessel that has been stripped of

    equipment, or is towed.

    The Ministry of Steel in pursuance to Supreme Court of India directive brought  ‗ Draft Comprehensive

    Code on Ship Recycling Regulations‘. This code defines the ship as a vessel and other floating

    structures for breaking. Ship ceases to be a ship once bill of entry for home consumption is filed with

    the customs declaring it as cargo (for Demolition). It is suggested that this definition must be followed

    in the interest of Indian ship breaking yards.

    Based on their use, ships may be categorized as commercial, fishing, and military vessels.

    Commercial vessels in turn can be broadly classified as cargo, passenger and special purpose ships.

    Fishing vessels can be made a subset of commercial vessels. However, their size is very small.

    Military or naval vessels can be categorized as warships, submarines, support and auxiliary vessels,

    combat vessels, battleships and many others. Yields vary with the category of ship, and also with the

    environmental concerns. Thus it is important to understand the categories of ships. Some of these

    ship categories are discussed below:

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    Cargo Ships: These transport dry and liquid cargo. Dry cargo is carried in bulk carriers, container

    ships, and general cargo ships. Liquid cargo is generally carried in bulk abroad in chemical tankers,

    oil tankers and LNG tankers.

    Bulk Carriers: Used to carry ore, grains, cattle, phosphates, coal, soya beans, China clay, etc.

    General Cargo Ships: These carry all types of products such as big bags (containing food products like cocoa and coffee beans) and large machine parts except products or liquids in bulk. These ships

    are increasingly replaced by container ships.

    Container Ships: These ships carry medicines, food products, machinery, powder chemicals,

    household appliances and computers. Container ships are considered as an important means of

    transport for the future and its major advantage is its handling efficiency.

    Chemical Tankers: They carry liquids like Sulphuric acid, Phosphoric acid, Phenols, etc. They also

    carry products like molasses and edible oils like palm oil, vegetable oils.

    Oil Tankers: These are of two types —  crude and product tankers. Crude tankers carry large

    quantities of unrefined crude oil from its point of extraction to refineries. Product tankers, on the other

    hand, are designed to move petrochemicals from refineries to points near consuming markets.

    LNG Tankers: These ships are designed to transport Liquefied Natural Gas.

    Passengers: Passenger ships range in size from small river ferries to giant cruise ships. These can

    be categorized as ferries, ocean liners and cruise ships. These ships carry passengers and can sail

    on much longer as the ships are maintained in a good condition.

    Cruise Ships: These are used for pleasure voyages. Cruise ships operate mostly on routes that

    return passengers to their originating port.

    Ferries: Ferries are used to transport freight (Lorries and containers) and even railroad cars. Most

    ferries operate on regular, frequent and return services. These also form the part of public transport

    systems of many waterside cities and islands.

    Ocean Liners: These are designed to transport people from one seaport to another along regular

    long-distance maritime routes according to the schedule. These are strongly built with high freeboards

    to withstand sea states and adverse conditions encountered in the Open Ocean and stores large

    capacities of fuel, victuals and other stores, which could be consumed on voyages which take several

    days to weeks.

    Special Purpose Vessels (SPV): These ships are designed to perform specific tasks and include

    tugboats, pilot boats, rescue boats, cable ships, research vessels, survey vessels and ice breakers.

    Drill Ships: These are fitted with drilling apparatus for exploratory drilling of new oil or gas wells in

    deep waters. Drill ships can drill in water depths of over 2000 metres.

    War Ships: These ships carry weapons, ammunition and supplies for its crew.

    Fishing Vessels: These vessels are used for fishing in the sea, lake or river. Different kinds of

    vessels are used for commercial and recreational fishing. Based on the type of fish, fishing method,

    and geographical origin there are different categories of fishing vessels.

    Ship dismantling is an inseparable part of the shipping business. For as long as ships

    have existed,  ‗ ship dismantling‘, has been the way ships ended their lives if they are not lost at the

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    sea. Compared to ship building, ship breaking is a rough business. Most of the world‘s ship breaking

    industry uses manual labour to dismantle ships.

    In the 18th century, ships were sold to a breaker for recovery of spare parts, firewood, iron

    and brass parts for continued use in new ships or for re-melting. Everything was reused in some way.

    The economics of the system was very straightforward - the owner receives money for his ship; the

    breaker receives enough money for his scrap to pay his expenses and make a profit. Dismantling of

    vessels was a common scene at the ports, especially throughout Southern Europe from the late

    1940s to the 1960s.

    Till early 1980‘s vessels were scrapped in Japan, Korea and Taiwan. However, for the last 25

    years, India, Bangladesh and Pakistan have been the global centres for ship breaking Industry. Here,

    the ships are scrapped directly on the beaches or the vast inter-tidal mudflats exposed daily by about

    10m tidal gauge. The beaching method of the Indian sub-continent relies heavily on low labour cost,

    since it involves very little mechanisation.

    Each year between 200 and 600 sea-going ships of over 2,000 dead weight tonnage (dwt)

    are dismantled worldwide. This number may significantly increase, if the decision on replacement of

    single hull tankers comes into effect.

    Single hull tankers are more likely than double hull vessels to rupture and break up, and spill

    oil into the sea. As per the International Maritime Organization (IMO) regulations, single hull tankers

    are phased out or converted to a double hull after certain age for the prevention of oil spills and

    pollution from ships. The double hull is designed to reduce the risk of oil spills from tankers involved in low energy collisions or groundings during the most critical part of a voyage.

     A ship consists mostly of steel. Consequently, at the end of its useful life, it becomes a

    sought-after source of ferrous scrap particularly suited for reprocessing into simple steel products

    such as steel rods used in civil construction. The geographical migration of scrapping locations

    mirrors the global industrial economic development. It seeks areas providing:

      Sea beach

      Demand for scrap steel for reprocessing

      Demand for second-hand equipment and

      Supply of low-cost labour to carry out the labour-intensive extraction process

    The vast majority of waste stream generated following the demolition or scrapping process is

    largely returned to good use. Usable equipment such as pumps, motors, valves, generators, etc., is

    sold out which finds alternative applications and the scrap steel is reprocessed. The latter, as an

    alternative to steel production f

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