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Feb 14, 2017

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  • EggplantIntegrated Pest Management

    AN ECOLOGICAL GUIDE

    TRAINING RESOURCE TEXT ON CROP DEVELOPMENT, MAJOR AGRONOMICPRACTICES, DISEASE AND INSECT ECOLOGY, INSECT PESTS,

    NATURAL ENEMIES AND DISEASES OF EGGPLANT

    FAO Inter-Country Programme for Integrated Pest Management in Vegetables in South and Southeast Asia

    June 2003

  • Eggplant Ecological Guide i

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

    WHY THIS GUIDE? .................................................................................................................................... 1

    1 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................................... 2 1.1 INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT: BEYOND BUGS.......................................................................... 2 1.2 THE VEGETABLE IPM PROGRAMME .................................................................................................. 2 1.3 DEVELOPING VEGETABLE IPM BASED ON RICE IPM........................................................................... 3 1.4 EGGPLANT: A BIT OF HISTORY........................................................................................................... 3

    2 EGGPLANT CROP DEVELOPMENT..................................................................................................... 4 2.1 EGGPLANT GROWTH STAGES............................................................................................................ 5 2.2 SUSCEPTIBILITY OF EGGPLANT GROWTH STAGES TO PESTS ............................................................... 5

    3 MAJOR AGRONOMIC PRACTICES...................................................................................................... 8 3.1 CLIMATE AND SITE SELECTION.......................................................................................................... 9 3.2 SELECTING A VARIETY...................................................................................................................... 9

    3.2.1 Hybrids and open pollinated varieties.................................................................................... 9 3.2.2 Resistant varieties................................................................................................................ 10

    3.3 SEED SELECTION........................................................................................................................... 11 3.4 SEED EXTRACTION......................................................................................................................... 12 3.5 SEED GERMINATION....................................................................................................................... 12 3.6 SEED TREATMENTS........................................................................................................................ 12

    3.6.1 Physical seed treatment ..................................................................................................... 13 3.6.2 Chemical seed treatment.................................................................................................... 14 3.6.3 Botanical seed treatment .................................................................................................... 14 3.6.4 Biological seed treatment ................................................................................................... 14

    3.7 SOIL ............................................................................................................................................. 15 3.7.1 The living soil ...................................................................................................................... 15 3.7.2 Soil type .............................................................................................................................. 15 3.7.3 Soil infection........................................................................................................................ 16 3.7.4 Soil sterilization ................................................................................................................... 17 3.7.5 Soil pH ................................................................................................................................ 17 3.7.6 Measuring and adjusting soil pH......................................................................................... 18 3.7.7 Soil conservation and erosion control................................................................................. 19

    3.8 FERTILIZER MANAGEMENT.............................................................................................................. 20 3.8.1 Macro and micro nutrients .................................................................................................. 20 3.8.2 Soil testing .......................................................................................................................... 21 3.8.3 Role of organic matter and micro-organisms...................................................................... 21

    3.8.3.1 Compost ............................................................................................................................ 22 3.8.3.2 Cover crops, Green manure, and Living mulch................................................................. 27 3.8.3.3 Manure............................................................................................................................... 28 3.8.3.4 Organic mulches................................................................................................................ 29

    3.8.4 Chemical fertilizers.............................................................................................................. 30 3.8.5 Comparing organic and chemical fertilizers........................................................................ 30 3.8.6 Foliar fertilizers.................................................................................................................... 31 3.8.7 Fertilization needs of eggplant............................................................................................ 31

    3.9 PLANTING TIME AND PEST OCCURRENCE......................................................................................... 32 3.10 NURSERY MANAGEMENT ................................................................................................................ 32

    3.10.1 Soil sterilization ................................................................................................................... 32 3.10.1.1 Burning organic material on the soil ................................................................................ 33 3.10.1.2 Solarization ...................................................................................................................... 33 3.10.1.3 Use of sub-soil ................................................................................................................. 34 3.10.1.4 Biofumigation................................................................................................................... 34 3.10.1.5 Biological soil sterilization................................................................................................ 34 3.10.1.6 Boiled water ..................................................................................................................... 35

    3.10.2 Sowing ................................................................................................................................ 35 3.10.2.1 Flat field and raised seedbeds......................................................................................... 35 3.10.2.2 Sowing in pots ................................................................................................................. 36

    3.11 FIELD PREPARATION ...................................................................................................................... 37

  • Eggplant Ecological Guide ii

    3.11.1 Working the soil .................................................................................................................. 37 3.11.2 Transplanting ...................................................................................................................... 38 3.11.3 Planting density................................................................................................................... 39 3.11.4 Mulching.............................................................................................................................. 39

    3.12 PRUNING, RATOON CROPS, AND STAKING........................................................................................ 40 3.13 GRAFTING..................................................................................................................................... 41 3.14 WATER MANAGEMENT.................................................................................................................... 42

    3.14.1 Drainage ............................................................................................................................. 42 3.14.2 Irrigation .............................................................................................................................. 42

    3.15 INTERCROPPING AND TRAP CROPS ................................................................................................. 43 3.15.1 Intercropping and barrier crops........................................................................................... 43 3.15.2 Trap crops........................................................................................................................