Overview This presentation will cover: The persuasive context
The role of the audience What to research and cite How to establish
What is Persuasive Writing? Definition: persuasive writing
seeks to convince its readers to embrace the point-of-view
presented by appealing to the audiences reason and understanding
through argument and/or entreaty.
Persuasive Genres You encounter persuasion every day. TV
Commercials Letters to the Editor Junk mail Magazine ads College
brochures Can you think of other persuasive contexts?
Steps for Effective Persuasion Understand your audience Support
your opinion Know the various sides of your issue Respectfully
address other points of view Find common ground with your audience
Establish your credibility
When to Persuade an Audience Your organization needs funding
for a project Your boss wants you to make recommendations for a
course of action You need to shift someones current point of view
to build common ground so action can be taken
Understanding Your Audience Who is your audience? What beliefs
do they hold about the topic? What disagreements might arise
between you and your audience? How can you refute counterarguments
Understanding Your Audience What concerns does your audience
face? For example: Do they have limited funds to distribute? Do
they feel the topic directly affects them? How much time do they
have to consider your document?
Understanding Your Audience Help your audience relate to your
topic Appeal to their hearts as well as their minds. Use anecdotes
when appropriate Paint your topic in with plenty of detail Involve
the readers senses in these sections
Researching an Issue Become familiar with all sides of an
issue. -find common ground -understand the history of the topic
-predict the counterarguments your audience might make -find strong
support for your own perspective
Researching an Issue Find common ground with your audience For
example: Point of Opposition: You might support a war, whereas your
audience might not. Common ground: Both sides want to see their
troops come home.
Researching an Issue Predict counterarguments Example: Your
Argument: Organic produce from local Farmers Markets is better than
store-bought produce. The Opposition: Organic produce is too
Researching an Issue One Possible Counterargument: Organic
produce is higher in nutritional value than store-bought produce
and is also free of pesticides, making it a better value. Also,
store-bought produce travels thousands of miles, and the cost of
gasoline affects the prices of food on supermarket shelves.
Support Your Perspective Appeal to the audiences reason Use
statistics and reputable studies Cite experts on the topic Do they
back up what you say? Do they refute the other side?
Cite Sources with Some Clout Which source would a reader find
more credible? The New York Times http://www.myopinion.com Which
person would a reader be more likely to believe? Joe Smith from
Fort Wayne, IN Dr. Susan Worth, Prof. of Criminology at Purdue
Establish Credibility Cite credible sources Cite sources
correctly and thoroughly Use professional language (and design)
Edit out all errors
Cite Sources Ethically Dont misrepresent a quote or leave out
important information. Misquote: Crime rates were down by 2002,
according to Dr. Smith. Actual quote: Crime rates were down by
2002, but steadily began climbing again a year later, said to Dr.
Tactics to Avoid Dont lecture or talk down to your audience
Dont make threats or bully your reader Dont employ guilt trips Be
careful if using the second person, you
Have More Questions? Visit us at the Writing Lab Heavilon Hall
226 4-3723 http://owl.english.purdue.edu/writinglab Visit us online
at the OWL http://owl.english.purdue.edu
RESEARCH PAPER RUBRIC AND METHODOLOGY Now what do I do?
Methodology First find a speech, then read and annotate.
Analyze the style of the speaker. This rhetorical Analysis must be
part of the research paper. It May also answer why the world
changed because of the speech. Second, read the speech again and
find an Interesting fact to research. EX: The speech May discuss a
war, a battle, a specific crisis or Social issue. Third, find
information from credible sources On that fact mentioned in the
speech. Read the ENTIRE source, taking detailed notes.
Methodology ORGANIZE your notes as you go. Color is great!
Assign a color to a source. Take notes in that color and write
citations in that color. FIND sources on ALL sides of the issue.
There Are never just 2 sides. Keep in your mind that You are trying
to find out how the speech CHANGED the course of events in the
world. DECIDE what you think about that change. SYNTHESIZE your
thoughts and sources. Form a thesis. This speech caused the world
to CHANGE how?
Methodology Form an outline. Decide on your strategy for
organization. Multiple drafts. Write a bit, then ask a question,
dont waste time rewriting the exact same information over and over.
Write in sections according to outline. Ask opinions. Let people
read your writing. Fill the holes. Let people ask questions. Do
MORE research when you have those opinions in order to address
holes in your research!
Methodology Keep track of sources all the way through your
research in MLA format. USE COLOR! NOTES write down where you found
info, works referenced/research log OUTLINE write down what you
used DRAFTS - in text citations FINAL works cited
RUBRIC METHODOLOGY COLORFUL NOTES 15%, 2.5% for each source
MULTIPLE VALID sources/works referenced 15% 6 sources 2.5% for each
source COLORFUL OUTLINE 20% MULTIPLE DRAFTS OF OUTLINE-20% Final
Draft with works cited and in-text citations 30% Must be typed in
RUBRIC Colorful Notes Each source is assigned a color, notes
are taken in that color, source citation is written in correct
format on the first page of the notes for that source. Keep track
of what page you are on. When you change source, Change color and
Write the new source citation in the correct Format. Tolkien,
J.R.R. The Hobbit. New York:Ballentine, 1937. P19 Gloin tells Bilbo
that he can call himself an expert treasure hunter instead of a
burglar in order to make Bilbo feel better about the Situation and
his own image of himself. Tolkien, J.R.R. The Lord of the Rings.
NewYork: Ballentine, 1942. P235 Frodo tells Bilbo that he lost the
ring in order to make Bilbo feel better about not having it, while
not destroying Bilbo with the truth. This protects Bilbos image and
Rubric Multiple Valid Sources TO START One online source
AMERICAN RHETORIC.com One encyclopedia NOT ONLINE One non-fiction
book NOT A CHILDRENs BOOK TO FINISH One online source
-.edu,.gov,.mil,.org One more primary source One secondary source 6
RUBRIC OUTLINE Thesis is its own section of the outline. Should
be sophisticated : multiple views in one section/paragraph Color
coded by source MLA in-text citation for *Q Revised organization
order should be appropriate for purpose Thorough, including thesis
and topic sentences Your thoughts should be evident, not just topic
*Quotes should be included
RUBRIC Drafts Work in sections according to outline. Each
section must be peer edited. Do not move forward without teacher
approval. Make sure to check at each stage if more research is
RUBRIC After the outline and drafts are completed, TYPE your
paper in MLA format. If you use Easybib or Noodle tools, you will
have to change the format. It is not automatic. ALSO GIGO (garbage
in, garbage out) Turn in EVERYTHING in a manila envelope. Turn an
electronic copy in by email.
Notes: February 7 th 1 st draft Outline: February 13 th 1 st
section draft: February 18 th Subsequent drafts must be peer edited
and teacher approved before moving on. All drafting must be
completed: March 1 st Electronic and Final Draft Due: March 7
MLA CITATION "Bill of Sale, Cobb Powder Horn and the Star
Spangled Banner." History Detectives. PBS. KBPT, Midland, TX, 08
Jan. 2013. History Detectives. PBS, 08 Jan. 2013. Web. 09 Jan.
2013. Star Spangled Banner
Helpful Research Information
What do professional researchers do?: