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EEE+ECE OB Chronicles of OB by cybersony

Jun 02, 2018

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  • 8/10/2019 EEE+ECE OB Chronicles of OB by cybersony

    1/16

    MATTER for MAJOR

    5th

    sem ECE+EEE+CEcybersony1

    The chronicles of O . B

    -: Leadership Styles :-Aleadership styleisaleader'sstyleofprovidingdirection,implementingplans,andmotivatingpeople.Differenttypesofleadershipstylesexistinworkenvironments.Advantagesanddisadvantagesexistwithineachleadership

    style.Thecultureandgoalsofanorganizationdeterminewhichleadershipstylefitsthefirmbest.Somecompaniesoffer

    severalleadershipstyleswithintheorganization,dependentuponthenecessarytaskstocompleteanddepartmentalneeds.

    1.

    Autocratic Leadership Style:-

    Theauthoritarian leadership styleorautocratic leaderkeepsstrict,closecontroloverfollowersbykeepingcloseregulation

    ofpoliciesandproceduresgiventofollowers.Tokeepmainemphasisonthedistinctionoftheauthoritarianleaderandtheir

    followers,thesetypesofleadersmakesuretoonlycreateadistinctprofessionalrelationship.Directsupervisioniswhatthey

    believetobekeyinmaintainingasuccessfulenvironmentandfollowership.Infearoffollowersbeingunproductive,

    authoritarianleaderskeepclosesupervisionandfeelthisisnecessaryinorderforanythingtobedone.

    Authoritarianleadershipstylesoftenfollowthevisionofthosethatareincontrol,andmaynotnecessarilybecompatible

    withthosethatarebeingled.

    Examplesofauthoritariancommunicativebehavior:apoliceofficerdirectingtraffic,ateacherorderingastudenttodohisor

    herassignment,andasupervisorinstructingasubordinatetocleanaworkstation.Anauthoritarianstyleofleadershipmay

    createaclimateoffear,wherethereislittleornoroomfordialogueandwherecomplainingmaybeconsideredfutile.

    2. Democratic_Leadership Style:-

    Thedemocratic leadership styleconsistsoftheleadersharingthedecision-makingabilitieswithgroupmembersby

    promotingtheinterestsofthegroupmembersandbypracticingsocialequality.

    Thisstyleofleadershipencompassesdiscussion,debateandsharingofideasandencouragementofpeopletofeelgood

    abouttheirinvolvement.Theboundariesofdemocraticparticipationtendtobecircumscribedbytheorganizationorthe

    groupneedsandtheinstrumentalvalueofpeople'sattributes(skills,attitudes,etc.).Thedemocraticstyleencompassesthe

    notionthateveryone,byvirtueoftheirhumanstatus,shouldplayapartinthegroup'sdecisions.However,thedemocraticstyleofleadershipstillrequiresguidanceandcontrolbyaspecificleader.

    3. Paternalistic_Leadership style:-

    ThewayaPaternalisticleaderworksisbyactingasafatherfigurebytakingcareoftheirsubordinatesasaparentwould.In

    thisstyleofleadershiptheleadersuppliescompleteconcernforhisfollowersorworkers.Inreturnhereceivesthecomplete

    trustandloyaltyofhispeople.Workersunderthisstyleofleaderareexpectedtobecometotallycommittedtowhatthe

    leaderbelievesandwillnotstriveoffandworkindependently.Theseworkersareabletogotoeachotherwithany

    problemstheyhaveregardingsomethingbecausetheybelieveinwhattheysayisgoingtotrulyhelpthem.

    Theleaderencouragesorganizationbecausetheyallowtheworkerstocompletetaskssothattheycanstayontopoftheir

    work.Theworkerscompletetasksthisboostsself-confidenceanditmakesthemworkhardertoreachagoalandexceedthe

    goaltoprovetotheirbosstheyareworkinghard.Havingthisstyleofleadershipcanalsohelpimplementarewardsystem.Thissystemwillallowtheirworkerstoworkevenbetterbecausethereissomethingforthemattheendofthetunnel.

    4. Free-Rein or Laissez-Faire Leadership Style

    Thelaissez-faire leadership style is where all the rights and power to make decisions is fully given to the worker.Thiswas

    firstdescribedbyLewin,Lippitt,andWhitein1938,alongwiththeautocraticleadershipandthedemocraticleadership

    styles.Thelaissez-fairestyleissometimesdescribedasa"handsoff"leadershipstylebecausetheleaderdelegatesthetasks

    totheirfollowerswhileprovidinglittleornodirectiontothefollowers. Iftheleaderwithdrawstoomuchfromtheir

    followersitcansometimesresultinalackofproductivity,cohesiveness,andsatisfaction.

    Thisisaneffectivestyletousewhen:

    Followersarehighlyskilled,experienced,andeducated.

    Followershaveprideintheirworkandthedrivetodoitsuccessfullyontheirown.

    Outsideexperts,suchasstaffspecialistsorconsultantsarebeingused.

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    MATTER for MAJOR

    5th

    sem ECE+EEE+CEcybersony2

    The chronicles of O . B

    EMPLOYEE MORALEDescriptionoftheemotions,attitude,satisfaction,andoveralloutlookofemployeesduringtheirtimeinaworkplace

    environment.Partofeffectiveproductivityisthoughttobedirectlyrelatedtothemoraleoftheemployees.Employeesthat

    arehappyandpositiveatworkaresaidtohavepositiveorhighemployeemorale.Companiesthatmaintainemployeeswho

    aredissatisfiedandnegativeabouttheirworkenvironmentaresaidtohavenegativeorlowemployeemorale.

    Ameasureseekingpositive,confident,satisfiedemployees.Involvestheoverallviewpointofemployeeswhileatworkinthe

    workenvironment.Includesemployeeemotions,attitude,andsatisfaction.Themoraleoftheemployeesdirectlyeffects

    productivity.Dissatisfiedandnegativeemployeesportraynegative,lowemployeemoraleabouttheirworkenvironment.

    Positiveorhighlyconfidentemployeesthatarehappyandpositiveatworkaresaidtohavehighmorale.

    Employeemorale,in human resources, is defined as

    1.Astateofindividualpsychologicalwell-beingbaseduponasenseofconfidenceandusefulnessandpurposeand

    2.Thespiritofagroupthatmakesthememberswantsthegrouptosucceed(synonyms:espritdecorps,teamspirit)

    HowtoincreaseEmployeemorale:-

    1. Recognizeemployees.

    2. Bearespectfulmanager.

    3.

    Haveone-on-onemeetingswithemployees.

    4. Investinyouremployees.

    5. Gettoknowyouremployees.

    Moraleareoftwotypes:-

    1. OnbehalfofNUMBERS a.Individualmoral b.GroupMorale

    2. OnbehalfofLEVELS a.HighMorale b.Lowmorale.

    Factors affecting Morale:-

    1. TheFirm\Organization.

    2. Thenatureofwork.

    3. Thelevelofsatisfaction.

    4.

    Thelevelofsupervision.

    5. Conceptofself.

    6. Employeesage

    7.

    Educationlevels.

    8. Occupationallevels.

    9. Offthejobactivities.

    Mental condition of

    employees which

    determine their

    willingness to

    Co-operate

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    MATTER for MAJOR

    5th

    sem ECE+EEE+CEcybersony3

    The chronicles of O . B

    GROUPAcollectionofindividualswhohaveregularcontactandfrequentinteraction,mutualinfluence,commonfeelingof

    camaraderie,andwhoworktogethertoachieveacommonsetofgoals.

    Interpersonal relationship

    Aninterpersonalrelationshipisastrong,deep,orcloseassociationoracquaintancebetweentwoormorepeoplethatmay

    rangeindurationfrombrieftoenduring.Thisassociationmaybebasedoninference,love,solidarity,regularbusiness

    interactions,orsomeothertypeofsocialcommitment.Interpersonalrelationshipsareformedinthecontextofsocial,

    culturalandotherinfluences.Thecontextcanvaryfromfamilyorkinshiprelations,friendship,marriage,relationswith

    associates,work,clubs,neighborhoods,andplacesofworship.Theymayberegulatedbylaw,custom,ormutualagreement,

    andarethebasisofsocialgroupsandsocietyasawhole.

    Interpersonalbehaviourishowpeopleinteractwithoneanother.Specificallyitisstudiedasthewaypeoplebehavewhen

    thisbehaviourwouldaffectarelationship.Makingjokes,bodylanguage,givingpresentsandgoingtopartiesareallaspects

    0ofinterpersonalbehaviour.

    GROUP DYNAMICS

    Thesocialprocessbywhichpeopleinteractfacetofaceinsmallgroupsiscalledgroupdynamics.

    Agentscanalsobegivengrouptasks,whichinturnmaybeinfluencedbytheirown group dynamics.

    Pigeonsflocksusehierarchicalgroup dynamics todecidewheretoflyorbiter.

    Thosesynchronizeddipsandwavesseemtoholdsecretsaboutperceptionandgroup dynamics.

    HOW TO MAKE EFFECTIVE GROUPS

    1. Forming.Thisstageisusuallycharacterizedbysomeconfusionanduncertainty.Themajorgoalsofthegrouphave

    notbeenestablished.Thenatureofthetaskorleadershipofthegrouphasnotbeendetermined(Luthans,2005).

    Thus,formingisanorientationperiodwhenmembersgettoknowoneanotherandshareexpectationsaboutthe

    group.Memberslearnthepurposeofthegroupaswellastherulestobefollowed.Theformingstageshouldnotbe

    rushedbecausetrustandopennessmustbedeveloped.Thesefeelingsstrengtheninlaterstagesofdevelopment.

    Individualsareoftenconfusedduringthisstagebecauserolesarenotclearandtheremaynotbeastrongleader.

    2. Storming.Inthisstage,thegroupislikelytoseethehighestlevelofdisagreementandconflict.Membersoften

    challengegroupgoalsandstruggleforpower.Individualsoftenviefortheleadershippositionduringthisstageof

    development.Thiscanbeapositiveexperienceforallgroupsifmemberscanachievecohesivenessthrough

    resolution.Membersoftenvoiceconcernandcriticisminthisphase.Ifmembersarenotabletoresolvetheconflict,

    thenthegroupwilloftendisbandorcontinueinexistencebutwillremainineffectiveandneveradvancetotheother

    stages.

    3.

    Norming.Thisstageischaracterizedbytherecognitionofindividualdifferencesandsharedexpectations.Hopefully,atthisstagethegroupmemberswillbegintodevelopafeelingofgroupcohesionandidentity.Cooperativeeffort

    shouldbegintoyieldresults.Responsibilitiesaredividedamongmembersandthegroupdecideshowitwillevaluate

    progress.

    4. Performing.Performing,occurswhenthegrouphasmaturedandattainsafeelingofcohesiveness.Duringthisstage

    ofdevelopment,individualsacceptoneanotherandconflictisresolvedthroughgroupdiscussion.Membersofthe

    groupmakedecisionsthrougharationalprocessthatisfocusedonrelevantgoalsratherthanemotionalissues.

    5. Adjourning.Notallgroupsexperiencethisstageofdevelopmentbecauseitischaracterizedbythedisbandmentof

    thegroup.Somegroupsarerelativelypermanent(Luthans,2005).Reasonsthatgroupsdisbandvary,withcommon

    reasonsb