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Ecotourism Final

Jun 04, 2018

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    ECOTOURISM IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES 1

    Ecotourism in Developing Countries

    Ct!erine McGrt! " Interntionl Stu#ies

    M$ %&' %&1(

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    ECOTOURISM IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES %

    Introduction

    T!e Interntionl Ecotourism Societ$ #e)ines ecotourism s t!e responsi*le trvel

    to nturl res t!t conserves t!e environment n# improves t!e +ell *eing o) locl

    people ,IES 1---./ Ecotourism ims to ccentute remr0*le or note+ort!$ )eture o)

    t!e environment in #eveloping countr$' n# su*seuentl$ *uil# tourism in#ustr$

    roun# t!t )eture/ Sc!olrs n# pu*lic le#ers originll$ prise# ecotourism *ecuse it

    promote# #evelopment +it!out compromising t!e !elt! or *eut$ o) t!e environment/

    Ecotourism set out to minimi2e environmentl impct n# economi2e conservtion

    e))orts' *ut to still llo+ )or )inncil gin n# culturl empo+erment o) locl people'

    +!ic! )ostere# t!e elusive compromise *et+een environmentl protection n# economic

    #evelopment/

    Ecotourism sites *egn popping up in t!e lte 1-3&s #uring t!e glo*l

    environmentl movement/ 4$ t!e erl$ 1--&s' ecotourism !# *ecome one o) t!e )stest5

    gro+ing in#ustries in t!e +orl# n# lmost ever$ #eveloping ntion promote# ecotourism

    s prt o) t!eir #evelopment strteg$ ,Moreno %&&6./ 7ust s sustin*ilit$ *ecme

    *u22+or# )or politicins n# *usinesses to plese multiple interest groups' ecotourism

    *ecme t!e in#ustr$ t!t coul# plese ll intereste# prties/ It ttempte# to ##ress t!e

    most pressing pro*lems in #eveloping countries8environmentl #egr#tion n# n

    un#er#evelope# econom$/ 9o+ever' s t!e ecotourism in#ustr$ continue# to ge' its

    success s c!mpion )or #eveloping countries *egn to +ver/ Ecotourism pro:ects

    ignore# t!e originl gols o) ecotourism n#' eventull$' ;ecotourism< *ecme solel$ n

    ll5encompssing term use# to #escri*e n$ 0in# o) nture5*se# tourism' regr#less o)

    its impct on t!e surroun#ing communit$/ Ecotourism +s crete# in prt to improve

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    ECOTOURISM IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES (

    con#itions in #eveloping countries' *ut s pro:ects *egn to )il' it *ecme o*vious t!t

    ecotourism is not n e))ective mens )or #evelopment/ Overll' ecotourism !s )ile# to

    promote #evelopment n# !s even *ecome #etrimentl to t!e s!ort n# long5term

    econom$ n# socil structure o) communities in #eveloping ntions/ T!is pper #iscusses

    t!e environmentl' politicl n# economic limittions o) ecotourism' evlutes its

    negtive impcts n# recommen#s strtegies to m0e ecotourism more success)ul/

    Limittions

    Environmental Conditions

    Nturl resources re #istri*ute# cross t!e glo*e in #i))erent proportions' n#

    similrl$' not ever$ #eveloping countr$ !s n #eute environment to *egin n

    ecotourism in#ustr$/ Mn$ #eveloping countries !ve +et!er ptterns t!t constntl$

    )luctute/ T!is is pro*lem *ecuse ecotourism=s selling point is t!e environment itsel)'

    t!us' entire sesons coul# *e #eeme# un)it to utili2e t!e environment in t!e per)ect

    con#itions/ >et!er t!t is too !ot or col#' or sesons t!t re too +et or #r$ coul#

    :eopr#i2e t!e success o) n ecotourism site/ ?or [email protected]' t!e villge o) Ale#up in

    In#onesi !s n ecotourism in#ustr$' *ut +et!er con#itions re onl$ i#el )or t!ree

    mont!s out o) t!e $er ,Cli)ton %&&B./ >!le +tc!ing ecotourism in#ustries lso

    [email protected] *oom5n#5*ust c$cles' +it! some times o) t!e $er *eing )vor*le )or +!le

    +tc!ing con#itions' n# ot!er times +it! ver$ )e+ +!le sig!tings ,oung 1---./ ?or

    t!is reson' mn$ ecotourism sites cnnot serve s t!e primr$ in#ustr$ in t!t re

    ,Cli)ton %&&B./

    Punt Gor#' 4eli2e' n re t!t ttempte# to ttrct investors )or n ecotourism

    in#ustr$' )ile# *ecuse o) limittions o) its [email protected] environment/ Punt Gor# lc0s

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    ECOTOURISM IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    *ec!es n# corl ree)s' +!ic! re t+o populr ttrctions )or ecotourism sites' m0ing it

    un#esir*le )or contrctors n# )oreign investors/ It lso !s n [email protected]$ +et climte'

    receiving *out meters o) rin)ll per $er' +!ic! m0es it unppeling to potentil

    tourists ,Moreno %&&6./ Ecotourism must *e centere# on speci)ic' mr0et*le

    environmentl )etures i) #eveloping countr$ lc0s t!ese )etures' ecotourism is not

    vi*le )or its #evelopment strteg$/ Mn$ #eveloping countries lc0 uniue

    environmentl )etures or i#el climtes t!ere)ore mn$ #eveloping countries t!t *egin

    ecotourism pro:ects lc0 t!e environmentl )etures nee#e# to crete pro)it*le

    in#ustr$/

    Natural Disasters

    Even i) #eveloping countr$ !s t!e )etures to crete success)ul ecotourism

    in#ustr$' t!ere is still m:or ris0 o) it )iling/ ?or [email protected]' nturl #isster coul#

    #estro$ in)rstructure or #isrupt t!e *eut$ o) n environment/ 9urricne 9u#! !it

    Msol Ntionl Pr0 in M#gscr in %&&&' cusing temporr$ !lt in tourism/ T!e

    !urricne ))ecte# nturl resource vil*ilit$ n# cuse# )oo# s!ortges )or t!e locls/

    Flt!oug! t!is pr0 +s *le to eventull$ restore t!e est!etic vlue o) t!e environment

    n# st*ili2e )oo# supplies' t!e re=s lrgest !ig!5en# !otel su))ere# [email protected] #mge

    ,Orms*$ %&&&./ Mn$ ecotourism sites re not pro)it*le enoug! to re*uil# )rom

    #evstting nturl #isster' +!ic! coul# cuse signi)icnt !rm to t!e in#ustr$/ T!e

    nture o) ecotourism leves in)rstructure more suscepti*le to #mge mn$ ecotourism

    pro:ects re locte# in costl res o) #eveloping countries/ Fs climte c!nge continues

    to ))ect glo*l +et!er ptterns' t!ere +ill *e increse# )reuenc$ n# strengt! o) storms

    n# costl )loo#ing' m0ing t!e ecotourism in#ustr$ prticulrl$ vulner*le to nturl

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    ECOTOURISM IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES 6

    #issters/ T!e unpre#ict*ilit$ o) nturl #issters m0es ecotourism n ine))ective

    in#ustr$ )or #eveloping countries/

    Political Unrest

    T!e ecotourism in#ustr$ is lso unpre#ict*le *ecuse o) politicl unrest or

    terrorism in #eveloping countries/ Ecotourists re cutious n# reluctnt to trvel to

    countries +it! tumultuous politicl climtes *ecuse o) potentil crime n# violence/ T!e

    t!ret o) civil +r or politicl uprising' especill$ to tourists o) t!e #evelope# +orl#'

    !evil$ out+eig!s t!e *ene)its o) n ecotourism trip/ T!is +s t!e cse in R+n#' +!ere

    up until t!e strt o) t!e civil +r' tourism +s t!e countr$=s m:or in#ustr$/ R+n#

    crete# success)ul ecotourism in#ustr$ t!t re#uce# t!e !unting o) gorills' +!ic!

    llo+e# )or resurgence o) t!e gorill popultion n#' t!us' gurntee# tourist

    ttrction/ 9o+ever' +!en t!e civil +r *egn' ll tourism in R+n# !lte#/ Ver$ )e+

    outsi#ers +nte# to *e cug!t in t!e violent n# #ngerous +r *et+een t!e 9utus n#

    Tutsis/ In t!e *sence o) t!e tourism mr0et' gorill !unting *ecme populr gin' +!ic!

    negte# t!e ecotourism=s previous e))orts to conserve t!e species ,Lie*er0nec!t %&&./

    T!is issue is not uniue to R+n# politicl inst*ilit$ is n issue t!t plgues

    mn$ #eveloping countries/ M#gscr su))ere# similr crisis in its ecotourism

    in#ustr$ )ter #ispute over t!e presi#entil elections in %&&1/ >!ile t+o opposing

    governments struggle# to gin po+er' ecotourism in M#gscr stoppe# lmost entirel$/

    4usiness o+ners su))ere# )rom t!e lo+ num*er o) visitors' n# lt!oug! t!e tourism

    in#ustr$ slo+l$ *egn to re*uil#' severl *usinesses +ere *n0rupt n# le)t t!e in#ustr$

    entirel$ ,Orms*$ %&&B./

    In In#onesi' t!e *om*ing o) t+o 4li nig!tclu*s t!t +ere populr +it! >estern

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    ECOTOURISM IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES B

    trvelers in %&&% negtivel$ impcte# t!e tourism in#ustr$/ T!ese *om*ings +ere !#

    ver$ little impct on norml li)e )or In#onesins' *ut tourists +ere concerne# +it!

    terrorism n# t!eir securit$ +!ile trveling in In#onesi/ Englis!' Fmericn n#

    Fustrlin o))icils encte# #visories +rning ginst n$ non5essentil trvel )or

    tourists +!o +nte# to trvel to In#onesi/ T!ese inci#ents ultimtel$ #estro$e# t!e

    ecotourism in#ustr$ in In#onesin villges ,Cli)ton %&&B./ In t!e mi#st o) ntionl

    turmoil' ot!er in#ustries m$ continue on +it!out #isruption' *ut ecotourism is

    necessril$ #isrupte#/ Ecotourism is ris0$ en#evor )or #eveloping countries t!t

    )reuentl$ [email protected] politicl unrest or terrorism *ecuse n entire sector o) t!e

    countr$=s econom$ coul# #iminis!/

    Top-down Approach

    T!e ecotourism in#ustr$ is mostl$ top5#o+nH ntionl governments use )oreign

    lons to crete lrge5scle ecotourism pro:ects' or )oreign investors out5compete #omestic

    *usiness o+ners/ In t!e 1--&s' t!e sensi*ilit$ o) ecotourism m#e it +elcome trget o)

    investors suc! s t!e >orl# 4n0' t!e Inter5Fmericn Development 4n0' t!e Unite#

    Sttes Fgenc$ )or Interntionl Development n# t!e Unite# Ntions/ Ec! o) t!ese

    ctors pl$e# signi)icnt )inncil n# tec!nicl role o) severl ecotourism pro:ects

    ,Moreno %&&6./ Inste# o) stte5run or communit$5*se# enterprises' most ecotourism

    pro:ects t0e t!e s!pe o) !evil$ su*si#i2e# #esigns or corporte #evelopments t!t re

    controlle# *$ )oreign investors/ Over time' ecotourism pro:ects o)ten [email protected]

    #eclining #emn# or environmentl or in)rstructurl limittions' cusing t!e nee# )or

    ##itionl grnts n# su*si#ies ,9ill %&&B./ Ecotourism is pro)it*le )or lrge5scle

    investors' *ut it is too [email protected] to *e economicll$ vi*le )or locls/

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