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EASA PART 66 Module( 6) -Materials and Hardware

Aug 07, 2015

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  1. 1. MODULE (6) Materials and Hardware
  2. 2. CONTENTS 1 INTRODUCTION 1-1 2 PROPERTIES OF METALS 2-1 2.1 BRITTLENESS 2-1 2.2 CONDUCTIVITY 2-1 2.3 DUCTILITY 2-1 2.4 ELASTICITY 2-1 2.5 HARDNESS 2-1 2.6 MALLEABILITY 2-1 2.7 PLASTICITY 2-1 2.8 TENACITY 2-1 2.9 TOUGHNESS 2-2 2.10 STRENGTH 2-2 2.10.1 Tensile Strength 2-2 2.10.2 Yield Strength 2-2 2.10.3 Shear Strength 2-2 2.10.4 Bearing Strength 2-2 3 TESTING OF MATERIALS 3-1 3.1 TENSILE TESTING 3-1 3.1.1 Tensile Strength 3-1 3.2 LOAD/EXTENSION DIAGRAMS 3-4 3.2.1 Ductility 3-7 3.2.2 Proof Stress 3-7 3.3 STIFFNESS 3-9 3.4 TENSILE TESTING OF PLASTICS 3-9 3.5 COMPRESSION TEST 3-10 3.6 HARDNESS TESTING 3-10 3.6.1 Brinell Test 3-10 3.6.2 Vickers Test 3-11 3.6.3 Rockwell Test 3-11 3.6.4 Hardness Testing on Aircraft 3-12 3.7 IMPACT TESTING 3-13 3.8 OTHER FORMS OF MATERIAL TESTING 3-14 3.8.1 Creep 3-14 3.8.2 Creep in Metals 3-14 3.8.3 Effect of Stress and Temperature on Creep 3-15 3.8.4 The Effect of Grain Size on Creep 3-16 3.8.5 Creep in Plastics 3-16 3.8.6 Fatigue 3-16 3.8.7 Fatigue Testing 3-17 3.9 S-N CURVES 3-18 3.10 CAUSES OF FATIGUE FAILURE 3-20 3.11 VIBRATION 3-20 Module 6 - B1 Master Notes.doc Issue 1 - 25 May, 2015 Page 1
  3. 3. 3.12 FATIGUE METALLURGY 3-21 3.13 FATIGUE PROMOTERS 3-22 3.13.1 Design 3-22 3.13.2 Manufacture 3-23 3.13.3 Environment 3-23 3.14 FATIGUE PREVENTERS 3-23 3.14.1 Cold Expansion (Broaching) 3-24 3.15 DO'S AND DONT'S - PREVENTING FATIGUE FAILURES 3-25 3.16 STRUCTURAL HEALTH MONITORING (SHM) 3-25 3.16.1 Fatigue Meters 3-25 3.16.2 Strain Gauges 3-25 3.16.3 Fatigue Fuses 3-25 3.16.4 Intelligent Skins Development 3-25 4 AIRCRAFT MATERIALS - FERROUS 4-1 4.1 IRON 4-1 4.1.1 Cast Iron 4-1 4.1.2 Nodular Cast Iron 4-1 4.2 STEEL 4-1 4.2.1 Classification of Steels 4-2 4.2.2 Metallurgical Structure of Steel 4-3 4.2.3 Structure and Properties - Slow-Cooled Steels 4-3 4.2.4 Effects of Cooling Rates on Steels 4-4 4.3 HEAT-TREATMENT OF CARBON STEELS 4-4 4.3.1 Associated Problems - Hardening Process 4-5 4.3.2 Tempering 4-6 4.3.3 Annealing 4-6 4.3.4 Normalising 4-6 4.4 SURFACE HARDENING OF STEELS 4-7 4.4.1 Carburising 4-7 4.4.2 Nitriding 4-8 4.4.3 Flame/Induction Hardening 4-8 4.4.4 Other Surface Hardening Techniques 4-8 4.5 ALLOYING ELEMENTS IN STEEL 4-9 4.6 CARBON 4-9 4.6.1 Low-Carbon Steel 4-9 4.6.2 Medium-Carbon Steel 4-9 4.6.3 High-Carbon Steel 4-9 4.7 SULPHUR 4-9 4.8 SILICON 4-9 4.9 PHOSPHORUS 4-10 4.10 NICKEL 4-10 4.10.1 Nickel Alloys 4-10 4.11 CHROMIUM (CHROME) 4-11 4.11.1 Nickel-Chrome Steel and its Alloys 4-11 4.12 COBALT 4-11 4.13 VANADIUM 4-12 Module 6 - B1 Master Notes.doc Issue 1 - 25 May, 2015 Page 2
  4. 4. 4.14 MANGANESE 4-12 4.15 MOLYBDENUM 4-12 4.16 CHROME AND MOLYBDENUM 4-12 4.17 TUNGSTEN 4-13 4.18 MARAGING STEELS 4-13 5 AIRCRAFT MATERIALS - NON-FERROUS 5-1 5.1 PURE METALS 5-1 5.1.1 Pure Aluminium 5-1 5.1.2 Pure Copper 5-2 5.1.3 Pure Magnesium 5-2 5.1.4 Pure Titanium 5-2 5.2 ALUMINIUM ALLOYS 5-3 5.3 IDENTIFICATION OF ELEMENTS IN ALUMINIUM ALLOYS 5-3 5.4 CLAD MATERIALS 5-5 5.5 HEAT-TREATMENT OF ALUMINIUM ALLOYS 5-5 5.5.1 Solution Treatment 5-6 5.5.2 Age-Hardening 5-7 5.5.3 Annealing 5-7 5.5.4 Precipitation Treatment 5-8 5.6 IDENTIFICATION OF HEAT-TREATED ALUMINIUM ALLOYS 5-9 5.7 MARKING OF ALUMINIUM ALLOY SHEETS 5-10 5.8 CAST ALUMINIUM ALLOYS 5-11 5.9 MAGNESIUM ALLOYS 5-11 5.10 COPPER ALLOYS 5-12 5.11 TITANIUM ALLOYS 5-13 5.12 WORKING WITH TITANIUM AND TITANIUM ALLOYS 5-13 5.12.1 Drilling Titanium 5-14 6 METHODS USED IN SHAPING METALS 6-1 6.1 CASTING 6-1 6.1.1 Sand-Casting 6-1 6.1.2 Advantages/Disadvantages of Sand-Casting 6-3 6.1.3 Typical Casting Defects 6-3 6.1.4 Shell-Moulding 6-3 6.1.5 Centrifugal-Casting 6-3 6.1.6 Die-Casting 6-4 6.1.7 Investment-Casting (Lost Wax) 6-4 6.2 FORGING 6-5 6.2.1 Drop-Stamping 6-6 6.2.2 Hot-Pressing 6-6 6.2.3 Upsetting 6-6 6.3 ROLLING 6-7 6.4 DRAWING 6-7 6.5 DEEP DRAWING/PRESSING 6-7 6.6 PRESSING 6-7 6.7 STRETCH-FORMING 6-7 Module 6 - B1 Master Notes.doc Issue 1 - 25 May, 2015 Page 3
  5. 5. 6.8 RUBBER-PAD FORMING 6-7 6.9 EXTRUDING 6-8 6.9.1 Impact-Extrusion 6-8 6.10 SINTERING 6-8 6.11 SPINNING 6-9 6.12 CHEMICAL MILLING 6-9 6.13 ELECTRO-CHEMICAL MACHINING 6-9 6.14 ELECTRO-DISCHARGE MACHINING E.D.M 6-10 6.15 CONVENTIONAL MACHINING 6-11 6.16 SUPERPLASTIC FORMING 6-12 7 AIRCRAFT MATERIALS - COMPOSITE AND NON-METALLIC 7-1 7.1 PLASTICS 7-1 7.1.1 Thermoplastic Materials 7-2 7.1.2 Thermosetting Materials 7-3 7.1.3 Resins 7-4 7.1.4 Elastomers 7-6 7.2 PRIMARY ADVANTAGES OF PLASTICS 7-7 7.3 PRIMARY DISADVANTAGES OF PLASTICS 7-7 7.4 PLASTIC MANUFACTURING PROCESSES 7-8 7.5 COMPOSITE MATERIALS 7-9 7.5.1 Glass Fibre Reinforced Plastic (GFRP) 7-9 7.5.2 Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) 7-10 7.5.3 Aramid Fibre Reinforced Plastic (AFRP) 7-11 7.5.4 General Information 7-11 7.5.5 Laminated, Sandwich and Monolithic Structures 7-12 7.6 NON-METALLIC COMPONENTS 7-13 7.6.1 Seals 7-13 8 DETECTING DEFECTS IN COMPOSITE MATERIALS 8-1 8.1 CAUSES OF DAMAGE 8-1 8.2 TYPES OF DAMAGE 8-1 8.3 INSPECTION METHODS 8-3 8.3.1 Visual Inspection 8-3 8.3.2 Ring or Percussion Test 8-3 8.3.3 Ultrasonic Inspection 8-3 8.3.4 Radiography 8-3 8.4 ASSESSMENT OF DAMAGE 8-4 9 BASIC COMPOSITE REPAIRS 9-1 9.1 REPAIR OF A SIMPLE COMPOSITE PANEL 9-2 9.2 REPAIR OF A SANDWICH PANEL 9-3 9.3 GLASS FIBRE REINFORCED COMPOSITE REPAIRS 9-5 9.4 TYPES OF GLASS REINFORCEMENT 9-5 9.4.1 Uni-Directional Cloth 9-5 9.4.2 Bi-directional Cloth 9-6 9.4.3 Chopped Strand Mat 9-6 9.4.4 Resin 9-6 Module 6 - B1 Master Notes.doc Issue 1 - 25 May, 2015 Page 4
  6. 6. 9.5 POT LIFE 9-7 9.6 CURING 9-7 9.7 GEL COAT 9-8 9.8 STORAGE OF GFRP MATERIALS 9-8 9.8.1 Storing Resin 9-8 9.8.2 Storing Hardener 9-8 9.8.3 Storing Fabrics 9-8 9.9 PREPARATION FOR REPAIR 9-9 9.9.1 Surface Preparation 9-11 9.10 TECHNIQUES OF LAMINATING GLASS FIBRE 9-11 9.11 PRE-WETTING GLASS FIBRE 9-12 10 ADHESIVES AND SEALANTS 10-1 10.1 THE MECHANICS OF BONDING 10-1 10.1.1 Stresses on a Bonded Joint 10-1 10.1.2 Advantages of Adhesives 10-3 10.1.3 Disadvantages of Adhesives 10-3 10.1.4 Strength of Adhesives 10-4 10.2 GROUPS AND FORMS OF ADHESIVES 10-4 10.2.1 Flexible Adhesives 10-4 10.2.2 Structural Adhesives 10-4 10.2.3 Adhesive Forms 10-4 10.3 ADHESIVES IN USE 10-5 10.3.1 Surface Preparation 10-5 10.3.2 Final Assembly 10-5 10.3.3 Typical (Abbreviated) Process 10-6 10.4 SEALING COMPOUNDS 10-6 10.4.1 One-Part Sealants 10-7 10.4.2 Two-Part Sealants 10-7 10.4.3 Sealant Curing 10-7 11 CORROSION 11-1 11.1 CHEMICAL (OXIDATION) CORROSION 11-1 11.1.1 Effect of Oxide Thickness 11-2 11.1.2 Effect of Temperature 11-3 11.1.3 Effect of Alloying 11-4 11.2 ELECTROCHEMICAL (GALVANIC) CORROSION 11-5 11.2.1 The Galvanic Cell 11-5 11.2.2 Factors Affecting the Rate of Corrosion in a Galvanic Cell 11-6 11.3 TYPES OF CORROSION 11-8 11.3.1 Surface Corrosion 11-8 11.3.2 Dissimilar Metal Corrosion 11-8 11.3.3 Intergranular Corrosion 11-9 11.3.4 Exfoliation Corrosion 11-10 11.3.5 Stress Corrosion 11-10 11.3.6 Fretting Corrosion 11-11 11.3.7 Crevice Corrosion 11-11 11.3.8 Filiform Corrosion 11-11 11.3.9 Pitting Corrosion 11-12 Module 6 - B1 Master Notes.doc Issue 1 - 25 May, 2015 Page 5
  7. 7. 11.3.10 Corrosion Fatigue 11-13 11.3.11 Microbiological Contamination 11-13 11.3.12 Hydrogen Embrittlement of Steels 11-13 11.4 FACTORS AFFECTING CORROSION 11-14 11.4.1 Climatic 11-14 11.4.2 Size and Type of Metal 11-14 11.4.3 Corrosive Agents 11-14 11.5 COMMON METALS AND CORROSION PRODUCTS 11-15 11.5.1 Iron and Steel 11-15 11.5.2 Aluminium Alloys 11-15 11.5.3 Magnesium Alloys 11-16 11.5.4 Titanium 11-16 11.5.5 Copper Alloys 11-16 11.5.6 Cadmium and Zinc 11-16 11.5.7 Nickel and Chromium 11-17 11.6 CORROSION REMOVAL 11-17 11.6.1 Cleaning and Paint Removal 11-17 11.6.2 Corrosion of Ferrous Metals 11-18 11.6.3 High-Stressed Steel Components 11-18 11.6.4 Aluminium and Aluminium Alloys 11-18 11.6.5 Alclad 11-19 11.6.6 Magnesium Alloys 11-19 11.6.7 Acid Spillage 11-20 11.6.8 Alkali Spillage 11-20 11.6.9 Mercury Spillage 11-21 11.7 PERMANENT ANTI-CORROSION TREATMENTS 11-22 11.7.1 Electro-Plating 11-22 11.7.2 Sprayed Metal Coatings 11-22 11.7.3 Cladding 11-22 11.7.4 Surface Conversion Coatings 11-23 11.8 LOCATIONS OF CORROSION IN AIRCRAFT 11-23 11.8.1 Exhaust Areas 11-23 11.8.2 Engine Intakes and Cooling Air Vents 11-23 11.8.3 Landing Gear 11-24 11.8.4 Bilge and Water Entrapment Areas 11-24 11.8.5 Recesses in Flaps and Hinges 11-24 11.8.6 Magnesium Alloy Skins 11-24 11.8.7 Aluminium Alloy Skins 11-24 11.8.8 Spot-Welded Skins and Sandwich Constructions 11-25 11.8.9 Electrical Equipment 11-25 11.8.10 Miscellaneous Items 11-25 12 AIRCRAFT FASTENERS 12-1 12.1 TEMPORARY JOINTS 12-1 12.2 PERMANENT JOINTS 12-1 12.3 FLEXIBLE JOINTS 12-1 12.4 SCREW THREADS 12-2 12.4.1 The Inclined Plane and the Helix 12-2 12.5 SCREW THREAD TERMINOLOGY 12-4 Module 6 - B1 Master Notes.doc Issue 1 - 25 May, 2015 Page 6
  8. 8. 12.5.1 Screw Thread Forms 12-6 12.5.2 Other Thread Forms 12-8 12.5.3 Classes of Fit 12-8 12.5.4 Measuring Screw Threads 12-9 12.6 BOLTS 12-10 12.6.1 British Bolts 12-10 12.6.2 Identification of BS Unified Bolts 12-10 12.6.3 American Bolts 12-13 12.6.4 Identification of AN Standard Bolts 12-14 12.6.5 Special-to-Type Bolts 12-16 12.6.6 Metric Bolts 12-17 12.7 NUTS 12-18 12.7.1 Stiffnuts and Anchor Nuts 12-19 12.8 SCREWS 12-22 12.8.1 Machine Screws 12-22 12.8.2 Structural Screws 12-24 12.8.3 Self-Tapping Screws 12-24 12.9 STUDS 12-25 12.9.1 Standard Studs 12-26 Waisted Studs 12-26 12.9.3 Stepped Studs 12-27 12.9.4 Shouldered Studs 12-27 12.10 THREAD INSERTS 12-27 12.10.1 Wire Thread Inserts 12-27 12.10.2 Thin Wall Inserts 12-28 12.11 DOWELS AND PINS 12-29 12.11.1 Dowels 12-29 12.11.2 Roll Pins 12-29 12.11.3 Clevis Pins 12-30 12.11.4 Taper Pins 12-30 12.12 LOCKING DEVICES 12-31 12.12.1 Spring Washers 12-31 12.12.2 Shake-Proof Washers 12-32 12.12.3 Tab Washers 12-33 12.12.4 Lock Plates 12-34 12.12.5 Split (Cotter) Pins 12-34 12.13 LOCKING WIRE 12-35 12.13.1 Use of Locking Wire with Turnbuckles 12-37 12.13.2 Use