Top Banner

Click here to load reader

E ball

Aug 19, 2014

ReportDownload

Education

full 38 pages seminar on e-ball

  • 1 CONTENTS CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF COMPUTER 1.2 EVOLUTION OF COMPUTERS 1.3 COMPUTER GENERATIONS CHAPTER 2: THE MEANING OF E-BALL TECHNOLOGY 2.1 DEFINING E-BALL TECHNOLOGY 2.2 FEATURES OF E-BALL A) PROCESSOR B) HARD DRIVE C) RAM D) SOUND & GRAPHIC CARD CHAPTER 3: VIRTUAL KEYBOARD 3.1 VIRTUAL KEYBOARD 3.2 COMPONENTS 3.3 ADVANTAGES &DISADVANTAGES CHAPTER 4: PROJECTOR USED IN E-BALL 4.1 LCD PROJECTORS
  • 2 4.2 DLP PROJECTORS 4.3 COMPARISON AND CONCLUSION CHAPTER 5: WORKING OF E-BALL 5.1 WORKING 5.2 IF THERE IS NO WALL 5.3 SCENARIO IN USE 5.4 ADVANTAGES, DISADVANTAGES CHAPTER 6: IMPACT, CONCLUSION, AND REFERENCES
  • 3 CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION The word computer comes from the word compute, which means, to calculate. Hence, people usually consider a computer to be a calculating device that can perform arithmetic operations at high speed. In fact, the original objective for inventing a computer was to create a fast calculating machine. However, more than 80% of work done by computers today is non- mathematical or non- numerical nature. Hence, to define a computer merely as a calculating device is to ignore over 80% of its functions. More accurately, we can define a computer as a device that operates upon data. Data can be anything like bio-data of applicants when computer is used for short listing candidates for recruiting; marks obtained by students in various subjects when used for preparing result; details (name, age, sex, etc.) of passengers when used for making airlines or railways reservations; or number of different parameters when used for solving scientific research problems, etc. Hence, data comes in various shapes and sizes depending upon the type of computer application. A computer can store, process, and retrieve data as and when desired. The fact that computers process data is so fundamental that many people have started calling it as data processor. The name data processor is more inclusive because modern computers not only compute in a usual sense but also perform other functions with data that flows to and from them. The activity of processing data using computer is called data processing. Data processing consists of three sub-activities: capturing input data, manipulating the data, and managing output results. Data is basically a raw material used as input to data processing and information is processed data obtained as output of data processing. 1.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF COMPUTERS Increasing popularity of computers has proved that it is very powerful and useful tool. The power and usefulness of this popular tool are mainly due to its following characteristics
  • 4 A) AUTOMATIC An automatic machine works by itself without human intervention. Computers are automatic machines because once started on a job, they carry out the job until it is finished. However, computers being machines cannot start themselves and cannot go out and find problems and solutions. We need to instruct a computer using coded instructions that specify how it will do a particular job. B) SPEED A computer is a very fast device. It can perform in a few seconds, the amount of work that a human being can do in an entire year. While talking about speed of a computer we do not talk in terms of seconds or milliseconds but in terms of microseconds, nanoseconds and even picoseconds. A powerful computer is capable of performing several billion simple arithmetic operations per second. C) ACCURACY In addition to being very fast, computers are very accurate. Accuracy of a computer is consistently high and the degree of its accuracy depends upon its design. A computer performs every calculation with the same accuracy. D) VERSATILITY Versatility is one of the most wonderful things about computer. One moment it is preparing result of an examination, next moment it is busy preparing electricity bills etc. In brief, a computer is capable of performing almost any task, if the task can be reduced to a finite series of logical steps. E) DILIGENCE Unlike human beings, a computer is free from monotony, tiredness, and lack of concentration. It can continuously work for hours without creating any error and without grumbling. Hence, computer score over human beings in doing routing type jobs that require great accuracy.
  • 5 1.2 EVOLUTION OF COMPUTERS A) 1623: Mechanical calculator Wilhelm Schickard invented first known mechanical calculator, capable of simple arithmetic. Similar mechanical adding machine made in 1640s by Blaise Pascal. B) 1673: More advanced mechanical calculator.1673byGerman mathematician Gottfried Leibniz Capable of multiplication and division purely mechanical with no source of power. C) 1823: Charles Babbage begins work on Difference Engine. He designed, but it was completed by a Swedish inventor in 1854. Image of the Difference Engine from Niagara College D) 1833: Charles Babbage begins Analytical Engine Never completed. Important concept: a general-purpose machine capable of performing difference functions based on programming. E) 1834: Ada Byron, Lady Lovelace impressed with the concept of the Analytical Engine at a dinner pArty. Daughter of poet Lord Byran Created plans for how the machine could calculate Bernoulli numbers. This is regarded as the first computer program," and she is the first "programmer."The Department of Defense named a language Ada in her honor in 1979. F) 1890:Punched cards used by Herman Hollerith to automate Census Concept of programming the machine to perform different tasks with punched cards was from Babbage. Punch cards based on Josph Marie Jacquards device to automate weaving looms. Hollerith founded a company that became International Business Machines (IBM) to market the technology. G) 1946: ENIAC completed Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer. By Presper Eckert and John Mauchly 18,000 vacuum tubes, occupied a 30 by 50 foot room Programming by plugging wires into a patch panel. Very difficult to do, because this style programming requires intimate knowledge of the computer
  • 6 1.3 COMPUTER GENERATIONS The history of computer development is often referred to in reference to the different generations of computing devices. Each generation of computer is characterized by a major technological development that fundamentally changed the way computers operate, resulting in increasingly smaller, cheaper, more powerful, more efficient and reliable devices. First Generation (1940-1956) Vacuum Tubes The first computers used vacuum tubes for circuitry and magnetic drums for memory, and were often enormous, taking up entire rooms. They were very expensive to operate and in addition to using a great deal of electricity, generated a lot of heat, which was often the cause of malfunctions. First generation computers relied on machine language, the lowest-level programming language understood by computers, to perform operations, and they could only solve one problem at a time. Input was based on punched cards and paper tape, and output was displayed on printouts. The UNIVAC and ENIAC computers are examples of first-generation computing devices. The UNIVAC was the first commercial computer delivered to a business client, the U.S. Census Bureau in 1951. Figure (a) shows first generation computer. FIGURE (a) FIGURE (b)
  • 7 Second Generation (1956-1963) Transistors Transistors replaced vacuum tubes and ushered in the second generation of computers. The transistor was invented in 1947 but did not see widespread use in computers until the late 1950s. The transistor was far superior to the vacuum tube, allowing computers to become smaller, faster, cheaper, more energy-efficient and more reliable than their first-generation predecessors. Though the transistor still generated a great deal of heat that subjected the computer to damage, it was a vast improvement over the vacuum tube. Second-generation computers still relied on punched cards for input and printouts for output. Second-generation computers moved from cryptic binary machine language to symbolic, or assembly, languages, which allowed programmers to specify instructions in words. High-level programming languages were also being developed at this time, such as early versions of COBOL and FORTRAN. These were also the first computers that stored their instructions in their memory, which moved from a magnetic drum to magnetic core technology. The first computers of this generation were developed for the atomic energy industry. Figure (b) shows second generation computer Third Generation (1964-1971) Integrated Circuits The development of the integrated circuit was the hallmark of the third generation of computers. Transistors were miniaturized and placed on silicon chips, called semiconductors, which drastically increased the speed and efficiency of computers. Instead of punched cards and printouts, users interacted with third generation computers through keyboards and monitors and interfaced with an operating system, which allowed the device to run many different applications at one time with a central program that monitored the memory. Computers for the first time became accessible to a mass audience because they were smaller and cheaper than their predecessors Figure (c) shows second generation computer. Fourth Generation (1971-Present) Microprocessors The microprocessor brought the fourth generation of computers, as thousands of integrated circuits were built onto a single silicon chip. What in the first generation filled an entire room could now fit in the palm of the hand. The Intel 4004 chip, developed in 1971,