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Consultation on family and parenting support, UNICEF OoR Innocenti Florence, 27.-28.5.2014. Prof. N. Pećnik, University of Zagreb Drivers of parenting support policy and provision in Croatia ninoslava.pecnik@gmail.com
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Drivers of parenting support, policy and provision in Croatia

Jul 20, 2015

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Consultation on family and parenting support, UNICEF OoR Innocenti Florence, 27.-28.5.2014.

Prof. N. Penik, University of Zagreb Drivers of parenting support policy and provisionin Croatianinoslava.pecnik@gmail.com1Why has there been an emerging interest in family and parenting support (PS) and what are the implications? Presentation outlineOverview of PS in Croatia Drivers of development of the PS policy and provisions:a turn in the national family policyCouncil of Europe Rec (2006) on policy to support positive parenting UNICEF Office for CroatiaResearch on parenting and PS

2Development of parenting support policy and provision in Croatia 25 years long tradition in child protection, through 80 centers for social welfare The concept of parenting support introduced in 2006 (paired with family support)For their provision Ministry of Family, etc. (2003) establishes 19 multiprofessional family centers (2008-2011), universal and targeted PSThe National Plan of Activities for the Rights of Child (20062012) had a section on supporting families in their educational function (diverse activities, multisectorial providers) , alongside protection of the abused & neglected children Under the new Ministry of Social Policy and Youth, family centers became part of the centers for social welfare (Jan. 2014) Conference Perspectives of PS programs by family centre for Istria (Dec. 2013) In 2014: the new family law uses the term parenting support Government funding for projects on positive parenting and strengthening of parenting skills alongside preventing violence against and among children

3Contextual factors, professional and state initiativescontributing to emerging of the parenting support fieldGradual acknowledgement of demandingness of contemporary parental role, concern for social conditions of parenting, growing commitment to supporting families/parents facilitated by formulation of the National Family Policy (2003); research on (one-parent) families, activities of NGO Parents in Action, Emphasis on the UN CRC implementation (violence, child participation)Recognition of social changes that have affected parent - child relationships and understanding of the parental role (including the ban of corporal punishment in1999); a crisis of (authoritarian) parentingParenting practices became a subject of public policy - not just socially unacceptable parenting (as prior to 2000), but also socially desirable parenting PS increasingly seen as a solution to the lack of services for families at risk and poor effectivenes of child protection interventions in preventing institutionalization

4CoE Rec (2006)19 on policy to support positive parenting & defining socialy desirable parenting in CroatiaCoE: WP on parenting skills, especially combating violence(2005)Parenting in the UN CRCProvide appropriate direction and guidance (respecting the evolving capacities and the views of the child, violence-free);Provide for full and harmonious development nurturing behaviour,structure and guidance,recognition, enabling empowermentCro: WP on defining responsible parenting, early help to families at risk(2010)parental behaviors based on the best interest of the child, which include nurturing, providing structure and guidance, recognition of the child as a person and which enables empowerment of the child. Responsible parent embraces responsibility for the child's wellbeing and development, responsibility for the quality of relationship with the child and responsibility for own wellbeing and development as a parent.5CoE Rec(2006)19 on the policy to support positive parenting & setting standards for parenting support in Croatia

In Croatian (2008) Min. of Family stimulated: situation analysis from service providers viewnew PS programs

Supported comprehensive research on: parental beliefs, practices , needs for and obstacles to PS Daly (2007)

New views of parentingand parenting support

Key massages for parentsGuidelines for professionalsCore principles of PS programsfacilitated the paradigm shift from the deficit model towards the empowerment model

6Research with a nationally representative sample of 13-year-olds (N=1074), their mothers (N=983) and fathers (N=850) (Penik & Toki, 2011) 73,3% children report being hit by mothers and 66,2% by fathers

For a correct upbringing, it is necessary to hit the child sometimes. 15% mothers agree, 19% undecided

childrens views: Parenting schools should teach parents how to talk to children

Parental (unmet) needs for counseling on parenting issues:7Contribution of the UNICEF Office for Croatiato parenting support promotion, provision and research Since 2006 continually engaged with positive parenting and parenting support, in the context of the ECD programme facilitated PS-related development within the health, (preschool) education and social sectors, as well as in the public opinion sphere

Research on- General population beliefs about parenting of a young child (2006) - Parental practices, attitudes and needs for support in 1400 parents of infants,2007 Awareness-raising and fund-raising campaignsThe first three are the most important! (2007)The first thee are even more important! (2009)Provision of DVDs on ECD and PP, breast-feeding groups, baby fitness groups, hotlines for parents of young children, Read to mecommunity projects

8The first three are the most important! Campaign by UNICEF Croatia (2007)

N.N.(3)lack of self-esteemSENTENCED FOR LIFE?

From a kiss the child grows, from beatings she becomes smaller.

And parents have a rightto help in child rearing.9Workshops with parents Growing Up Together a nationally-recognized parenting support program UNICEF Office for Croatia (2008-2010) Objective of program development: To strengthen capacity of local community professionals for supporting positive parenting of parents of young children (1-4 years) The program is respectful of the CoE Rec (2006)19 provisions on good parenting and good PS

developed in participation with 36 groups of parents and professionals through 2 pilot projects11 weekly, 2 hours manualized workshops; follow-up in Clubs of ParentsGroups consist of 8-12 parents, Implemented in kindergartens and family centers throughout Croatia (>300 groups of parents), Bosnia&Herzegovina (40 groups) and Bulgaria (50 groups)

10Workshops with parents Growing Up Together

Aimto support parents in understanding and carrying out their parental responsibilities in consistence with the values of positive parenting in the best interest of the child

to facilitate the exchange of information, skills and support that parents have found useful for promoting growth of competence, both of parents and children. Approach

11Parents of the 21st centuryThe four pillars of parentingChild's psychological needs and parental goalsAll of our children and how we love themListening - an important parenting skillHow does the child learn about the world?Boundaries: why and how?Choosing and creating solutionsParental responsibilities and more questionsBeing a parent: Influences and choicesThe ending and a new beginningAdditions: Conflicts of parents and children; Conflicts between children; Compendium of activities for Clubs of parents Every child is special, every parent is specialBetween expectations and adjustmentThe four pillars of parentingChild's psychological needsAll of our children and how we loveListening- an important parentingHow does the child learn Boundaries: why and how?Parental responsibilitiesBeing a parent: Influences andThe ending and a new beginning

www.rastimozajedno.hr

20102014Growing Up Together workshops with parents of young childrenGrowing Up Together Plusworkshops with parents of young CWDisabilitiesOutcome evaluations of Growing Up Together Outcome evaluation within development of Growing up together (Pecnik and Starc, 2010) and Growing up together Plus (Pecnik et al., 2014) quasi-experimental designOngoing evaluation (N>1800): pre-post intervention quantitative and qualitative dataAfter the program changes in: perceived parental competence, parental violent and supportive behaviorsbeliefs respectful of childs needs/rights

Perceived gains from participation, N=1273:

Feeling more confident as a parentInsight into own strengths and weaknesesChange in interactions with the childAcquiring new useful knowledgeBetter understanding of the childs perspective/needs/reasons of behaviors Support for being more sensitive and responsive to childs needs and rightsSupport for taking care of own personal needsSharing experiences, dilemas and problems, feeling that you are not alone

Program effectiveness assessment was based on the pre-post intervention model, with a comparison group of parents who did not participate in the programPrisutne dileme, konflikti interesa, tenzije u podruju pruanja podrke roditeljstvuEdukacija roditelja vs. potivanje intimnog, bliskog odnosa roditelja i djetetaS jedne strane je ideja da su bolje informirani roditelji i bolji roditelji/bolje u stanju ispunjavati zahtjeve roditeljske uloge, poduprijeti optimalan razvoj djeteta (poticaj, granice) (u koli se pripremamo za razne aktivnosti, a nitko nas nije uio kako biti roditelj)S druge strane je ideja da je roditeljstvo u svojoj biti jedinstven, osoban, blizak odnos veza, kontakt izmeu dvije individue(roditeljstvo nije profesija, nije zanat, tehnika)Mene osobno ponekad to podsjea na antagonizam izmeu izmeu tradicionalnog (jednosmjernog) i relacijskog/odnosnog (dvosmjernog) vienja socijalizacije social relational theoryA ini mi se i da postoji odreena tenzija izmeu dominantno amerike, pa ak i anglo-saksonske literature o podrci roditeljstvu pa i psihologiji roditeljstva i europske (skandinavske+benelux) koja je nekako otvorenija stvarnom uvaavanju implikacija vienja i djeteta i roditelja kao subjekata (radikalni?)-lanin slajd? ili to kasnije kd govorim o rz (podrka a ne edukacija implicira poziciju strunjaka u odnosu na roditelja)Pouavanje/nametanje standardizirane slike dobrog rodtieljstva vs. uvaavanje razliitosti, konteksta ivotne situacije, osobnih vrijednost i ivotnih stilova (npr. autoritativno roditeljstvo nije povezano s najboljom prilagodbom ako se ivi u opasnom okruenju siromanih gradskih etvrti) osim toga savjeti strunjaka se mijenjaju npr dosljednost, tajm out, ukljuenost rodtielja u djetetovo uenje, roditeljska kontrola?Prisutne dileme, konflikti interesa, tenzije u podruju pruanja podrke roditeljstvuEdukacija roditelja vs. potivanje intimnog, bliskog odnosa roditelja i djetetaS jedne strane je ideja da su bolje informirani roditelji i bolji roditelji/bolje u stanju ispunjavati zahtjeve roditeljske uloge, poduprijeti optimalan razvoj djeteta (poticaj, granice) (u koli se pripremamo za razne aktivnosti, a nitko nas nije uio kako biti roditelj)S druge strane je ideja da je roditeljstvo u svojoj biti jedinstven, osoban, blizak odnos veza, kontakt izmeu dvije individue(roditeljstvo nije profesija, nije zanat, tehnika)Mene osobno ponekad to podsjea na antagonizam izmeu izmeu tradicionalnog (jednosmjernog) i relacijskog/odnosnog (dvosmjernog) vienja socijalizacije social relational theoryA ini mi se i da postoji odreena tenzija izmeu dominantno amerike, pa ak i anglo-saksonske literature o podrci roditeljstvu pa i psihologiji roditeljstva i europske (skandinavske+benelux) koja je nekako otvorenija stvarnom uvaavanju implikacija vienja i djeteta i roditelja kao subjekata (radikalni?)-lanin slajd? ili to kasnije kd govorim o rz (podrka a ne edukacija implicira poziciju strunjaka u odnosu na roditelja)Pouavanje/nametanje standardizirane slike dobrog rodtieljstva vs. uvaavanje razliitosti, konteksta ivotne situacije, osobnih vrijednost i ivotnih stilova (npr. autoritativno roditeljstvo nije povezano s najboljom prilagodbom ako se ivi u opasnom okruenju siromanih gradskih etvrti) osim toga savjeti strunjaka se mijenjaju npr dosljednost, tajm out, ukljuenost rodtielja u djetetovo uenje, roditeljska kontrola?Pouavanje/nametanje standardizirane slike dobrog rodtieljstva vs. uvaavanje razliitosti, konteksta ivotne situacije, osobnih vrijednost i ivotnih stilova, a prije svega dvosmjernog shvaanja socijalizacije! Roditeljstvo kao proces a ne zbroj radnji koje treba nauiti , u okviru jasno definirane uloge majke ili oca

Educating parents versus respecting intimate relationships a.Better informed parents are better parents b.The heart of parenting is an intimate, unique and personal relationship Issues: Parenting as an occupation, creeping professionalism Democratic deficit Professionals often turn out to be wrong - (miller i sambel 2003) engleski ps - vrste tzv 'dispensing model (irenje, podjela informacija, savjeta vie na razini 'to', sadraj Programi s dokazanom djelotvornosti / strukturirani (evidence-based)vs. fleksibilnost/IPP(client-driven)Ideja da prednost trebaju imatiTeorijski utemeljeni, standardizirani programi s provjerenom uinkovitouTeko pomirljiva sa zahtjevom da roditeljska precepcija problema i (samo)procjena roditeljevih potreba oblikuju ciljeve, poeljne ishode i sadraj intervencije(ideja da od programa ne vidimo roditelja tko je vlasnik problema? Tko je u poziciji definirati problem/ciljeve/poeljne ishode programa a to je obiljeje strukturiranih evidence based programa da su ciljevi unaprijed definirani(Povezana s tim je i kritika RTC kao zlatnog standarda u hijerarhiji dokaza uinkovitosti)Problem se vidi kao nemotivirani roditelj, a ne kao razlika u oekivanjima strunjaka (ili institucije npr. kole) i oekivanjima roditeljaArgument u prilog 'podrke roditeljstvu/roditeljima u ispunjavanju roditeljskih odgovornosti' a ne 'prevenciji npr. delinkventnog ponaanja' ili prevenciji ovisnosti roditejli se ne vide u tome (mi nemamo budueg delinkventa/ovisnika, nego teko/zahtjevno dijete'Argument zato govorimo o podrci roditeljstvu / promociji razvoja, a ne prevenciji loeg roditeljstva (npr zlost i zanem) odnosno njegovih uinaka (problema mentalnog zdravlja, problema ponaanja)To su konflikti koje treba prepoznati, uiniti vidljivima, ona jo uvijek predstavljaju otvorena pitanja u ovom podruju

pitanje tko definira poeljne ishode !Hermanovih 5 pitanja roditelju staviti u oblai!! ili to kod one zadnje dileme

Child directed interventions versus parental need-oriented interventions a.Better perspectives for children whose parents are supported b.Need of parents should be point of departure. Context matters! Issues Are parents only gateways to their children? Needs of parents do not always correspond with needs of children Parents will not participate if their needs are not met Again: professionals are not always right

Dilema: Encouraging mainstreaming versus encouraging diversity (rz s romima!)a.Inclusion and participation are important and can be facilitated by parenting support b.Diversity in life style, personal choices, culture and religion are important for parents, children and society Issues a top-down projection of mainstream values and standards on to families a denial of parental capabilities families distrusting authorities and professionals Mismatch lifestyles families and services professionals

Edukacija roditelja vs. potivanje intimnog, bliskog odnosa roditelja i djeteta

Intervencije usmjerene interesom djeteta vs. intervencije usmjerene roditeljskim potrebama

Programi s dokazanom djelotvornosti /strukturirani (evidence-based)vs. Fleksibilnost (client-driven)

13Outcome evaluations of Growing Up Together Plus Outcome evaluation within development of Growing up together (Pecnik and Starc, 2010) and Growing up together Plus (Pecnik et al., 2014) Pre-post intervention design, with comparison groupsOngoing evaluation (N>1800): pre-post intervention quantitative and qualitative dataAfter the program: higher perceived competence, lower violence, beliefs more in tune with respect for childs needs and rights

Perceived gains (N=1273):Feeling more confident as a parentMore insight into own strong and weak sides in parenting Change in interactions with the childAcquiring new useful knowledgeBetter understanding of the childs perspective/needs/reasons of behaviors Support for being more sensitive and responsive to childs needs and rightsSupport for taking care of own personal needsSharing experiences, dilemas and problems, feeling that you are not alone

Program effectiveness assessment was based on the pre-post intervention model, with a comparison group of parents who did not participate in the programPrisutne dileme, konflikti interesa, tenzije u podruju pruanja podrke roditeljstvuEdukacija roditelja vs. potivanje intimnog, bliskog odnosa roditelja i djetetaS jedne strane je ideja da su bolje informirani roditelji i bolji roditelji/bolje u stanju ispunjavati zahtjeve roditeljske uloge, poduprijeti optimalan razvoj djeteta (poticaj, granice) (u koli se pripremamo za razne aktivnosti, a nitko nas nije uio kako biti roditelj)S druge strane je ideja da je roditeljstvo u svojoj biti jedinstven, osoban, blizak odnos veza, kontakt izmeu dvije individue(roditeljstvo nije profesija, nije zanat, tehnika)Mene osobno ponekad to podsjea na antagonizam izmeu izmeu tradicionalnog (jednosmjernog) i relacijskog/odnosnog (dvosmjernog) vienja socijalizacije social relational theoryA ini mi se i da postoji odreena tenzija izmeu dominantno amerike, pa ak i anglo-saksonske literature o podrci roditeljstvu pa i psihologiji roditeljstva i europske (skandinavske+benelux) koja je nekako otvorenija stvarnom uvaavanju implikacija vienja i djeteta i roditelja kao subjekata (radikalni?)-lanin slajd? ili to kasnije kd govorim o rz (podrka a ne edukacija implicira poziciju strunjaka u odnosu na roditelja)Pouavanje/nametanje standardizirane slike dobrog rodtieljstva vs. uvaavanje razliitosti, konteksta ivotne situacije, osobnih vrijednost i ivotnih stilova (npr. autoritativno roditeljstvo nije povezano s najboljom prilagodbom ako se ivi u opasnom okruenju siromanih gradskih etvrti) osim toga savjeti strunjaka se mijenjaju npr dosljednost, tajm out, ukljuenost rodtielja u djetetovo uenje, roditeljska kontrola?Prisutne dileme, konflikti interesa, tenzije u podruju pruanja podrke roditeljstvuEdukacija roditelja vs. potivanje intimnog, bliskog odnosa roditelja i djetetaS jedne strane je ideja da su bolje informirani roditelji i bolji roditelji/bolje u stanju ispunjavati zahtjeve roditeljske uloge, poduprijeti optimalan razvoj djeteta (poticaj, granice) (u koli se pripremamo za razne aktivnosti, a nitko nas nije uio kako biti roditelj)S druge strane je ideja da je roditeljstvo u svojoj biti jedinstven, osoban, blizak odnos veza, kontakt izmeu dvije individue(roditeljstvo nije profesija, nije zanat, tehnika)Mene osobno ponekad to podsjea na antagonizam izmeu izmeu tradicionalnog (jednosmjernog) i relacijskog/odnosnog (dvosmjernog) vienja socijalizacije social relational theoryA ini mi se i da postoji odreena tenzija izmeu dominantno amerike, pa ak i anglo-saksonske literature o podrci roditeljstvu pa i psihologiji roditeljstva i europske (skandinavske+benelux) koja je nekako otvorenija stvarnom uvaavanju implikacija vienja i djeteta i roditelja kao subjekata (radikalni?)-lanin slajd? ili to kasnije kd govorim o rz (podrka a ne edukacija implicira poziciju strunjaka u odnosu na roditelja)Pouavanje/nametanje standardizirane slike dobrog rodtieljstva vs. uvaavanje razliitosti, konteksta ivotne situacije, osobnih vrijednost i ivotnih stilova (npr. autoritativno roditeljstvo nije povezano s najboljom prilagodbom ako se ivi u opasnom okruenju siromanih gradskih etvrti) osim toga savjeti strunjaka se mijenjaju npr dosljednost, tajm out, ukljuenost rodtielja u djetetovo uenje, roditeljska kontrola?Pouavanje/nametanje standardizirane slike dobrog rodtieljstva vs. uvaavanje razliitosti, konteksta ivotne situacije, osobnih vrijednost i ivotnih stilova, a prije svega dvosmjernog shvaanja socijalizacije! Roditeljstvo kao proces a ne zbroj radnji koje treba nauiti , u okviru jasno definirane uloge majke ili oca

Educating parents versus respecting intimate relationships a.Better informed parents are better parents b.The heart of parenting is an intimate, unique and personal relationship Issues: Parenting as an occupation, creeping professionalism Democratic deficit Professionals often turn out to be wrong - (miller i sambel 2003) engleski ps - vrste tzv 'dispensing model (irenje, podjela informacija, savjeta vie na razini 'to', sadraj Programi s dokazanom djelotvornosti / strukturirani (evidence-based)vs. fleksibilnost/IPP(client-driven)Ideja da prednost trebaju imatiTeorijski utemeljeni, standardizirani programi s provjerenom uinkovitouTeko pomirljiva sa zahtjevom da roditeljska precepcija problema i (samo)procjena roditeljevih potreba oblikuju ciljeve, poeljne ishode i sadraj intervencije(ideja da od programa ne vidimo roditelja tko je vlasnik problema? Tko je u poziciji definirati problem/ciljeve/poeljne ishode programa a to je obiljeje strukturiranih evidence based programa da su ciljevi unaprijed definirani(Povezana s tim je i kritika RTC kao zlatnog standarda u hijerarhiji dokaza uinkovitosti)Problem se vidi kao nemotivirani roditelj, a ne kao razlika u oekivanjima strunjaka (ili institucije npr. kole) i oekivanjima roditeljaArgument u prilog 'podrke roditeljstvu/roditeljima u ispunjavanju roditeljskih odgovornosti' a ne 'prevenciji npr. delinkventnog ponaanja' ili prevenciji ovisnosti roditejli se ne vide u tome (mi nemamo budueg delinkventa/ovisnika, nego teko/zahtjevno dijete'Argument zato govorimo o podrci roditeljstvu / promociji razvoja, a ne prevenciji loeg roditeljstva (npr zlost i zanem) odnosno njegovih uinaka (problema mentalnog zdravlja, problema ponaanja)To su konflikti koje treba prepoznati, uiniti vidljivima, ona jo uvijek predstavljaju otvorena pitanja u ovom podruju

pitanje tko definira poeljne ishode !Hermanovih 5 pitanja roditelju staviti u oblai!! ili to kod one zadnje dileme

Child directed interventions versus parental need-oriented interventions a.Better perspectives for children whose parents are supported b.Need of parents should be point of departure. Context matters! Issues Are parents only gateways to their children? Needs of parents do not always correspond with needs of children Parents will not participate if their needs are not met Again: professionals are not always right

Dilema: Encouraging mainstreaming versus encouraging diversity (rz s romima!)a.Inclusion and participation are important and can be facilitated by parenting support b.Diversity in life style, personal choices, culture and religion are important for parents, children and society Issues a top-down projection of mainstream values and standards on to families a denial of parental capabilities families distrusting authorities and professionals Mismatch lifestyles families and services professionals

Edukacija roditelja vs. potivanje intimnog, bliskog odnosa roditelja i djeteta

Intervencije usmjerene interesom djeteta vs. intervencije usmjerene roditeljskim potrebama

Programi s dokazanom djelotvornosti /strukturirani (evidence-based)vs. Fleksibilnost (client-driven)

14

Parenting in the period from 0 to 6

Parents experiences, attitudes, practicesPersonal wellbeing and experience of parental roleResources for parenting Acessibility and use of PS services and other community resources for young children and their parentsIntegrates different systems (health, education, welfare)

Quota samples: 6 months, 1, 3 and 6 years (preschool) (representative of childs gender, parents education, community size, region) total N=1621 (22% fathers) + boost 98 parents of children with disability (n=203)+ perspectives of low SES parents, parents of CWD

Perspectives of service providers and local authorities in 4 localitiesHOW PARENTS AND COMMUNITIES CARE FOR THE YOUNGEST CHILDREN IN CROATIA (UNICEF Office for Croatia, 2013)Parenting support services =interventions for parents aimed at promoting the child's welfare and development by influencing parents' understanding and fulfilment of their parental responsibilities. Address knowledge, skills and values.General population parent perspective + parents of low SES, parents of children with disabilities15Selection of findings: Parent-child interactionBreast-feeding drops sharply at 2-4 monthsLess breastfeeding by young, low SES mothers, by parents of CWDDevelopmentaly stimulating parents behaviors (playing, reading, singing, problem-solving) reported for last 7 days by majority, except 10% less frequent among low SES parents, rural communitiesCorporal punishment/violence5 % parents of 6-month-olds 15 % parents of 1-year-olds35 % parents of 3-year-olds (3% every day)20% parents of 6-year-olds reported hitting that child in the last 7 daysAmong 1- and 6-year-olds, more frequent hitting among low SES parents, rural communitiesWhat is the best way to stop CP?66% Parents should be helped with their problems so they do not take out their dissatisfaction or exhaustion on their children.50% Parents should be advised how to bring up children without beatings.20% Parents need help in cutting down alcohol consumption and with psychological difficulties.Coping with parental role, balancing parenting responsibilities with paid work, gender division of household labourMore stressed parents engaged in less supportive/stimulating and in more violent interactions with the childlow SES parents and parents of CWD more stressed, poorer health, express more difficulties in coping with demands of parenting1/3 employed fathers reported that their job responsibilities often or always prevent fulfilling their parental roleThis conflict is more often experienced by parents of low SES 2/3 of the mothers perceive themselves as taking up all or most of the activities related to child care/activities with children. 3/4 of mothers consider they do all or most of household labourThese differences more pronounced for low SES mothers. They also receive less unpaid or paid support for household or parenting from outside familyMothers experience more parental stress, fathers experience less parental competence

a third of employed fathers reported the feeling that their job responsibilities often or always create difficulties fulfilling their parental role, while a quarter of employed mothers reported the same. The necessity of balancing paid work with parenting is more often experienced by parents with multiple children and parents of a low and middle socioeconomic status. 17Needed, used and desirable professionals support around parenting issues low SES parents, in rural areas less frequently felt they needed professionals advice in parenting, read less on parenting, expressed less interest in contacting a professional18

Resources for parenting: 3. INFORMATIONS FOR PARENTSWhat would help you most in your everyday care for the child?More available information on legal rights of parents and childrenMore available information on existing services for parentsMore available texts from parenting professionalsMore TV and/or radio programs on parentingFree of charge and more frequent workshops, parenting schoolsHotline for parenting questionsMore accessibly written texts of parenting professionalsFree DVD-s with professionals advice19Which parenting-ralated information do parents need?How to support positive development of my childHealth What to expect as normal childs behavior at certain ageHow to solve problems in childs behaviorFeeding of childrenHow do children learnPRO et CONTRA for various parenting/educational practicesHow to play or speak with the childProblems between siblings, fighting, jelousyHow to help a child to become school-readyToilet trainingAdjustment to kindergartenHow to balance parental and marital/parter relationshipsProblems of childs sleeping or cryingPostpartal depressionHow to share child care with the other parentAttitudes towards seeking professionals support around parenting issues a barrier to help-seeking? 85% parents think that seeking professional help is a sign of parental responsibility 66% parents think that professionals are needed by problematic families, while an average parent deals with parenting difficulties by himself.

Beliefs about desirable and undesirable outcomes of help-seeking and prejudices towards professionals predict intention to seek help reflect past experience with receiving help with parenting issues

Low SES parents, in rural areas, have less positive attitudes to seeking PSPreporuka Ova latentna struktura stavova prema traenju strune kao da odraava konflikt istovremenog privlaenja i odbijanja Poeljni ishodi traenja strune pomoi u roditeljstvu ( = 0.79, k=4)Nepoeljni ishodi traenja strune pomoi u roditeljstvu (= 0.83, k=6)Predrasude prema strunjacima ( = 0.822, k=3)1= uope se ne slaem, 5=u potpunosti se slaemPoeljni ishodi traenja strune pomoi u roditeljstvu vii kod majki, obrazovanijih roditelja, roditelja djece s TUR, u gradovima, regionalne razlike (u Lici i Banovini te u Zagrebu i okolici su vii nego u Slavoniji)Nepoeljni ishodi traenja strune pomoivii kod oeva, slabije obrazovanih roditelja, roditelja s veim brojem djece, kod roditelja zdrave djece, na selu,regionalne razlike (vii u Slavoniji nego u Zagrebu i okolici te u Dalmaciji, vii u Istri nego u Zagrebu i okolici)Predrasude prema strunjacimavie kod oeva, slabije obrazovanih roditelja, kod roditelja zdrave djece, na selu, u Sjevernoj Hrvatskoj i u Zagrebu i okolici nego u Dalmaciji 21Which parenting support services were used? (N=1621)%Courses for pregnant women /future parents 20%Individual counseling with a paediatrician even when the child is not sick11%Developmental gymnastics for babies (e.g.baby fitness, baby massage)5%Joint programs (workshops etc.) for parents and children5%Breastfeednig support groups4%Individual counseling with a psychologist or pedagogue (e.g. in kindergarten) 4%Drop-in parents groups2%UNICEF Growing up together workshops with parents of young children1%Other group-based programs for parents (parenting schools, lectures etc.)1%Support groups for parents of children with disabilities1%Hotline counseling0%LOW SES PARENTS USED PS LESS FREQUENTLY NO SERVICE USED: LOW SES 70%, HIGH SES 37%22Research implications on PS policy, provision and further researchStimulated discussion about the position of PS on local and national level, contributed to building intersectorial cooperation

Mobilized support for changes of PS-related paradigms: towards the dual focus on the childs AND the parents wellbeingtowards viewing PS as a tool in realizing UNCRC, enhancing community development but also as investment in human capital development

New activities to build local partnerships for improving universal and targeted PS Multivariate analyses of collected data underway to understand moderators

Identified inequalities in childrens access to supportive, stimulating and nonviolent parenting and in their parents access to PS and other community resources for positive parenting

23ReferencesDaly, M. (Ed.) (2007) Parenting in contemporary Europe: A positive approach Strasbourg: Council of Europe Publ. Penik, N.( Ed.)(2013) . How Do Parents and Communities Care About Young Children In Croatia (in Croatian) Zagreb: UNICEF Office for Croatia (www.unicef.hr) Penik, N. & Starc, B. (2010) Parenting in the Best Interest of the Child and Supporting Parents of Young Children (in Croatian) Zagreb: UNICEF Office for Croatia (www.unicef.hr)Penik, N. i Toki, A. (2011) Parents And Children At The Doorstep Of Adolescence: Views From Three Angles, Challenges And Support (in Croatian). Zagreb: MOBMS. http://bib.irb.hr/datoteka/513138.Penik_Toki_2011_RODITELJI_I_DJECA_NA_PRAGU_ADOLESCENCIJE.pdfPenik, N. & Starc, B. (2010) Growing Up Together Workshops with parents of young children: Manual( in Croatian) Zagreb: UNICEF Office for Croatia.Penik, N., Starc, B., Ljubei, M., Jeji, M., Probela-Hodap, S. i Grubi, M. (2014) Growing Up Together Plus : Manual. Zagreb: UNICEF Office for Croatia.

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