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Does crew resource management Does crew resource management (CRM) training enhance or hinder (CRM) training enhance or hinder acting under a disturbance acting under a disturbance acting under a disturbance acting under a disturbance situation ? situation ? - experiences from the aviation and nuclear experiences from the aviation and nuclear power fields power fields power fields power fields Matti Sorsa Pilot Select Oy 2010 Matti Sorsa Pilot Select Oy 2010
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Does crew resource management (CRM) training enhance or ... · Airbus airliners (PROTECTIONS)Airbus airliners (PROTECTIONS) ... CRM training enhances or hindersCRM training enhances

Jun 26, 2018

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  • Does crew resource management Does crew resource management gg(CRM) training enhance or hinder (CRM) training enhance or hinder

    acting under a disturbanceacting under a disturbanceacting under a disturbance acting under a disturbance situation ?situation ?

    -- experiences from the aviation and nuclear experiences from the aviation and nuclear power fieldspower fieldspower fieldspower fields

    Matti Sorsa Pilot Select Oy 2010Matti Sorsa Pilot Select Oy 2010

  • CRMCRM

    Cockpit Resource Management Cockpit Resource Management Crew Resource Management Crew Resource Management BRM = Bridge Resource ManagementBRM = Bridge Resource ManagementBRM = Bridge Resource Management BRM = Bridge Resource Management CRRM = Control Room Resource CRRM = Control Room Resource Management Management TRM = Team Resource ManagementTRM = Team Resource ManagementTRM = Team Resource Management TRM = Team Resource Management

    (hospitals etc)(hospitals etc)

    Matti Sorsa Pilot Select Oy 2010Matti Sorsa Pilot Select Oy 2010

  • Similarities and Similarities and DifferencesDifferences

    Humans work together for a common goalHumans work together for a common goalCommunication the most essential componentCommunication the most essential componentProcedures exist (?)Procedures exist (?)( )( )Hierarchy exist (?)Hierarchy exist (?)Traditions differTraditions differTraditions differTraditions differCircumstances differCircumstances differEducational standards differEducational standards differ

    Matti Sorsa Pilot Select Oy 2010Matti Sorsa Pilot Select Oy 2010

  • Why CRM training?Why CRM training?

    Individual performance traditionIndividual performance traditionpp-- Sea pilots, surgeons, captains Sea pilots, surgeons, captains

    In aviation:In aviation:In aviation: In aviation: -- the accident analysis indicated problems the accident analysis indicated problems f hi l l di if hi l l di iof this cultural traditionof this cultural tradition

    TrainingTraining as the solution?as the solution?ggOther possible solutions Other possible solutions selection, selection, procedural practice?procedural practice?

    Matti Sorsa Pilot Select Oy 2010Matti Sorsa Pilot Select Oy 2010

    procedural practice?procedural practice?

  • Effectiveness?Effectiveness?

    Not scientifically proven!Not scientifically proven!Transfer to the workTransfer to the work--place?place?Effect on what?Effect on what?Effect on what?Effect on what?

    AttitudesAttitudesBehaviour Behaviour Organizational cultureOrganizational cultureOrganizational cultureOrganizational culture

    Matti Sorsa Pilot Select Oy 2010Matti Sorsa Pilot Select Oy 2010

  • Indicators Indicators

    Observational methodsObservational methodsOrganizational parametersOrganizational parametersSafety statisticsSafety statisticsSafety statisticsSafety statisticsQuestionnaire resultsQuestionnaire results

    Back to Back to the expert opinionsthe expert opinions: Wide: Wide--spread spread approval in aviationapproval in aviationapproval in aviation. approval in aviation.

    Back to Back to the basic premisesthe basic premises

    Matti Sorsa Pilot Select Oy 2010Matti Sorsa Pilot Select Oy 2010

  • Resource ManagementResource ManagementResource ManagementResource Management

    Premise: Premise: Everybody has resources =>Everybody has resources =>

    C i ti l SkillC i ti l SkillCommunicational Skills are Communicational Skills are needed to create Situationalneeded to create Situationalneeded to create Situational needed to create Situational AwarenessAwareness Shared Mental Shared Mental ModelsModels DecisionsDecisions

    Matti Sorsa Pilot Select Oy 2010Matti Sorsa Pilot Select Oy 2010

  • Resource Challenges Resource Challenges

    Genuine decisionGenuine decision--making situation = making situation = UCTUCT

    U=UncertaintyU=UncertaintyU=UncertaintyU=UncertaintyC=ComplexityC=ComplexityT=TimeT=Time

    Matti Sorsa Pilot Select Oy 2010Matti Sorsa Pilot Select Oy 2010

  • Increased safety systemsIncreased safety systems

    Maritime radars Maritime radars ABS and other modern car protectionsABS and other modern car protectionsAirbus airliners (PROTECTIONS)Airbus airliners (PROTECTIONS)Airbus airliners (PROTECTIONS)Airbus airliners (PROTECTIONS)AUTOMATION (who is in control?) : new AUTOMATION (who is in control?) : new failure scenariosfailure scenarios

    OBE (Overtaken By Events)OBE (Overtaken By Events)

    Matti Sorsa Pilot Select Oy 2010Matti Sorsa Pilot Select Oy 2010

  • CRM training enhances or hindersCRM training enhances or hindersCRM training enhances or hinders CRM training enhances or hinders action?action?

    CRM training tries to focus on CRM training tries to focus on communication, work distribution, communication, work distribution, leadership, stress management leadership, stress management p, gp, gIts aim is to make people aware of their Its aim is to make people aware of their natural shortcomings and how tonatural shortcomings and how tonatural shortcomings and how to natural shortcomings and how to overcome them by efficient team overcome them by efficient team performanceperformance

    Matti Sorsa Pilot Select Oy 2010Matti Sorsa Pilot Select Oy 2010

  • Can good intentions work againstCan good intentions work againstCan good intentions work against Can good intentions work against us?us?

    = Devil's advocate view= Devil's advocate view

    Loss of individual responsibilityLoss of individual responsibilityLoss of individual responsibilityLoss of individual responsibilityLoss of memoryLoss of memory--based professional based professional competencecompetencecompetencecompetenceLoss of work satisfaction (heroic individual Loss of work satisfaction (heroic individual

    li h t )li h t )accomplishments)accomplishments)Erosion of leadershipErosion of leadership

    Matti Sorsa Pilot Select Oy 2010Matti Sorsa Pilot Select Oy 2010

    pp

  • R b 3 PR b 3 PRemember 3 x PRemember 3 x P

    P1 = PolicyP1 = PolicyP1 = PolicyP1 = PolicyP2 = ProceduresP2 = ProceduresP3 = PracticeP3 = PracticeP3 PracticeP3 Practice

    Matti Sorsa Pilot Select Oy 2010Matti Sorsa Pilot Select Oy 2010

  • 3XP leads to the safety culture3XP leads to the safety culture

    If If individualismindividualism is part and parcel of the is part and parcel of the f t lt f i ti th CRMf t lt f i ti th CRMsafety culture of an organization the CRM safety culture of an organization the CRM

    is a threat (hospitals)is a threat (hospitals)If If doing bydoing by--heartheart is a part of the is a part of the professional ethos the CRM is a threat professional ethos the CRM is a threat pp(maritime industry)(maritime industry)IfIf hierarchyhierarchy is highly acclaimed the CRM isis highly acclaimed the CRM isIf If hierarchyhierarchy is highly acclaimed the CRM is is highly acclaimed the CRM is a threat (Oriental tradition)a threat (Oriental tradition)

    Matti Sorsa Pilot Select Oy 2010Matti Sorsa Pilot Select Oy 2010

  • CRM training makes things CRM training makes things worseworse

    If the safety culture is not in harmony with itIf the safety culture is not in harmony with itIf the (Company) policy does not support it fromIf the (Company) policy does not support it fromIf the (Company) policy does not support it from If the (Company) policy does not support it from the topthe topIf it is introduced separately without integrationIf it is introduced separately without integrationIf it is introduced separately without integration If it is introduced separately without integration to practice (procedures modified accordingly)to practice (procedures modified accordingly)If the training is badly designed without If the training is badly designed without g y gg y gconsideration to the specific requirements (e.g. consideration to the specific requirements (e.g. from aviation to other industries without from aviation to other industries without modifications)modifications)modifications)modifications)If it remains academic If it remains academic

    Matti Sorsa Pilot Select Oy 2010Matti Sorsa Pilot Select Oy 2010

  • Enhance performance by the CRMEnhance performance by the CRMEnhance performance by the CRM Enhance performance by the CRM training; case airlinestraining; case airlines

    CRM = Crew, not Cockpit any moreCRM = Crew, not Cockpit any moreCRM => MCC in elementary trainingCRM => MCC in elementary trainingCRM refresher in every simulator sessionCRM refresher in every simulator sessionCRM refresher in every simulator sessionCRM refresher in every simulator sessionNo separate CRM simulatorNo separate CRM simulatorA th it i 4 CRMA th it i 4 CRMAuthority requires every 4 years a CRM Authority requires every 4 years a CRM theory refreshertheory refresherCRM has become a part of the safety CRM has become a part of the safety cultureculture

    Matti Sorsa Pilot Select Oy 2010Matti Sorsa Pilot Select Oy 2010

  • Enhance performance by the CRMEnhance performance by the CRMEnhance performance by the CRM Enhance performance by the CRM training; case NPP CRRM training; case NPP CRRM

    Basic elements apply = Team, Leader, UCT, Basic elements apply = Team, Leader, UCT, ProceduresProceduresProceduresProceduresShift Leader typically has come through the Shift Leader typically has come through the ranks = knows other's dutiesranks = knows other's dutiesranks = knows other s dutiesranks = knows other s dutiesNormally the same people work togetherNormally the same people work togetherC i ti l t d d ( h ) t f llC i ti l t d d ( h ) t f llCommunicational standards (phrases) not fully Communicational standards (phrases) not fully developeddevelopedC i ti l ti i blC i ti l ti i blCommunicational practice variableCommunicational practice variablePartial reliance on memoryPartial reliance on memory

    Matti Sorsa Pilot Select Oy 2010Matti Sorsa Pilot Select Oy 2010

  • Targets Targets -- NPPNPP

    More standardization to the More standardization to the communicationcommunicationMore reliance on the checkMore reliance on the check--lists and otherlists and otherMore reliance on the checkMore reliance on the check lists and other lists and other written materialwritten materialM i i i hM i i i hMore active communication to enhance More active communication to enhance the situational awareness the situational awareness

    Matti Sorsa Pilot Select Oy 2010Matti Sorsa Pilot Select Oy 2010

  • EssentialEssential

    The CRRM training to be an integrated The CRRM training to be an integrated part of the overpart of the over--all training system and all training system and

    Consequently: The CRRM practice to Consequently: The CRRM practice to become a natural everybecome a natural every--day part of theday part of thebecome a natural everybecome a natural every day part of the day part of the workwork

    Matti Sorsa Pilot Select Oy 2010Matti Sorsa Pilot Select Oy 2010

  • CR(R)M and SMSCR(R)M and SMS

    Aviation and NPP SMS include many elements Aviation and NPP SMS include many elements dd f ll i t t d CRRM P tif ll i t t d CRRM P ti i fi fand and a fully integrated CRRM Practicea fully integrated CRRM Practice is one of is one of

    them them The CR(R)M training should be The CR(R)M training should be required by required by authoritiesauthorities to make sure that the team to make sure that the team performance is up to the safety standardsperformance is up to the safety standardsThe CR(R)M training should include The CR(R)M training should include both the both the ( ) g( ) gelementary and refresherelementary and refresher training sessionstraining sessions

    Matti Sorsa Pilot Select Oy 2010Matti Sorsa Pilot Select Oy 2010

  • Finally a WarningFinally a Warning

    When applying the CRM training element When applying the CRM training element in any industry in any industry BEWAREBEWARE

    The Checking AspectThe Checking AspectThe CRM training should be a learning The CRM training should be a learning experience in an open atmosphere!experience in an open atmosphere!experience in an open atmosphere!experience in an open atmosphere!

    Matti Sorsa Pilot Select Oy 2010Matti Sorsa Pilot Select Oy 2010

  • Thank YouThank You

    Matti Sorsa Pilot Select Oy 2010Matti Sorsa Pilot Select Oy 2010