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Nov 12, 2014
BEYOND SILICON COMPUTING
JIGAR PUROHIT (03CE117) GUNJAN DHOLAKIYA(03CE116)INSTITUE: CHAROTAR INSTITUE OF TECHNOLOGY (CITC)
Everything looks good when it is mounted on a chip. To challenge the limits of speed and miniaturization scientists of silicon chip the biochip has been invented and made up of DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid). The function of 0s and 1s are done by the specified combinations of the four nucleotides. Their speed is billion times faster. As its processing is parallel and not serial it can compute problem with large possibilities much faster. With application in various fields of genetics basically DNA recognition as well as chemistry development of medicines and detecting diseases it has more utilities.
INTRODUCTION TO DNA COMPUTER2
HAMILTON PATH PROBLEM WORKING OF DNA 7
4) PROGRAMMING OF PROBLEM USING DNA________________________ 95)
6) EFFICIENCY______________________________________________________177) 8)
ADVANTAGES-DISADVANTAGES FUTURE 19
FIGURES INDEX 2.1 Possible flight routes between seven cities________________6 2.2 Connecting Block___________________________________7 2.3 Double Helics______________________________________ 7 2.4 Long Chain________________________________________7 2.5 Different Colour____________________________________ 7 3.1 Linking Pieces of DNA_______________________________ 8 3.2 Sequence of Sticky Pieces_____________________________9 4.1 Synthetic DNA_____________________________________10 4.2 Memory Unit Structure________________________________11 4.3 Complmentary Coupling Nuclotide_______________________11 4.4 Coupling Rings Long Chain____________________________ 12 4.5 Complmentary Coupling_______________________________12 4.6 Double Helix Structure_______________________________12 4.7 Complementary Strands______________________________13 4.8 Split Doouble Stranded Enzymes_______________________ 13 4.9 Complementary Strands______________________________134
4.10 Copy Of Complementary Strands_____________________ 14 5.1 DNA MicroArray___________________________________ 17
1. INTRODUCTION TO DNA COMPUTERComputer chip manufactures are furiously racing to make the next microprocessor that will topple speed records. Sooner or later, though, this competition is bound to hit a wall. Microprocessor made of silicon will eventually reach their limits of speed and miniaturization. Chip makers need a new material to produce faster computing speeds. You wont believe where scientists have found the new material they need to build the next generation of microprocessors. Millions of natural supercomputers exist inside living organisms, including your living body. DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) molecules, the material our genes are made of, have the potential to perform calculations many faster than the worlds most powerful human-built computers.
What is a DNA Computer?Research in the development of DNA computers is really only at its beginning stages, so a specific answer isn't yet available. But the general sense of such a computational device is to use the DNA molecule as a model for its construction. Although the feasibility of molecular computers remains in doubt, the field has opened new horizons and important new research problems, both for computer scientists and biologists. The computer scientist and mathematician are looking for new models of computation to replace with acting in a test tube. The massive parallelism of DNA strands may help to deal with computational problems that are beyond the reach of ordinary digital computers -- not because the DNA strands are smarter, but because they can make many tries at once. It's the parallel nature of the beast. For the biologist, the unexpected results in DNA computing indicate that models of DNA computers could be significant for the study of important biological problems such as evolution. Also, the techniques of DNA manipulation developed for computational purposes could also find applications in genetic engineering. DNA computer cant be still found at your local electronics store yet. The technology is still in their development, and didnt exist as concept before a decade. In 1994, LEONARD ADELMAN introduced the idea of using DNA to solve complex mathematical problems. Adelman, computer scientist at the university of Southern California, came to the conclusion that DNA had computational potential after reading the book MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OF THE GENE written by JAMES WASTON, who co-discovered the structure of DNA in 1953.In fact, DNA is more similar to computer. DNA is very similar to a computer hard drive in how it stores permanent information about your genes.
2. HAMILTON PATH PROBLEMAdelman is often called the inventor of the DNA computers. His article in a 1994 issue of Journal Science outlined how to use DNA to solve a well-known mathematical problem, called the Directed Hamilton Path problem, also known as the Traveling Salesman6
Problem. The goal of the problem is to find the shortest route between a numbers of cities, going through each city only once. As you add more cities the problem becomes more difficult. Figure 2.1 shows a diagram of the Hamilton path problem. The objective is to find a path from start to end going through all the points only once. This problem is difficult for the conventional (serial logic) computers because they try must try each path one at a time. It is like having a whole bunch of keys and trying to see which fits into the lock. Conventional computers are very good at math, but poor at key into lock problems. DNA based computers can try all the keys at the same time (massively parallel) and thus are very good at key into lock problems, but much slower at simple mathematical problems like multiplication. The Hamilton path problem was chosen because every key-into-lock problem can be solved as a Hamilton Path Problem.
Figure showing the possible flight routes between the seven cities.The following algorithm solves the Hamilton Path Problem, regardless of the type computers used. 1. Generate random paths through the graph. 2. Keep only those paths that begin with the start city (A) and conclude with the end city (G). 3. Because the graph has 7 cities, keep only those paths with 7 cities. 4. Keep only those paths that enter all cities at least once. 5. Any remaining paths are solutions. The key to solving the problem was using DNA to perform the five steps in solving the above algorithm. These interconnecting blocks can be used to model DNA:
Figure 2.2 DNA likes to form long double helices:7
Figure 2.3 The two helices are joined by bases, which will be represented by coloured blocks. Each base binds only to one other specific base. In our example, we will say that each coloured block will bind only with the block of same colour. For example, if we only had red coloured blocks, they would form a long chain like this:
Figure 2.4 Any other colour will not bind with red:
3.PROGRAMMING OF THE PROBLEM USING DNASTEP 1: Create a unique DNA sequence for each city A through G. Foreach path, for example, from A to B, creates a linking pieces of DNA that matches the last half of A and first half of B:
Here the red block represents the city a, while the orange block represents the city B. the half-red half-orange block connecting the two other blocks represents the path from A to B. In a test tube, all different pieces of DNA will randomly link with each other, forming paths through the graph.
STEP 2: Because it is difficult to "remove" DNA from solution, the target DNA, theDNA which started from A and ended at G was copied over and over again until the test tube contained a lot of it relative to other random sequences. This is essentially the same as removing all the other pieces. Imagine a sock drawer which initially contains one or two coloured socks. If you put in a hundred black socks, the chances are that all you will get if you reach in is black socks.
STEP 3: Going by weight, the DNA sequences which were 7 "cities" long wereseparated from the rest. A "sieve" was used which would allow smaller pieces of DNA to pass quickly, while larger segments are slowed down. the procedure used actually allows you to isolate the pieces which are precisely 7 cities long from any shorter or longer paths.
STEP 4: To ensure that the remaining sequences went through each of cities, stickypieces of DNA attached to magnets were used to separate the DNA. The magnets were used to ensure that the target DNA remained in the test tube, while the unwanted DNA was washed away. First, the magnets kept all the DNA which went through city A in the test tube, then B, then C, and D, and so on. In the end, the only DNA which remained in the tube was that which went through all seven cities.
Figure 3.2 STEP 5: all that was left to sequences the DNA, revealing the path from A to B to C to D to E to F to G.9
4. WORKING OF DNADNA is the major information storage molecule in living cells, and billions of years of evolution have tested and refined both this wonderful informational molecule and highly specific enzymes that can either duplicate the information in DNA molecules or transmit this information to other DNA molecules. Instead of using electrical impulses to represent bits of information, the DNA computer uses the chemical properties of these molecules by examining the patterns of combination or growth of the molecules or strings. DNA can do this through the manufacture of enzymes, which are biological catalysts that could be called the 'software' used to execute the