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Six Sigma Overview DEFINE Step 0: Project Selection MEASURE Step 1. Select CTQ Characteristics Step 2. Define Performance Standards Step 3. Measurement Systems Analysis ANALYZE Step 4. Establish Process Capability Step 5. Define Performance Objectives Step 6. Identify Variation Sources IMPROVE Step 7. Screen Potential Causes Step 8. Discover Variable Relationships Step 9. Establishing Operating Tolerances CONTROL Step 10 Define and Validate the Measurement System on Xs Step 11. Determine Process Capability Step 12. Implement Process Control The Practical Problem The Statistical Problem The Practical Solution The Statistical Solution The 12 Steps
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DMAIC Process Illustration

Nov 13, 2014

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Page 1: DMAIC Process Illustration

Six Sigma Overview

DEFINEStep 0: Project Selection

MEASURE Step 1. Select CTQ Characteristics

Step 2. Define Performance Standards

Step 3. Measurement Systems Analysis

ANALYZE

Step 4. Establish Process Capability

Step 5. Define Performance Objectives

Step 6. Identify Variation Sources

IMPROVEStep 7. Screen Potential Causes

Step 8. Discover Variable Relationships

Step 9. Establishing Operating Tolerances

CONTROLStep 10 Define and Validate the Measurement System on Xs

Step 11. Determine Process Capability

Step 12. Implement Process Control

The Practical Problem

The Statistical Problem

The Practical Solution

The Statistical Solution

The 12 Steps

Page 2: DMAIC Process Illustration

Six Sigma Overview

Step 0: Defining our project...

g GE Electromaterials 10 Step Project Review Process

Selection PhaseSelection Phase 6 sigma owner6 sigma owner Decision MakerDecision Maker Information/ CriteriaInformation/ Criteria OutcomesOutcomes

1) Define Customer Needs

2) PrioritizeInitiatives

3) Define FunctionalArea of Focus

4) Key ProcessIdentification

6) Define SimpleProblem Statement

7) Identify MacroCTQs

8) Macro CTQFlowdown

9) Business Approval ofProject

5) Define Cost ofFailure/ FinancialImpact

Dashboard/FGI Survey Results

Business Quality Initiatives

Business Level CTQs

Business Level CTQ Flowdown

Impact of process on Business levelCTQs

Process Level CTQs

Process Level CTQ Flowdown

Correlation of project impact to Business Level CTQs

Plastics Measurements Guidelines

10) Kick-off Business Approval of Project

EMD’s 10-step process

Produc Quality vs Goal100% 100.00%

93.00%

88%

90%

92%

94%

96%

98%

100%

June July Aug Sep

Pro

d Q

ual

%

Prod Qual

Goal

0

25

60 75

90

On-Time Shipment

100

Now

Goal

Communications

0

25

60 75

90

Product Quality

100Now Goal

g GE Electromaterials Altron Dashboard

0

25

60 75

90

Documentation

100

Now Goal

0

25

60 75

90

Packaging

100Now Goal

On-Time Shipment Trend Documentation Trend Packaging Trend Product Quality Trend

Fail

Pass

Key

On-time( +5,0)

GETEK®Pre-preg

GETEK®M/L

Vacuum

Quantity

Meet Spec

Prepeg Test Dates

Color

Consistency•Thickness•Copper•Stamping•Diametric

Correct Mat’l

Certs (CSC)

Labels

Customer

Service

• Response Time• Confirmation by 3:00pm

• Responsiveness

39%

Aug 1997

36 59

19 24

17 35

59

59

59

1

0

0

59

59

0

0

59

59

0

0

59

59

0

4

98.5%

100%

Issue Resolution

Corrective Actions (CAR)Process Owner Status

1. On-Time Delivery 2. Labels

NoonanFerguson

In ProcessIn Process

Tech

Service

93%

OTS vs Goal

29% 33.00%39.00%

0%

20%

40%

60%

80%

100%

June July Aug Sep

OTS

%

OTS

Goal

Documentation vs Goal100%

92.00%

98.50%

88%

90%

92%

94%

96%

98%

100%

June July Aug Sep

Doc

umen

tati

on %

Document

Goal

Packaging vs Goal100%

92.00%

100.00%

88%

90%

92%

94%

96%

98%

100%

June July Aug Sep

Pac

kagi

ng %

Packaging

Goal

Customer Dashboards

Cost of Failure

Team Selection & Timing

g GE Electromaterials Six Sigma

Project Contract1. The Project titled _______________________________ has been approved as a ( BB / GB ) Project.

The Black Belt assigned to this project is __________________________.

The Green Belt (if applicable) is ________________________.

The MBB is _____________________.

2. The initial Project completion date is set at ________________________.

3. The Black Belt is required to updated QPID to the initial level and coordinate with the MBB to update all further steps.

4. This project will be updated bi-weekly at the Six Sigma Project Review. The Black Belt is responsible for coordinatingteam efforts and educating the team on the process steps, as the projects evolves.

5. If any blockers are identified in the process, the following steps should be taken, in order:

a. Notify Black Belt: BB addresses situation with blocker.b. Notify MBB: MBB addresses situation with the blocker.c. Notify Staff at Six Sigma Project Review.

6. Other:

Green Belt Black Belt MBB Champion GM

Project Contract

Step 0: Project Selection

Page 3: DMAIC Process Illustration

Six Sigma Overview

Step 1: Deciding where we start ...

Impo

rtan

ce

CTQ’s

Paperwork 1

Fa

bIn

terp

etat

ion

5 5

337878 8585

9

Sche

dulin

g

Ord

eren

try

23 3334 1114 5213 5213 42

Totals

Size Issues

Product IssuesQtyStampPackaging

Sp

ecia

lity

Pa

ckag

ing

Sh

ip

U

pdat

ing

Cps

/S

ales

Rep

3 321 111 119 111 119 62

30 88 47

9612349696

942545

112112

War

ehou

se/

Cut

Cen

ter

x xx

x x

xx x

x

QFD

ProductManager:

CTQs

Easy Readability Accuracy Complete Adhesiveness

Professional Bar Codes

U/LRequirements

Link to otherPaperwork on

Box

Variable ('Y'): Customer Satisfaction with Label

Font SizePlain EnglishData ArrangementLabel SizeText DirectionGE LogoNot Hand WrittenColor of Label/Text

Paper Matches ContentsQuantityLabel Matches All Other PaperworkCustomer Data CorrectLink to OrderInventoryComplete Required Fields

General Info: CustomerSpecific:EMD:

-Lot & Skid #-Req #SHIPPING:-Case # /Weight-Package SizePRODUCT:-Grade/Clad/Thick-Plain English/Cert- QTY /Size /Grain

Part NumberP/O NumberCust NameLocationCert/SpecDate (Ship)Due Date

Packing to Customer ShelfLife of the Sticker >1 yrReplaceability

GE LogoLaser QualityHQ infoColorsSize and SpacingBenchmark Competit ionMarketing Appeal

(R.W. Salter)

Customer/industry standardItems to be Bar Coded - shop movement/shipping - customer infoStandard Format - size/unobscured/qualityLink to GEMMSLink to Test Data:Futuristic/Cert

Min # of piecesLocation of LabelsConsistencyCompare with competitors

GETEK SalesTeam:CTQs

Easy Readability Accuracy Complete Adhesiveness

Professional Bar CodesU/L

Requirements

Link to otherPaperwork on

Box

Variable ('Y'): Customer Satisfaction with Label

Font SizePlain EnglishArrangement ofDataLabel SizeGE Logo: Relationto DataNot Hand Written

Paper Matches ContentsQuantityLabel Matches All Other PaperworkCustomer Data CorrectLink to OrderInventoryComplete Required Fields

General Info: CustomerSpecific:Skid #

Req # /Item Date /Case # /Weight Package Size Grade /Clad /Thick Plain English /Cert QTY /Size /GrainWarehouse Locator

Part NumberP/O Number/ItemCustomer NameLocationCert/SpecDate (Ship)Due DateManufacturing

Packing to CustomerShelf

Life of the Sticker >1yr

Replaceability

Flatness of Package

GE LogoLaser QualityHQ info (address/phone)Black/WhiteOverall Size and SpacingBenchmark Competition

3 of 9 Standard - customer/industry standardItems to be Bar Coded - shop movement/shipping - customer infoStandard Format - size/unobscured/qualityLink to Test Data - Futuristic/Cert

Minimize the # of pieces

Location of Labels

Consistency

Compare to competitors

Registered Trademark-GETEK-GEPEG

Shop Floor/Transportation:

CTQs

Easy Readability Accuracy Complete

Professional Bar CodesLink to other

Paperwork onBox

Variable ('Y'): Customer Satisfaction with Label

Font SizeLabel SizeGE Logo: Relationto DataNot Hand WrittenSpacing for QTY (able to change)

Data Accuracy from Customer ServiceShould have Packer/FCO fill out Packing LabelBar Code from Shop OrderRouting InformationInformation flow from Line to Label process

EMD: - Lot # /Skid # /Oper - Req # /ItemSHIPPING: - Date /Case # /Weight - Package SizePRODUCT: - Grade /Clad /Thick - Plain English /Cert - QTY /Size /Grain

GE LogoLaser QualityHQ info (address/phone)Overall Size and SpacingBenchmark Competition

Customer standardItems to be Bar Coded - shop movement/order - customer info/CPSStandard Format - size/unobscured/qualityLink to Test Data - Futuristic/Cert

Minimize the # of pieces

Location of Labels

Consistency

Compare to competitors

PhotocircuitsGlen Cove:

CTQs

Easy Readability Accuracy Complete Adhesiveness

Professional Bar CodesLink to other

Paperwork onBox

Variable ('Y'): Customer Satisfaction with Label

Font SizePlain EnglishArrangement of DataLabel SizeNot Hand Written

Paper Matches ContentsQuantityLabel Matches All Other PaperworkCustomer Data CorrectLink to OrderInventoryComplete Required Fields

General Info: CustomerSpecific:Skid #

Req # /Item Date /Case # /Weight Package Size Grade /Clad /Thick Plain English /Cert QTY /Size /GrainWarehouse Locator

Part NumberP/O Number/ItemCustomer NameLocationCert/Spec

Packing to CustomerShelf

Life of the Sticker >1yr

GE LogoLaser QualityBlack/WhiteOverall Size and SpacingBenchmark Competition

3 of 9 StandardItems to be Bar Coded - customer info - not on labelStandard Format - size/unobscured/qualityLink to Test Data - Futuristic/Cert

Location of Labels

Consistency

Compare to competitors

CTQ Flowdown

Example - Ice Maker

GE PlasticsF.M.E.A.Form

Elim. need foradjustment

Design heaterfor more evendistribution

Redesign crimpor proc. check

Redesign sys.foreffic. ice release

Customer educ.;Change detectionmethod

560

60

160

120

14

7

3

4

4

1

Water valveadjustment setincorrectly

Freezer settingtoo high

Lead wires notcrimped properly

Coil burned out

Customer abuse

10

10

10

10

7

ProcessStep/PartNumber

PotentialFailure Mode

PotentialFailure Effects

SEV

PotentialCauses

OCC

CurrentControls

DET

RPN

ActionsRecommended

Dispensermust function50,000 cyclesbefore failure

Cam & geariced up

Broken motor

Feeler arm bent

No ice

No ice

Continuous ice

8

2

4

3

2

Visual inspect

Visual inspect

FMEA

Notan

interrogation!!

Step 1. Select CTQ Characteristics

Page 4: DMAIC Process Illustration

Six Sigma Overview

Step 2: What is a defect...

RECEIVE ORDER

YES

NO

YES

NO

YES

IS THERE INV.IN WAREHOUSE

CUT THERE

YES

PULL FROMWHSE

CUT AT SERV. CENTER

NOSEND TO MANU.TO CUT AT COSH

DO WE HAVEMATERIAL

CUT IN COSHOCTON

GIVE COMMIT DATE

NO

CUSTOMER SERVICE/ORDER ENTRY MANUFACTURING

DO WEHAVETREATEDMAT’L

PRESS, FAB

NOIS THERECLOTH?

GIVE RECOMMIT DATE

NO

NO

GET CLOTH, TREAT, PRESS,FAB

YES

IS THERETREATERTIME

YES

TREAT, PRESS,FAB

DOESTHIS ORDERTAKE PRIORITY

YES

TREAT, PRESS,FAB

NOPUT IN SCHEDULE,TREAT, PRESS, FAB

2ND (RE-) RECOMMITDATE GIVEN

IF WE HAVE ANY ISSUES IN FAB PREVENTING HITTING GOAL, SUCH AS;“HOT ORDERS”, DOWNTIME, LOW PRODUCTION, OT, OR BAD SCHEDULES,THEN A 3RD RE-RE-RECOMMIT DATE MAY BE GIVEN

Process Mapping

L100 Worksheet - Sigma Scorecard for Attributes Confidence Limits (alpha= 0.95 )

on DPMO on Sigma

CTQ D U OP TOP DPU DPO DPMO Yield Shift Sigma L.T. Z-value lower upper lower upper

carbon Black 2 100 1 100 0.020 0.020 20,000 98.00% 1.50 3.55 2.05 2,431 70,384 2.97 4.32

example 2 34 59 1 59 0.576 0.576 576,271 42.37% 1.50 0.00 -0.19 440,672 703,950 0.00 0.00

example 3 1 213 1 213 0.005 0.005 4,695 99.53% 1.50 4.10 2.60 119 25,879 3.45 5.18

example 4 22 289 1 289 0.076 0.076 76,125 92.39% 1.50 2.93 1.43 48,320 112,987 2.71 3.16

0 n/a n/a n/a n/a 1.50 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a

0 n/a n/a n/a n/a 1.50 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a

0 n/a n/a n/a n/a 1.50 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a

0 n/a n/a n/a n/a 1.50 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a

0 n/a n/a n/a n/a 1.50 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a

0 n/a n/a n/a n/a 1.50 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/aTotals 59 n/a n/a 661 n/a 0.089 89,259 91.07% 1.50 2.85 1.35 68641.3 113627 2.71 2.99

L100 / L2 Spreadsheet

ZST

Def

inin

g D

efec

ts,

Opp

ortu

nitie

s, U

nits

Pa

rt #

Pa

pe

rwo

rk

QT

Y

Da

tes

no

t CP

S

BO

M

Ba

r co

de

Pra

eg

itze

r

US

Cir

cuits

LA

Wa

reh

ou

se

HIS

CO

Tre

nd

Pyc

on EC

D

Pe

ave

y

We

sta

k

Pa

rlin

He

wle

tt P

ack

ard

Win

on

ics

Litt

on

PC

C

Pa

m E

ng

Altr

on

Cir

cuitw

ise

Ph

oto

circ

uits

Me

rix

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

Pareto of Defects

Step 2. Define Performance Standards

Page 5: DMAIC Process Illustration

Six Sigma Overview

Step 3: Is the measurement real...Gage Repeatability & Reproducibility Analysis:

Standard GRR (Long Form) NOTE: The defaults of the following worksheet are intended for 3 Oper, 3 Trials and 10 Samples (Parts).This worksheet is also flexible to less number of Oper, Trials and SamplesMake sure you use the appropriate constants (D4, K1 and K2), if you use less number of trials or samples.

Operator A B CSample # Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 Range Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 Range Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 Range

1 5.70 5.70 5.70 0.00 5.75 5.75 5.75 0.00 5.75 5.75 5.75 0.002 4.20 4.20 4.20 0.00 4.25 4.25 4.25 0.00 4.25 4.25 4.25 0.003 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.00 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.00 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.004 1.70 1.70 1.70 0.00 1.75 1.75 1.75 0.00 1.75 1.75 1.75 0.005 1.80 1.80 1.80 0.00 1.75 1.75 1.75 0.00 1.75 1.75 1.75 0.006 1.60 1.60 1.60 0.00 1.50 1.50 1.50 0.00 1.50 1.50 1.50 0.007 0.70 0.70 0.70 0.00 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.00 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.008 1.50 1.50 1.50 0.00 1.50 1.50 1.50 0.00 1.50 1.50 1.50 0.009 0.00 0.00 0.00

10 0.00 0.00 0.00

Totals 17.60 17.60 17.60 0.00 17.75 17.75 17.75 0.00 17.75 17.75 17.75 0.00Daily Ave. 2.20 2.20 2.20 2.22 2.22 2.22 2.22 2.22 2.22Daily Std. 1.81 1.81 1.81 0.00 1.82 1.82 1.82 0.00 1.82 1.82 1.82 0.00Final Ave. Xa 2.20 Ra 0.00 Xb 2.22 Rb 0.00 Xc 2.22 Rc 0.00

Ra 0.00 # Trials D4 (R) x (D4) = UCLr Max X 2.22Rb 0.00 2 3.27 UCLr = 0.00 Min X 2.20Rc 0.00 3 2.58 X Diff 0.02

Sum 0.00 Mean 2.21R 0.00 UCL LCL Stdev 1.71

Tolerance 0.25 -0.25

Measurement Analysis % Tolerance Analysis

Repeatability - Equipment Variability (E.V.) Trials 2 3 % E.V. = 100((E.V.)/(Tolerance))E.V. = (R) x (K1) K1 4.56 3.05 % E.V. = 0.00E.V. = 0.00

Reproducibility - Appraiser Variation (A.V.) Trials 2 3 % A.V. = 100((A.V.)/(Tolerance))A.V. = ((Xdiff * k2)^2 - ((E.V.)^2/(n x f)))^.5 K2 3.65 2.70 % A.V. = 10.12

A.V. = 0.05 n = number of parts 8f = number of trials 3

Repeatability and Reproducibility (R&R) % R & R = 100((R&R)/(Tolerance)R & R = ((E.V)^2 + (A.V.)^2))^.5 % R & R = 10.12

R & R = 0.05

GageR & R of 10.12%

Fully Acceptable Measurement System for the measurement ofdowntime.

Identifying if how we measure downtime is accurate!

gEMD

STAT Simulator

(2 and t tests)created by:M.Shoen Davis, Erik W. Ferguson & Patrick M. Noonan

Fill boxes with dataThe boxes have solution

Gage R & R

Other Statistics

if Gage R & R > 30%or

fails other testsFIX THE MEASUREMENT SYSTEM

Misc:Tolerance:Reported by:Date of study:Gage name:

3

2

1

21

Xbar Chart by Operator

Sam

ple

Mea

n

X=1.875

3.0SL=2.815

-3.0SL=0.9347

1.5

1.0

0.5

0.0

21

R Chart by Operator

Sam

ple

Ran

ge

R=0.5000

3.0SL=1.634

-3.0SL=0.000

352351

2.5

2.0

1.5

Part

OperatorOperator*Part Interaction

Ave

rage

12

21

3

2

1

Oper

Response BY Operator

352351

3

2

1

Part

Response BY Part

%Total Var%Study Var

Part-to-PartReprodRepeatGage R&R

100908070605040302010

0

Components of Variation

Per

cent

Gage R&R (Xbar/R) for Data

Step 3. Measurement Systems Analysis

Page 6: DMAIC Process Illustration

Six Sigma Overview

Days to Replenish

2124 25

28

0

5

10

15

20

25

30

May Jun Jul Aug* Avg Days to replenish based on 21 day "pipeline"

Day

s Days

GOAL

Days to Replenish

2124 25

28

0

5

10

15

20

25

30

May Jun Jul Aug* Avg Days to replenish based on 21 day "pipeline"

Day

s Days

GOAL

Step 4: What is the best @ status quo...

403020100

1.0

0.5

0.0

I and MR Chart

Observ.

X=0.5221

3.0SL=0.9827

-3.0SL=0.06155

0.60.50.40.30.20.10.0

R=0.1732

3.0SL=0.5658

-3.0SL=0.000

10

1.410300.48970

Potential (ST) CapabilityProcess Tolerance

Specifications

III

III

10

1.041240.00299

Actual (LT) CapabilityProcess Tolerance

Specifications

III

III

Mean

StDev

Z.USL

Z.LSL

Z.Bench

Z.Shift

P.USL

P.LSL

P.Total

Yield

PPM

Cp

Cpk

Pp

Ppk

LTST

Capability Indices

Data Source:Time Span:Data Trace:

0.92

0.96

3893.15

99.6107

0.003893

0.001187

0.002706

-2.33299

2.66120

3.03888

2.78146

0.17181

0.52211

1.04

1.09

371378

62.8622

0.371378

0.000000

0.371378

-2.33299

0.32821

6.23593

0.32821

0.15234

0.95000

Report 2: Process Capability for % opt

0.750.700.650.600.550.500.450.400.35

Lower SpecLower Spec

s

Mean-3s

Mean+3s

Mean

n

k

LSL

USL

Targ

Cpm

Cpk

CPL

CPU

Cp

Short-Term Capability

125000

13641

*

*

12.50

1.36

*

*

Obs

PPM<LSL Exp

Obs

PPM>USL Exp

Obs

%<LSL Exp

Obs

%>USL Exp

0.049482

0.460783

0.757676

0.609229

16.0

*

0.5

*

0.9

*

0.74

0.74

*

*

Line 7 Cpk

Cp Cpk Ppk

May Jun Jul Aug0%

20%

40%

60%

80%

100%

% O

TD

May Jun Jul Aug

OTD to Dynacircuits (Direct)

Hisco

Coshocton

May Jun Jul Aug0%

20%

40%

60%

80%

100%

% O

TD

May Jun Jul Aug

OTD to Dynacircuits (Direct)

Hisco

Coshocton

May Jun Jul Aug

15.00

24.98

8.10

23.30

7.70

21.45

7.15

0.00

5.00

10.00

15.00

20.00

25.00

# o

f Tu

rns

May Jun Jul Aug

Inventory Turns Total Turns

Annualized

May Jun Jul Aug

15.00

24.98

8.10

23.30

7.70

21.45

7.15

0.00

5.00

10.00

15.00

20.00

25.00

# o

f Tu

rns

May Jun Jul Aug

Inventory Turns Total Turns

Annualized

Run ChartsHistogramsBox PlotsControl Charts

Step 4. Establish Process Capability

Page 7: DMAIC Process Illustration

Six Sigma Overview

EMD Simulator Ho:

Proportion Probability Ha:

OBSERVED PROPORTIONfactor complaints Pounds chi-2 data

obs White 62.000 10.000 2.880expected 50.000

obs Black 33.000 8.000 1.225expected 40.000

obs Red 3.000 1.000 0.800expected 5.000

obs Yellow 2.000 1.000 1.800 # of rows 4 D.F. 3expected 5.000 # of columns 1

obs 0.000 Alpha Value 0.1expected 0.000

obs 0.000 Critical Value 6.251expected 0.000 Computed Chi 6.705

TOTALS 100.000 20.000 6.705 Acceptablity Reject Ho

Step 5: Who is the best and why...

Prepreg

• Actual Size sample• Our lot #’s• Their PO#• In cardboard on top of each skid• Our Lot# and CofC on each sample

CardboardCarrier forSample

763211-22Y

Handwritten LOT #

Certificate of Conformance/ Test Results

Certificate of Compliance Attached to the CardboardTape on 3 edges to make an envelopeshrink-wrap or plastic wrap around sample carrier

Benchmark- Allied Signal/Polyclad

Laminate

• 11x11 sample per lot• Our lot #’s• Their PO#• In a box, first off the truck, all samples for the 38 skids on the truck• Our Lot# and CofC on each sample• No More than 2 Lots per box

11 x 11sample of laminate

762203-11Y

Handwritten LOT #

Certificate of ConformanceTest Report

Certificate of Compliance + test results taped to the sample

Benchmark the Competition

Benchmark Outside Market

EMD One Sample ------ One Tailed Test Simulator1) Describe

Ho:Ha:

2) Confidence Level 95 Calculated alpha level 0.05

3) # of tails 1 Alpha level 0.1

4) Enter Standard Value of comparison 70

5) Enter sample data1 60 6) Compute 8) Critical t-value 1.7958842 66 AVG 78.173 70 Std Dev 12.73 9) Acceptability reject Ho4 74 Sample Size 12.005 66 D.F. 11.00

6 807 92 7) Compute t-value8 100 2.22

9 9510 8011 7012 851314

Hypothesis Testing:Chi-Square, t-testF-test

What is the Objective?

Material LoadingTransfer/

Align TableTransfer/Shear 1

Transfer/Inspection 1

Transfer/Inspection 2

Packing

Line-7 in DFT Environment

Operators move where demand is needed (if Material Loading is required, operator shifts); Resources added for slip sheet requirement

= staffed position= additional position for cut piece or slip sheet

= KANBAN (material)

PSO

RFO RFO RFO RFO(RFO)

Available Maint Support

ProcessContinuous Operation During Scheduled Work DayStart-up Optimized: Using Multiple OperatorsChange-over: Immediate Change from Part to PartOperators “Float” from Position Based on NeedAdditional Resources added Based on DemandCycle-time Reduced to Queue Time at Shear 1

GAPMachine Stops for Breaks & Material LoadingOperator Start-up in SequenceShut-down for Change in End Item Part/PaperworkOperators Rotate PositionsAdditional Resources added Based on Cut-SizeCycle-time at Through-put Time+ Down Time

Loader"B"

Loader"A"

AlignTable

Shear1

Set-up

Shear#1

Shear1

Transfer

Shear#2

SCRAP

SCRAP

Line 7:Cut Piece Flow

#3

PANEL

conveyor

Inspectpoint

#1

wheel

Inspectpoint

#2

conveyorStacker

paperwork

#1

#5

#2

#4

packs

LoaderMat'l

helps

Empties Scrap #1 & #2

doespaperwork

operatespanel

Establishing our goals to run cut-piece and full size

Loader"B"

Loader"A"

AlignTable

Shear1

Set-up

Shear#1

Shear1

Transfer

Shear#2

SCRAP

SCRAP

Inspec tionTrans fer

FG

FG

SCRAP

Line 7 Full Size Flow

#2

#3

#4Float

#1

PANEL

OperatePanel

Inspection #1

Inspect/Slip SheetEmpty Shear 2 Scrap

Inspect/Slip SheetEmpty Shear 1 Scrap

RotatesLoader

Mat'l

EmptiesFG Scrap

paperwork

doespaperwork

Step 5. Define Performance Objectives

Page 8: DMAIC Process Illustration

Six Sigma Overview

Manpower

Material

Measurement Machine

MethodEnvironment

Raw GlassInventoryErrors

• Lack of audit trail- non-lot specific at work centers

• Barcode not working

• Computer Availability•Wrong input QTY based on measure

• Supervision (audit)

• ownership of defect material• PD/BOM ownership

• Data entry procedures• material movement procedures

• operators do not input• input errors

• Supervision (knowledge)

• tie from error to cause• top-down communication

• Report total transactions• Scrap report

• BOM incorrect• Large workstation size (DOCK)

• Operator timely input• Metering of Acetone

• QC/Obsolete Material in inventory• Large W/O size

• Supervision (routine)• UOM (phantoms)

PFD #4WASTE TREATMENT OPERATION

POLYMERMIX/HOLDTANK

LAMELLASETTLINGSECTION

INPUTSECTION

FLOCCULATIONSECTION

WESTLAGOON

EASTLAGOON

SANDFILTER

CLEANWATERTANK

POTW

WASTEWATER

SLUDGETO LANDFILL

LAMELLA

PFD# 3MANUFACTURE of the INSULATING MATERIAL

AIR CLASSIFIER

FURNACE

BAGHOUSEMINERALUNLOAD

DI WATERQUENCH

DI WATER

GRINDER

INSULATINGMATERIALPRODUCTION

SHIP TOCUSTOMERS

SLURRYPREPARATION

WASTEGENERATION

WASTEGENERATION

WASTEGENERATION

PREPAREROLLS

HCl NaOH

Identified the select few

Step 6: Why aren’t we there yet...

Process Map VariationFishbone Diagram

ANOVA

Regression

Analysis

GAPAnalysis

Step 6. Identify Variation Sources

Page 9: DMAIC Process Illustration

Six Sigma Overview

Step 7: What variables influence the gap...

Screening DOEs

Step 7. Screen Potential Causes

Page 10: DMAIC Process Illustration

Six Sigma Overview

Step 8: Finding the best settings...

Optimization EquationOptimization DOEs

Step 8. Discover Variable Relationships

Page 11: DMAIC Process Illustration

Six Sigma Overview

Step 9: Putting tolerances on knobs...

Defining the rules of the game!

Putting the boundarys around our “x’s”

Step 9. Establishing Operating Tolerances

Page 12: DMAIC Process Illustration

Six Sigma Overview

Step 10: Double check the measurement...

Gage Repeatability & Reproducibility Analysis:Standard GRR (Long Form) NOTE: The defaults of the following worksheet are intended for 3 Oper, 3 Trials and 10 Samples (Parts).This worksheet is also flexible to less number of Oper, Trials and SamplesMake sure you use the appropriate constants (D4, K1 and K2), if you use less number of trials or samples.

Operator A B CSample # Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 Range Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 Range Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 Range

1 5.70 5.70 5.70 0.00 5.75 5.75 5.75 0.00 5.75 5.75 5.75 0.002 4.20 4.20 4.20 0.00 4.25 4.25 4.25 0.00 4.25 4.25 4.25 0.003 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.00 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.00 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.004 1.70 1.70 1.70 0.00 1.75 1.75 1.75 0.00 1.75 1.75 1.75 0.005 1.80 1.80 1.80 0.00 1.75 1.75 1.75 0.00 1.75 1.75 1.75 0.006 1.60 1.60 1.60 0.00 1.50 1.50 1.50 0.00 1.50 1.50 1.50 0.007 0.70 0.70 0.70 0.00 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.00 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.008 1.50 1.50 1.50 0.00 1.50 1.50 1.50 0.00 1.50 1.50 1.50 0.009 0.00 0.00 0.00

10 0.00 0.00 0.00

Totals 17.60 17.60 17.60 0.00 17.75 17.75 17.75 0.00 17.75 17.75 17.75 0.00

Daily Ave. 2.20 2.20 2.20 2.22 2.22 2.22 2.22 2.22 2.22Daily Std. 1.81 1.81 1.81 0.00 1.82 1.82 1.82 0.00 1.82 1.82 1.82 0.00Final Ave. Xa 2.20 Ra 0.00 Xb 2.22 Rb 0.00 Xc 2.22 Rc 0.00

Ra 0.00 # Trials D4 (R) x (D4) = UCLr Max X 2.22Rb 0.00 2 3.27 UCLr = 0.00 Min X 2.20Rc 0.00 3 2.58 X Diff 0.02

Sum 0.00 Mean 2.21R 0.00 UCL LCL Stdev 1.71

Tolerance 0.25 -0.25

Measurement Analysis % Tolerance Analysis

Repeatability - Equipment Variability (E.V.) Trials 2 3 % E.V. = 100((E.V.)/(Tolerance))E.V. = (R) x (K1) K1 4.56 3.05 % E.V. = 0.00E.V. = 0.00

Reproducibility - Appraiser Variation (A.V.) Trials 2 3 % A.V. = 100((A.V.)/(Tolerance))A.V. = ((Xdiff * k2)^2 - ((E.V.)^2/(n x f)))^.5 K2 3.65 2.70 % A.V. = 10.12

A.V. = 0.05 n = number of parts 8f = number of trials 3

Repeatability and Reproducibility (R&R) % R & R = 100((R&R)/(Tolerance)R & R = ((E.V)^2 + (A.V.)^2))^.5 % R & R = 10.12

R & R = 0.05

GageR & R of 10.12%

Fully Acceptable Measurement System for the measurement ofdowntime.

Identifying if how we measure downtime is accurate!

Gage R & R on the X’s

Misc:Tolerance:Reported by:Date of study:Gage name:

3

2

1

21

Xbar Chart by Operator

Sam

ple

Mea

n

X=1.875

3.0SL=2.815

-3.0SL=0.9347

1.5

1.0

0.5

0.0

21

R Chart by Operator

Sam

ple

Ran

ge

R=0.5000

3.0SL=1.634

-3.0SL=0.000

352351

2.5

2.0

1.5

Part

OperatorOperator*Part Interaction

Ave

rage

12

21

3

2

1

Oper

Response BY Operator

352351

3

2

1

Part

Response BY Part

%Total Var%Study Var

Part-to-PartReprodRepeatGage R&R

100908070605040302010

0

Components of Variation

Per

cent

Gage R&R (Xbar/R) for Data

Step 10 Define and Validate the Measurement System on Xs

Page 13: DMAIC Process Illustration

Six Sigma Overview

Step 11: Finding our new “best”...

403020100

1.0

0.5

0.0

I and MR Chart

Observ.

X=0.5221

3.0SL=0.9827

-3.0SL=0.06155

0.60.50.40.30.20.10.0

R=0.1732

3.0SL=0.5658

-3.0SL=0.000

10

1.410300.48970

Potential (ST) CapabilityProcess Tolerance

Specifications

III

III

10

1.041240.00299

Actual (LT) CapabilityProcess Tolerance

Specifications

III

III

Mean

StDev

Z.USL

Z.LSL

Z.Bench

Z.Shift

P.USL

P.LSL

P.Total

Yield

PPM

Cp

Cpk

Pp

Ppk

LTST

Capability Indices

Data Source:Time Span:Data Trace:

0.92

0.96

3893.15

99.6107

0.003893

0.001187

0.002706

-2.33299

2.66120

3.03888

2.78146

0.17181

0.52211

1.04

1.09

371378

62.8622

0.371378

0.000000

0.371378

-2.33299

0.32821

6.23593

0.32821

0.15234

0.95000

Report 2: Process Capability for % opt

0.750.700.650.600.550.500.450.400.35

Lower SpecLower Spec

s

Mean-3s

Mean+3s

Mean

n

k

LSL

USL

Targ

Cpm

Cpk

CPL

CPU

Cp

Short-Term Capability

125000

13641

*

*

12.50

1.36

*

*

Obs

PPM<LSL Exp

Obs

PPM>USL Exp

Obs

%<LSL Exp

Obs

%>USL Exp

0.049482

0.460783

0.757676

0.609229

16.0

*

0.5

*

0.9

*

0.74

0.74

*

*

Line 7 Cpk

Cp Cpk

Step 11. Determine Process Capability

Page 14: DMAIC Process Illustration

Six Sigma Overview

Step 12: Locking down the changes...

ReceiveOrder

Cut @ServiceCenter

Yes

No

Cut @ServiceCenter

Cut FromDrop-off

Yes

No

Cut fromDrop-off

PerfectYield

Yes

No

Cut on FABLine

100%Pattern

Yes

No

Cut on FABLine

YieldLoss Paid

for

Yes

No

YieldLoss< 1%

No

Yes

Cut on FABLine

Cut on FABLine: Notify

Finance/Spreadsheet

Mfg MgrApproval

Yes

Cut on FABLine

No

NotifyCustomerService

Cut fromQC-40

Yes

Cut on FABLine: Ensure

Coded forScrap Loss

No

Cut on FABLine

UsableDrop

No

Yes

Send Drop toServiceCenter/

Prime Mat'lInventory

Salvage

g GE Electromaterials FABRICATION YIELDStep 12: Implement Process Controls

Controls Implemented to Maintain Level1) Business decision to be made by the Champion (Manufacturing

Manager) for any order which CPV will be greater than 1%

2) All loads that have a QC-40 (Dispositioned) are coded at scheduling toensure appropriate financial category for loss

3) All orders that customer is known to pay for the yield loss are removed from the CPV equation (GETEK is biggest pay-off)

4) All orders are tested for patterning regardless of cutting history

5) Implemented weekly Manufacturing Dashboard to ensure process maintains in control.

A IM C

Final CPV Process

Defined Process ChecksGE Electromaterials

Manufacturing 2Q est

Cut Piece Variance (July 97)

Manufacturing Dashboard

30

15

0 -10

-20

Cut Piece Var

$ MFW 28

-30

Now

Goal

2Q by FW in $M

-100

-50

0

50

100

150

14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28

Action ItemsItem Owner Timing $ (%) Impact Status/IssuesRecapture QC loss D. Gonzalez/J. Lee Monthly $14,308 MTD Pending EOW CloseGETEK Credit J.Lee/T.King Weekly $15,825 QTD Pending EOM BookingRecapture CPV Paid D.A.G./J. Lee Monthly $13,916 MTD Pending EOM Bookingby Cust.

150

100

50 0

-100

Cut Piece Var

(Gross) $ M

July

-175

Now

Goal

MAJOR ISSUES$ 1,421 NON-PATTERNABLE THIN

M/L$ 10,157 GETEK CPV FW28$ 15,825 GETEK credit: JUNE$ 8,372 PAID BY CUST.$ 6,640 QC MAT’L USED$12,331 SALVAGE DROPS USED

2Q Goal:$448M$403Mstretch

A IM C

$ -36,326 = -1.2%

$-10,286 =-.4%

FY97 by Month (NET) in $M

-300

-200

-100

0

100

Jan

Mar

May Ju

l

Sep

No

v

Actual

Goal

ADJUSTED

QTD $-36,326J UL= -36K AUG= SEP=

e

Internal Dashboard Created

ISO9000 Documentation

Audit Plan

Step 12. Implement Process Control