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Nov 18, 2014

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A SYNERGY OF PSYCHOLINGUISTICS PRINCIPLES AND NEUROLINGUISTICS PROGRAMMING ON DEVELOPING WRITING COMPETENCE AMONG EIGHTH STANDARD STUDENTS IN SITHANANDHA HIGH SCHOOL, PUDHUCHERRY.

Thesis submitted in partial fulfillment For the award of the degree Master of Education. by Reg. No. 1095839 School of Education Pondicherry University

Under the guidance of

Dr.K.Chellamani, M.A., M.Phil, M.Ed., Ph.D., Reader, School of Education, Pondicherry University.

School of Education, Pondicherry University, (A Central University) R.V. Nagar, Kalapet,Pudhucherry 605 014.

Dr. K. CHELLAMANI, M.A.,M.Phil.,M.Ed.,Ph.D., Reader, School of Education, Pondicherry University, Pudhucherry 605 014.

CERTIFICATEThis is to certify that the Dissertation entitled SYNERGY OF PSYCHOLINGUISTICS PRINCIPLES AND NEUROLINGUISTICS PROGRAMMING ON DEVELOPING WRITING COMPETENCE AMONG EIGHTH STANDARD STUDENTS IN SITHANANDHA HIGH SCHOOL, PUDHUCHERRY is an independent research study and work accomplished by . THILAGAVATHY (Reg. No. 1095839) in the School of Education, Pondicherry University, Pudhucherry 605 014, Under my guidance and supervision for the award of the degree ofMASTER OF EDUCATION. Further, I certify that this research work has not previously formed the basis for the award of any other Degree, Diploma, Associate ship, Fellowship or other similar title to any candidate of this or any other University.

Place : Pudhucherry 14 Date: (K.CHELL AMANI)

V.THILAGAVATHY, M.Ed Student (2009- 2010), School of Education, Pondicherry University, Pudhucherry 605 014.

DECLARATIONI do hereby declare that this dissertation entitled A SYNERGY OF

PSYCHOLINGUISTICS PRINCIPLES AND NEUROLINGUISTICS PROGRAMMING ON DEVELOPING WRITING COMPETENCE AMONG EIGHTH STANDARD STUDENTS IN SITHANANDHA HIGH SCHOOL, PUDHUCHERRY Submitted to the Ponicherry University,Pudhucherry, for the award of the Degree of MASTER OF EDUCATION is an original and independent research work done by me under the guidance of Dr.

CHELLAMANI, Reader, School of Education, Pondicherry University,Pudhucherry 605 014 and it has not previously formed the basis for the award of any other Degree, Diploma, Associate ship, Fellowship or other similar title to any other candidate of this or any other University.

(V. THILAGAVATHY)Place: Pudhucherry 605 014 Date:

Dr.M.S. LALITHAMMA,Countersigned and Coordinator School of Education, Pondicherry University, Pudhucherry. Pudhucherry.

Dr. K. CHELLAMANI,Reader, school of Education, Pondicherry University,

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I am indebted to Dr.M.S.Lalithamma, Professor and head, School of Education, Pondicherry University, for having permitted me to take up this study and for all the help given to me during the period of my study in the School of Education. I express my sentiments of thanks and appreciation to my guide, Dr. K. Chellamani, Reader, School of Education, Pondicherry University, for her approachability, thought provoking insights, intellectual caliber and expert guidance at every stage of this dissertation. My heartful thanks to all teaching and non-teaching staff in the School of Education, Pondicherry University for their moral support and timely help. I wish to place on grateful to the Headmistress, teachers and students of Sithanandha High School for their whole hearted co- operation towards this dissertation. I am very much thankful to my dear classmates those who helped and encouraged me to do this Project work. My heartful thanks to my dear family members, who sacrificed their entire life for my progress and comforts. I owe a lot to my beloved father Mr. T. Velayutham, for his constant support throughout the study. I am grateful to the staff of the Central Library in Pondicherry University, Annamalai University and Madras University, for their kind help in getting research materials for my study. I extend my deepest sense of gratitude to God for showering His grace and blessing for the completion of my research study. He indeed does all things wonderful in His time.

(V. THILAGAVATHY)

CONTENTSCHAPTER I , INTRODUCTIONS.NO 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 CONTENT INTRODUCTION ENGLISH LANGUAGE : ITS IMPORTANT POSITION OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN INDIA: AN OVERVIEW SKILLS INVOLVED IN LANGUAGE LEARNING WRITING SKILLS ACQUISITON WRITING AN ESSENTIAL SKILL IMPORTANCE OF WRITING PAGE NO.

1.7 1.7.1 1.7.1.1 1.7.1.2 1.7.2 1.7.2.1 1.7.2.2 1.7.3 1.7.3.1 1.7.3.2 1.7.4 1.7.4.1 1.7.4.2 1.7.5

TECHNIQUE USED FOR STUDENTS' COMPETENTENCY COMPOSITION COMPETENCIES ACQUISITION STRATEGIES ASSESSMENT STRATEGIES ANALYSIS COMPETENCIES ACQUISITION STRATEGIES ASSESSMENT STRATEGIES LANGUAGE COMPETENCIES ACQUISITION STRATEGIES ASSESSMENT STRATEGIES RESEARCH COMPETENCIES ACQUISITION STRATEGIES ASSESSMENT STRATEGIES PRESENTATION COMPETENCIES

1.7.5.1 1.7.5.2 1.8

ACQUISITION STRATEGIES ASSESSMENT STRATEGIES PSYCHOLINGUISTICS: COMPETENCE, PERFORMANCE AND ACQUISITION

1.9 1.10 1.11 1. 12 1.13 1.13.1 1.13.2 1.13.3 1.13.4 1.14 1.15 1.16 1.17 1.17.1 1.17.2 1.17.3 1.18 1.19

THE STUDY OF LANGUAGE: LINGUISTIC DIVERSITY THE MYTH OF PURE LANGUAGE LINGUISTIC CHAUVINISM LINGUISTIC UNIVERSALS DISCRETENESS ARBITRARINESS OPENNESS DUALITY OF PATTERNING THE NATURE OF LANGUAGE A UNIQUE CODE AND A GENERAL CODE LANGUAGE AND THE COGNITIVE SYSTEM PROCESSES INVOLVED IN LANGUAGE ACQUISITION REINFORCEMENTS IMITATION EXPANSION THE DEVELOPMENT OF COMMUNICATION SKILLS WRITING SYSTEMS

1.20 1.21 1.22 1.23

LANGUAGE AND THE BRAIN THE STUDY OF THE BRAIN-LANGUAGE RELATIONSHIP BRAIN STRUCTURE AND LANGUAGE THOUGHT AND LANGUAGE

1.24

CONCLUSION CHAPTER II , REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.43.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.10 3.11 3.12 3.13 3.14 3.15 3.16 3.17 3.17.1 3.17.2 3.17.3 3.17.4 3.17.5 3.17.6 3.17.7 3.17.8 3.17.9 3.17.10

INTRODUCTION STUDIES BASED ON NEUROLINGUISTICS STUDIES BASED ON PSYCHOLINGUISTIC STUDIES BASED ON WRITING COMPETENCE CONCLUSION CHAPTER-3, RESEARCH METHODOLOGYINTRODUCTION STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM: NEED FOR THE STUDY SCOPE OF THE STUDY OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY TITLE OF THE STUDY DEFINITIONS OF THE TERMS OPERATIONAL DEFINITION ASSUMPTIONS OF THE STUDY HYPOTHESES DELIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY EXPERIMENTAL STUDY SAMPLE PLANNING OF THE TREATMENT DURATION OF THE TREATMENT THREATS TO EXPERIMENTAL VALIDITY INTERNAL VALIDITY SUBJECT CHARACTERISTICS MORTALITY LOCATION INSTRUMENTATION TESTING HISTORY MATURATION STATISTICAL REGRESSION SELECTION BIAS EXPERIMENTER BIAS

3.17.11 IMPLEMENTATION 3.18 EXTERNAL VALIDITY 3.19 CONTROLLING THREATS TO EXTERNAL VALIDITY 3.20 RESEARCH PHASES 3.21 PHASE I ; PREPARATORY PROGRAM 3.21.1 IDENTIFICATION OF THE PROBLEM 3.21.2 SELECTION OF THE SAMPLE 3.21.3 OBSERVING THE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT 3.21.4 ANALYZING THE PREVIOUS ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE 3.21.5 COLLECTING THE RELATED LITERATURE 3.21.6 COLLECTION OF RESEARCH REVIEWS 3.21.7 DEVELOPMENT OF TOOLS 3.2.8 ESTABLISHING RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY 3.21.9 DEVELOPING AND ADMINISTERING THE PRE-TEST TOOL 3.21.10 INSTRUCTIONAL PACKAGE DEVELOPMENT 3.22 PHASE II ; PROCEDURE FOR THE EXECUTION OF THE STUDY 3.23 TREATMENT PROGRAM SCHEDULE 3.24 PHASE III TREATMENT PROGRAM 3.24.1 PREPARING AND SETTING THE STAGE 3.24.2 ORIENTATION 3.24.3 INTAKING PSYCHOLINGUISTICS PRINCIPLES 3.24.4 PSYCHOLINGUISTICS PRINCIPLES INVOLVED IN INSTRUCTION 3.24.5 GIVING NEUROLINGUISTICS PROGRAMMING 3.24.6 THINK ALOUD PROTOCOL 3.24.7 PEER GROUP DISCUSSION 3.25 PHASE IV :IDENTIFYING THE EFFECT OF THE STUDY 3.26 PHASE V ; RESEARCH TOOLS AND DATA COLLECTION 3.26.1 DATA COLLECTION 3.27 PHASE VI; SCHEME OF DATA ANALYSIS 3.28 CONCLUSION

CHAPTER IV,DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION4.1 4.2 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.3 4.3.1 4.4 4.4.1 4.4.2 4. 5 5.1 INTRODUCTION DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SAMPLE CONCLUSION RELATIONAL ANALYSIS CONCLUSION DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS t TEST CONCLUSION CONCLUSION

CHAPTER V, SUMMARY, FINDINGS AND CONCLUSION5.2 5.3 5.4 INTRODUCTION PSYCHOLINGUISTICS PRINCIPLES NEUROLINGUISTICS PROGRAMMING WRITING AN ESSENTIAL SKILL

5.5

SYNERGISING EFFECT OF PSYCHOLINGUISTIC PRINCIPLES AND NEUROLINGUISTICS PROGRAMMING IN WRITING COMPETENCE INFERENCES FROM THE REVIEW STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM NEED FOR THE STUDY SCOPE OF THE STUDY OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY TITLE OF THE STUDY DEFINITIONS OF THE TERMS OPERATIONAL DEFINITION ASSUMPTIONS OF THE STUDY HYPOTHESES EXPERIMENTAL STUDY PLANNING OF THE TREATMENT RESEARCH PROCESS SAMPLE RESEARCH DESIGN DURATION OF THE TREATMENT THREATS TO EXPERIMENTAL VALIDITY

5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 5.10 5.11 5.12 5.13 5.14 5.15 5.17 5.18 5.19 5.20 5.21 5.22 5.23

5.24 5.24.1 5.24.2 5.24.3 5.24.4 5.24.5 5.24.6 5.24.7 5.24.8 5.24.9 5.24.10 5.24.11 5.25 5.26 5.27 5.28 5.28.1 5.28.2 5.28.3

INTERNAL VALIDITY SUBJECT CHARACTERISTICS MORTALITY LOCATION INSTRUMENTATION TESTING HISTORY MATURATION STATISTICAL REGRESSION SELECTION BIAS EXPERIMENTER BIAS IMPLEMENTATION EXTERNAL VALIDITY CONTROLLING THREATS TO EXTERNAL VALIDITY RESEARCH PHASES PHASE I ; PREPARATORY PROGRAM IDENTIFICATION OF THE PROBLEM SELECTION OF THE SAMPLE OBSERVING THE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT

5.28.4 5.28.5 5.28.6 5.28.7 5.28.8 5.28.9 5.28.10 5.29

ANALYZING THE PREVIOUS ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE COLLECTING THE RELATED LITERATURE COLLECTION OF RESEARCH REVIEWS DEVELOPMENT OF TOOLS ESTABLISHING RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY DEVELOPING AND ADMINISTERING THE PRE-TEST TOOL INSTRUCTIONAL PACKAGE DEVELOPMENT PHASE II ; PROCEDURE FOR THE EXECUTION OF THE STUDY

5.30 5.30.1 5.30.2 5.30.3 5.30.4 5.30.5 5.30.6 5.31 5.32

PHASE III TREATMENT PROGRAM PREPARING AND SETTING THE STAGE ORIENTATION INTAKING PSYCHOLINGUISTICS PRINCIPLES GIVING NEUROLINGUISTICS PROGRAMMING THINK ALOUD PROTOCOL PEER GROUP DISCUSSION PHASE IV :IDENTIFYING THE EFFECT OF THE STUDY PHASE V ; RESEARCH TOOLS AND DAT